From BiblePortal Wikipedia
Revision as of 08:38, 15 October 2021 by BiblePortalWiki (talk | contribs)
(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [1]

1. Eleventh of the 12 minor prophets. Son of Berechiah, grandson of Iddo; Ezra ( Ezra 5:1; ) says son of Iddo, omitting Berechiah the intermediate link, as less known, and perhaps having died early. Zechariah was probably, like Ezekiel, priest as well as prophet, Iddo being the priest who returned with Zerubbabel and Joshua from Babylon ( Nehemiah 12:4;  Nehemiah 12:16). His priestly birth suits the sacerdotal character of his prophecies ( Zechariah 6:13).

He left Babylon, where he was born, very young. Zechariah began prophesying in youth ( Zechariah 2:4), "this young man. In the eighth month, in Darius' second year (520 B.C.), Zechariah first prophesied with Haggai (who began two months earlier) in support of Zerubbabel and Shealtiel in the building of the temple, which had been suspended under Pseudo-Smerdis Artaxerxes ( Ezra 4:24;  Ezra 5:1-2;  Ezra 6:14). The two, "Haggai the prophet and Zechariah the son of Iddo" the priest prophet, according to a probable tradition composed psalms for the liturgy of the temple: Psalms 137; 146 to 148, according to Septuagint; Psalm 125, 126 (See Nehemiah ) according to the Peshito; Psalm 111 according to Vulgate.

The Hallelujah characterizes the post exile psalms, it occurs at both beginning and end of Psalms 146 to 150; these are all joyous thanksgivings, free from the lamentations which appear in the other post exile psalms. Probably sung at the consecration of the walls under Nehemiah; but Hengstenberg thinks at the consecration of the second temple. Jewish tradition makes Zecharia a member of the great synagogue. (See Zechariah , Book Of )

2. Firstborn son of Meshelemiah, a Korhite, keeper of the N. gate of the tabernacle under David ( 1 Chronicles 9:21;  1 Chronicles 26:2;  1 Chronicles 26:14, "a wise counsellor".)

3. One of the sons of Jehiel ( 1 Chronicles 9:37); in  1 Chronicles 8:31 Zacher.

4. A Levite in the tabernacle choir under David, "with psalteries on Alamoth" ( 1 Chronicles 15:20); of the second order of Levites (verse 18), a porter or gatekeeper.

5. One of Judah's princes under Jehoshaphat, sent to teach the law of Jehovah in Judah's cities ( 2 Chronicles 17:7).

6. Son of Jehoiada, and so cousin of king Joash whom Jehoiada saved from Athaliah ( 2 Chronicles 24:20). (See Zacharias .)

7. A Kohathite Levite under Josiah, an overseer of the temple repairs ( 2 Chronicles 34:12).

8. Leader of the sons of Pharosh, returned from Babylon with Ezra ( Ezra 8:3).

9. Son of Bebai; also returned, leading 28 males, with Ezra ( Ezra 8:11).

10. A chief, summoned by Ezra to the consultation at the river Ahava, before the second caravan returned ( Ezra 8:16); at Ezra's left, in expounding the law ( Nehemiah 8:4).

11. Of Elam's family; married a foreign wife ( Nehemiah 10:26).

12. Ancestor of Uthai or Athaiah ( Nehemiah 11:4).

13. A Shilonite, ancestor of Maaseiah ( Nehemiah 11:5).

14. A priest, son of Pashur, ancestor of Adaiah ( Nehemiah 11:12).

15. Representing Iddo the priest's family, in the time of Joiakim, son of Jeshua ( Nehemiah 12:16); probably the same as Zechariah the prophet, son (descendant) of Iddo.

16. A priest, son of Jonathan, blew the trumpet at the dedication of the city wall ( Nehemiah 12:35;  Nehemiah 12:41).

17. A Reubenite chief in Tiglath Pileser's time, at Israel's captivity ( 1 Chronicles 5:7).

18. A priest who blew the trumpet in the procession of the ark ( 1 Chronicles 15:24).

19. Son of Isshiah or Jesiah ( 1 Chronicles 24:25).

20. Hosah's fourth son ( 1 Chronicles 26:11).

21. A Manassite, father of Iddo, chief in Gilead under David ( 1 Chronicles 27:21).

22. Father of Jahaziel ( 2 Chronicles 20:14).

23. Son of Jehoshaphat ( 2 Chronicles 21:2), slain by Jehoram.

24. Uzziah's prophetical counselor ( 2 Chronicles 26:5), "who had understanding in the visions of God" ("who had insight into seeing of God"); compare  Daniel 1:17; as this phrase is not equivalent to "who had prophetic visions from God," but to such "seeing of God" as was granted to the elders of Israel in  Exodus 24:10, it is better to read Beyireath for Bireoth ; so Septuagint, Syriac, Targum Arabic, Raschi, Kimchi, etc., "who was (his) instructer in the fear of God."

25. Father of Abijah or Abi, Hezekiah's mother ( 2 Chronicles 29:1).

26. One of Asaph's family who joined in purifying the temple under Hezekiah ( 2 Chronicles 29:13).

27. .A ruler of the temple under Josiah ( 2 Chronicles 35:8), "the second priest" next to Hilkiah the high priest ( 2 Chronicles 34:9;  2 Kings 25:18).

28. Son of Jeberechiah, taken by Isaiah as one of the "faithful witnesses to record" when he wrote concerning Maher-shalal-hash-baz ("hasting to the spoil he hasteth to the prey".) The other witness was Uriah, or Urijah, a priest, whom Urijah used as his tool in copying the Damascus altar. (See Urijah .) As Isaiah, in order to enforce upon Ahaz' attention the truth symbolized, namely, that Assyria whom Ahaz trusted would soon prey upon Judah, chose one witness from the king's bosom friends, so it is likely Zechariah the other witness was also a bosom friend of Ahaz.

Now 2 Kings 18 informs us that the mother of Hezekiah, son of Ahaz, was Abi daughter of Zechariah; hence it appears Ahaz was Zechariah's son in law; Isaiah naturally chose him as the other of the two witnesses. The undesigned coincidence between the prophet Isaiah ( Isaiah 8:2) and the independent historian ( 2 Kings 16:10;  2 Kings 18:2) confirms the genuineness of both. (See Blunt's Undesigned Coincidences, 2:2.) Thus No. 27 will be the same person as No. 25; else he may have been the same as No. 26.

Smith's Bible Dictionary [2]


1. The eleventh, in order, of the twelve minor prophets. He is called, in his prophecy, the son of Berechiah and the grandson of Iddo, whereas, in the book of Ezra,  Ezra 5:1;  Ezra 6:14, he is said to have been, the son of Iddo. It is natural to suppose as the prophet himself mentions his father's name, whereas the book of Ezra mentions only Iddo, that Berechiah had died early, and that there was now no intervening link between the grandfather and the grandson.

Zechariah, like Jeremiah and Ezekiel before him, was priest as well as prophet. He seems to have entered upon his office while yet young,  Zechariah 2:4, and must have been born in Babylon, whence, he returned with the first caravan of exiles under Zerubbabel and Jeshua.

It was in the eighth month, in the second year of Darius, that he first publicly discharged his office. In this, he acted in concert with Haggai. Both prophets had the same great object before them; both directed all their energies to the building of the second Temple. To their influence, we find the rebuilding of the Temple in a great measure ascribed. If the later Jewish accounts may be trusted, Zechariah, as well as Haggai, was a member of the Great Synagogue.

The genuine writings of Zechariah help us but little in our estimate of his character. Some faint traces, however, we may observe in them, of his education in Babylon. He leans avowedly on the authority of the older prophets, and copies their expressions. Jeremiah especially seems to have been his favorite; and hence, the Jewish saying that "the spirit of Jeremiah dwelt in Zechariah." But in what may be called the peculiarities of his prophecy, he approaches more nearly to Ezekiel and Daniel. Like them, he delights in visions; like them, he uses symbols and allegories rather than the bold figures and metaphors which lend so much force and beauty to the writings of the earlier prophets. Generally speaking, Zechariah's style is pure, and remarkably free from Chaldaisms.

2. Son of Meshelemiah or Shelemiah, a Korhite, and keeper of the north gate of the Tabernacle of the congregation,  1 Chronicles 9:21. (B.C. 1043).

3. One of the sons of Jehiel.  1 Chronicles 9:37.

4. A Levite of the second order in the Temple band as arranged by David, appointed to play "with psalteries on Alamoth."  1 Chronicles 15:18;  1 Chronicles 15:20. (B.C. 1043).

5. One of the princes of Judah, in the reign of Jehoshaphat.  2 Chronicles 17:7. (B.C. 910).

6. Son of the high priest Jehoiada, in the reign of Joash, king of Judah,  2 Chronicles 24:20, and therefore , the king's cousin. After the death of Jehoiada, Zechariah probably succeeded to his office, and in attempting to check the reaction in favor of idolatry which immediately followed, he fell a victim to a conspiracy formed against him, by the king, and was stoned in the court of the Temple. He is probably the same as the "Zacharias son of Barachias" who was slain between the Temple and the altar.  Matthew 23:35. See Zacharias, 2 . (B.C. 838).

7. A Kohathite Levite, in the reign of Josiah.  2 Chronicles 34:12. (B.C. 628).

8. The leader of the sons of Pharosh, who returned with Ezra.  Ezra 8:3. (B.C. 450).

9. Son of Behai.  Ezra 8:11.

10. One of the chiefs of the people whom Ezra summoned in council at the river Ahava.  Ezra 8:16. He stood at Ezra's left hand when he expounded the law to the people.  Nehemiah 8:4. (B.C. 459).

11. One of the family of Elam who had married a foreign wife after the captivity.  Ezra 10:26. (B.C.458).

12. Ancestor of Athaiah or Uthai.  Nehemiah 11:4.

13. A Shilonite, descendant of Perez.  Nehemiah 11:5.

14. A priest, son of Pashur.  Nehemiah 11:12.

15. The representative of the priestly family of Iddo, in the days of Joiakim, the son of Jeshua.  Nehemiah 12:16. (B.C. 536). Possibly the same as Zechariah the prophet, the son of Iddo.

16. One of the priests, son of Jonathan, who blew with the trumpets at the dedication of the city wall by Ezra and Nehemiah.  Nehemiah 12:36;  Nehemiah 12:41. (B.C. 446).

17. A chief of the Reubenites, at the time of the captivity by Tiglath-pileser.  1 Chronicles 5:7. (B.C. 740).

18. One of the priests who accompanied the Ark from the house of Obed-edom.  1 Chronicles 15:24. (B.C. 1043).

19. Son of Isshiah or Jesiah, a Kohathite Levite, descended from Uzziel.  1 Chronicles 24:25. (B.C. 1043).

20. Fourth son of Hosah, of the children of Merari.  1 Chronicles 26:11.

21. A Manassite.  1 Chronicles 27:21-22.

22. The father of Jahaziel.  2 Chronicles 20:14.

23. One of the sons of Jehoshaphat.  2 Chronicles 21:2.

24. A prophet in the reign of Uzziah, who appears to have acted as the king's counsellor, but of whom nothing is known.  2 Chronicles 26:5. (B.C. 807).

25. The father of Abijah or Abi, Hezekiah's mother.  2 Chronicles 29:1.

26. One of the family of Asaph, in the reign of Hezekiah.  2 Chronicles 29:13. (B.C. 727).

27. One of the rulers of the Temple, in the reign of Josiah.  2 Chronicles 35:8. (B.C. 628).

28. The son of Jeberechiah, who was taken by the prophet Isaiah as one of the "faithful witnesses to record," when he wrote concerning Maher-shalal-hash-baz.  Isaiah 8:2. (B.C. 723). He may have been the Levite of the same name who, in the reign of Hezekiah, assisted in the purification of the Temple.  2 Chronicles 29:13. Another conjecture is that he is the same as Zechariah, the father of Abijah, the queen of Ahaz.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [3]

ZECHARIAH . 1 . Brother of Ner and uncle of Saul (  1 Chronicles 9:37 ); called Zecher in   1 Chronicles 8:31 .   1 Chronicles 8:2 . A son of Meshelemiah (  1 Chronicles 9:21;   1 Chronicles 26:2;   1 Chronicles 26:14 ). 3 . A Levite musician (  1 Chronicles 15:18;   1 Chronicles 15:20 ). 4 . A priest in the time of David (  1 Chronicles 15:24 ). 5 . A Levite, of the family of Kohath (  1 Chronicles 24:25 ). 6 . A Levite, of the family of Merari (  1 Chronicles 26:11 ). 7 . Father of Iddo (  1 Chronicles 27:21 ). 8 . One of the princes of Judah in the days of Jehoshaphat (  2 Chronicles 17:7 ). 9 . A Levite, one of the sons of Asaph (  2 Chronicles 20:14 ). 10. Son of Jehoshaphat (  2 Chronicles 21:3 ). 11. Son of Jehoiada the priest (  2 Chronicles 24:20 ). After Jehoiada’s death, Zechariah reproved the idolaters and announced God’s judgment against them. He was stoned with stones at the commandment of the king in the court of the house of the Lord. His dying words, ‘The Lord look upon it and require it,’ were long remembered. See also Zachariah (No. 9). 12. A prophet, living in the earlier part of Uzziah’s reign (  2 Chronicles 26:5 ). 13. Son of Jeroboam II. ( 2Ki 14:29;   2 Kings 15:8;   2 Kings 15:12 ). See next article. 14. A man of high repute in Isaiah’s day (  Isaiah 8:2 ). When faithful witnesses were required to attest a solemn prophetic roll, this Zech. was chosen along with Uriah the priest. He is described as son of Jeberechiah, and may possibly be the same as the Asaphite mentioned in   2 Chronicles 29:13 .   2 Chronicles 29:15 . The father of Abi or Abijah, the mother of king Hezekiah (  2 Kings 18:2 ,   2 Chronicles 29:1 ). 16. A reforming Asaphite under Hezekiah (  2 Chronicles 29:13 ). 17. Head of a house of the Reubenites (  1 Chronicles 5:7 ). 18. A Levite, one of the sons of Kohath (  2 Chronicles 34:12 ). 19. One of the rulers of the Temple under Josiah (  2 Chronicles 35:8 [  Esther 1:8  Esther 1:8 Zacharias ]). 20. The prophet (see Zechariah [Book of]). 21. One of the family of Parosh (  Ezra 8:11 [ 1Es 8:30 Zacharias ]). 22. Son of Bebal (  Ezra 8:11 [ 1Es 8:37 Zacharias ]). 23. One of the chief men with whom Ezra consulted at the river Ahava (  Ezra 8:15; cf. 1Es 8:44; prob. = No. 21). 24. A descendant of Elam (  Ezra 10:26;   Ezra 10:44 [ 1E  Esther 9:27 Zacharias ]). 25. A descendant of Perez (  Nehemiah 11:4 ). 26. A Shilonite (  Nehemiah 11:5 ). 27. Son of Pashhur (  Nehemiah 11:12 ). 28. An Asaphite (  Nehemiah 12:35 ). 29. A priest (  Nehemiah 12:41 ).

ZECHARIAH , king of Israel, was the last member of the house of Jehu to come to the throne, and he occupied it only six months. His assassination begins the period of virtual anarchy with which the history of Israel comes to an end (  2 Kings 14:29;   2 Kings 15:8-12 ).

H. P. Smith.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [4]

1. A chief man among the Reubenites.  1 Chronicles 5:7 .

2. Son of Meshelemiah, a Korhite.   1 Chronicles 9:21;  1 Chronicles 26:2,14 .

3. Son of Jehiel, a Benjamite.   1 Chronicles 9:37 . Called ZACHERin  1 Chronicles 8:31 .

4. Levite engaged in the service of song.   1 Chronicles 15:18,20;  1 Chronicles 16:5 .

5. One of the priests in the time of David.   1 Chronicles 15:24 .

6. Son of Isshiah, a Levite.   1 Chronicles 24:25 .

7. Son of Hosah, a Merarite.   1 Chronicles 26:11 .

8. Father of Iddo of the tribe of Manasseh.   1 Chronicles 27:21 .

9. One of the princes of Judah whom Jehoshaphat sent with priests and Levites to teach the people.   2 Chronicles 17:7 .

10. Levite, father of Jehaziel.   2 Chronicles 20:14 .

11. Son of Jehoshaphat king of Judah.   2 Chronicles 21:2 .

12. Son of Jehoiada the priest: he rebuked the people for their idolatry, and by commandment of the king he was stoned by the people in the court of the temple.   2 Chronicles 24:20 . He is probably the ZACHARIASspoken of in  Matthew 23:35 .

13. One who 'had understanding in the visions of God.'   2 Chronicles 26:5 .

14. Father of Abijah, wife of Ahaz king of Judah.   2 Chronicles 29:1 . Called ZACHARIAH in  2 Kings 18:2 .

15. Levite, descendant of Asaph.   2 Chronicles 29:13 .

16. Kohathite, one of the overseers at the repairing of the temple.   2 Chronicles 34:12 .

17. Prince of Judah, and one of the rulers of the house of God.   2 Chronicles 35:8 .

18. Son of Berechiah, and one of the 'minor prophets.'   Ezra 5:1;  Ezra 6:14;  Zechariah 1:1,7;  Zechariah 7:1,8 .

19-21. Three who returned from exile.  Ezra 8:3,11,16;  Nehemiah 8:4 .

22. One who had married a strange wife.   Ezra 10:26 .

23,24. Two ancestors of some who dwelt at Jerusalem on the return from exile.   Nehemiah 11:4,5 .

25. Priest, the son of Pashur.   Nehemiah 11:12 .

26. Priest, 'of Iddo.'   Nehemiah 12:16 .

27. Son of Jonathan, a priest: he assisted in the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem.   Nehemiah 12:35,41 .

28. Son of Jeberechiah, taken by Isaiah as a witness.   Isaiah 8:2 .

Holman Bible Dictionary [5]

 2 Kings 15:8-12Israel

3. Grandfather of Hezekiah ( 2 Kings 18:2 ).  4 . Priest and prophet whom the people stoned and Joash, the king, killed ( 2 Chronicles 24:20-22 ).  5 . Postexilic gatekeeper of Temple ( 1 Chronicles 9:21 ).  6 . Member of family who lived in Gibeon ( 1 Chronicles 9:37 ).  7 . Temple musician ( 1 Chronicles 15:20 ).  8 . Community leader Jehoshaphat the king sent to teach in the cities of Judah ( 2 Chronicles 17:7 ).  9 . One of Josiah's overseers in repairing the Temple ( 2 Chronicles 34:12 ).

10.-11. Men who accompanied Ezra on return from Babylon ( Ezra 8:3 ,Ezra 8:3, 8:11 ).  12 . Man Ezra sent to get Levites to return from Babylon ( Ezra 8:16 ).  13 . Israelite with foreign wife ( Ezra 10:26 ).  14 . Man who helped Ezra as he taught the law ( Nehemiah 8:4 ), perhaps identical with 12. or other one above. 15. Ancestor of postexilic resident of Jerusalem ( Nehemiah 11:4 ).  16 . Ancestor of postexilic resident of Jerusalem ( Nehemiah 11:5 ).  17 . Ancestor of priest in Nehemiah's day ( Nehemiah 11:12 ).  18 . Leading priest in time of Joiakim's high priesthood, possibly the same as the prophet ( Nehemiah 12:16 ).  19.-20 . Priestly musicians who helped Nehemiah celebrate ( Nehemiah 12:35 ,Nehemiah 12:35, 12:41 ).

21. High official Isaiah used as witness, perhaps the same as 3. above. 22. Son of Jehoshaphat the king whom his brother Jehoram killed upon becoming king ( 2 Chronicles 21:2-4 ).  23 . Godly advisor of King Uzziah ( 2 Chronicles 26:5 ).  24 . Descendant of tribe of Reuben ( 1 Chronicles 5:7 ).  25 . Father of leader of eastern half of tribe of Manasseh ( 1 Chronicles 27:21 ).  26.-34 . Levites (1Chronicles 15:18, 1 Chronicles 15:24;  1 Chronicles 24:25; 1Chronicles 26:2, 1 Chronicles 26:14;  1 Chronicles 26:11;  2 Chronicles 20:14;  2 Chronicles 29:13;  2 Chronicles 35:8 ).

Paul L. Redditt

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [6]

1. Son of Berechiah, and grandson of Iddo the priest; called the son of Iddo in  Ezra 5:1   6:14 , and his successor in the priesthood,  Nehemiah 12:4,16 , perhaps because Berechiah was then dead. Zechariah is the eleventh of the minor prophets. He returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel, and began to prophesy while yet young,  Zechariah 2:4 , in the second year of Darius son of Hystaspes, B. C. 520, in the eighth month of the holy year, and two months after Haggai. These two prophets, with united zeal, encouraged the people to resume the work of the temple, which had been discontinued for some years,  Ezra 5:1 .

Zechariah's prophecies concerning the Messiah are more particular and express than those of most other prophets, and many of them, like those of Daniel, are couched in symbols. The book opens with a brief introduction; after which six chapters contain a series of visions, setting forth the fitness of that time for the promised restoration of Israel, the destruction of the enemies of God's people, the conversion of heathen nations, the advent of Messiah the Branch, the outpouring and blessed influences of the Holy Spirit, and the importance and safety of faithfully adhering to the service of their covenant God.  Zechariah 7:1-14 relates to commemorative observances.   Zechariah 9:1-11:17 predict the prosperity of Judah during the times of the Maccabees, together with the fate of Persia and other adjacent kingdoms. The remaining three chapters describe the future destiny of the Jews, the siege of Jerusalem, the triumphs of Messiah, and the glories of the latter day when "Holiness to the Lord" shall be inscribed on all things.

2. A wise and faithful prophetic counselor of king Uzziah, whose death was the beginning of calamities to Judah,  2 Chronicles 26:5,16 , perhaps the same who was the father-in-law of Ahaz,  2 Chronicles 28:27   29:1

3. A son of Jeberechiah, associated with Urijah the high-priest by Isaiah as a "faithful witness,"  Isaiah 8:1   2 Chronicles 29:13 .

4. A son of Jehoiada. See Zacharias 1.

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary [7]

The Bible mentions about thirty people who had the name Zechariah. Many of these were priests, prophets or rulers.

Of the rulers named Zechariah, one was a king of Israel. He was the fifth king of the dynasty of Jehu, and with his murder in 752 BC, Jehu’s dynasty ended as bloodily as it had begun ( 2 Kings 15:8-12).

The most important of the prophets named Zechariah was the man whose book is part of the Old Testament. He lived in Jerusalem during the period after the Jews’ return from captivity and, with Haggai, he roused the people to get on with the job of rebuilding the temple ( Ezra 5:1-2;  Ezra 6:14-15;  Zechariah 1:1; see Zechariah , Book Of )

Of the priests named Zechariah, the best known in Old Testament times was the man who rebuked King Joash and the people of Jerusalem for their idolatry. By command of the king, the leaders of Jerusalem murdered him. In a divine judgment on the murderers, the leaders of Jerusalem were killed in an enemy invasion and the king was assassinated by two of his palace officials (in 796 BC;  2 Chronicles 24:17-26;  Luke 11:49-51).

Another priest named Zechariah lived in New Testament times. This man was the father of John the Baptist. For many years he and his wife had not been able to have children, even though they had prayed earnestly and lived righteously before God. One day, while Zechariah was on duty in the temple, an angel from God told him that in answer to their prayers, God was about to give them a son. This son, whom they were to name John, was to be the forerunner of the Messiah ( Luke 1:5-17).

Zechariah could hardly believe the good news and wanted a sign to confirm it. The sign he received was also a penalty for his unbelief: he was made dumb till the baby was born ( Luke 1:18-23;  Luke 1:57-66). Upon regaining his speech, Zechariah immediately began to praise God. His first words of praise were for the promised Messiah ( Luke 1:67-75). He then offered praise for his son John, who would prepare the people for the Messiah’s arrival by calling them to repentance ( Luke 1:76-79).

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [8]

king of Israel,  2 Kings 14:29 . He succeeded his father Jeroboam II, A.M. 3220. He reigned but six months, and was murdered.

2. ZECHARIAH, son of Jehoiada, high priest of the Jews; probably the same as Azariah,   1 Chronicles 6:10-11 . He was put to death by the order of Joash, A.M. 3164,  2 Chronicles 24:20-22 . Some think this is the Zacharias mentioned  Matthew 23:35 .

3. ZECHARIAH, the eleventh of the twelve lesser prophets, was the son of Barachiah, and the grandson of Iddo. He was born during the captivity, and came to Jerusalem when the Jews were permitted by Cyrus to return to their own country. He began to prophesy two months later than Haggai, and continued to exercise his office about two years. Like his contemporary Haggai, Zechariah begins with exhorting the Jews to proceed in the rebuilding of the temple; he promises them the aid and protection of God, and assures them of the speedy increase and prosperity of Jerusalem; he then emblematically describes the four great empires, and foretels the glory of the Christian church when Jews and Gentiles shall be united under their great High Priest and Governor, Jesus Christ, of whom Joshua the high priest, and Zerubbabel the governor, were types; he predicts many particulars relative to our Saviour and his kingdom, and to the future condition of the Jews. Many moral instructions and admonitions are interspersed throughout the work. Several learned men have been of opinion that the last six chapters were not written by Zechariah; but whoever wrote them, their inspired authority is established by their being quoted in three of the Gospels,   Matthew 26:31;  Mark 14:27;  John 19:37 . The style of Zechariah is so remarkably similar to that of Jeremiah, that the Jews were accustomed to observe, that the spirit of Jeremiah had passed into him. By far the greater part of this book is prosaic; but toward the conclusion there are some poetical passages which are highly ornamented. The diction is in general perspicuous, and the transitions to the different subjects are easily discerned.

People's Dictionary of the Bible [9]

Zechariah ( Zĕk'A-Rî'Ah ), Jehovah Remembers. 1. The eleventh of the twelve minor prophets, of priestly descent and a contemporary or Haggai.  Ezra 5:1. He was born in Babylon, and was both a priest and a prophet. Scarcely anything is known of his life. His prophecies were about b.c. 520.

The Book of Zechariah consists of two divisions: I. Chaps. 1-8; II. Chaps. 9-14. The first division contains visions and prophecies, exhortations to turn to Jehovah, and warnings against the enemies of the people of God. The second division gives a prophetic description of the future fortunes of the theocracy in conflict with the secular powers, the sufferings and death of the Messiah under the figure of the shepherd, the conversion of Israel to him, and the final glorification of the kingdom of God. Some have ascribed this part of the book to Jeremiah because in  Matthew 27:9-10 a passage is quoted under the name of Jeremiah, while others have put it at a much earlier or much later period on account of the peculiarities of the style. The book contains six specific references to Christ: 3:8; 6:12; 9:9; 11:12; 12:10; 13:7, representing him as a lowly servant, a priest and king building Jehovah's temple, the meek and peaceful but universal monarch, the shepherd betrayed for the price of a slave (thirty pieces of silver), the leader to repentance, and the Fellow of Jehovah smitten by Jehovah himself, at once the Redeemer and the Pattern of his flock. Besides the prophet, 27 other persons of the name Zechariah are mentioned in' Scripture.

Easton's Bible Dictionary [10]

  •  Isaiah 8:2 .

    Copyright Statement These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., DD Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain.

    Bibliography Information Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Zechariah'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/ebd/z/zechariah.html. 1897.

  • Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [11]

    We meet with many of this name in Scripture, and it is not to be wondered at, when we consider the sense of it, and the general desire which the Hebrews all had, to carry somewhat in name, which referred to the Lord. Zachar means memory, and Jah the Lord. Zechariah therefore, seemed to intimate the hope, that the person so called should be remembered of the Lord.

    Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [12]

    (Heb. Zekaryah', זְכִרְיָה , Remembered Of Jehovah; occasionally [ 1 Chronicles 5:7;  1 Chronicles 15:18;  1 Chronicles 15:24;  1 Chronicles 24:25;  1 Chronicles 26:2;  1 Chronicles 26:1;  1 Chronicles 26:14;  1 Chronicles 27:21;  2 Chronicles 20:14;  2 Chronicles 21:2;  2 Chronicles 26:5;  2 Chronicles 29:13;  2 Chronicles 35:8] in the prolonged form Zekarya'hu, זְכִרַיָהוּ ; Sept., N.T., and Josephus, Ζαχαρίας ) , the name of many Hebrews, besides Zacharias (q.v.), the father of John the Baptist.

    1. (Sept. Ζακχούρ v.r. Ζαχχούρ . ) Ninth named of the ten sons of Jehiel, the father or founder of Gibeon ( 1 Chronicles 9:37). B.C. cir. 1618. In  1 Chronicles 8:31 he is called ZACHER (See Zacher) (q.v.).

    2. Son of Meshelemiah, or Shelemiah, a Korhite, and keeper of the north gate of the tabernacle of the congregation ( 1 Chronicles 9:21) in the arrangement of the porters in the reign of David. B.C. 1043. In  1 Chronicles 26:2;  1 Chronicles 26:14, he is described. as "one counseling with understanding."

    3. A Levite in the Temple band as arranged by David, appointed to play "with psalteries on Alamoth" ( 1 Chronicles 15:20; comp. 16:5). He was of the second order of Levites ( 1 Chronicles 15:18), a porter or gate-keeper, and may possibly be the same as the preceding or the following.

    4. One of the priests who blew with the trumpets in the procession which accompanied the ark from the house of Obed-edom ( 1 Chronicles 15:24). B.C. 1043.

    5. Son of Isshiahi or Jesiah, a Kohathite Levite descended from Uzziel ( 1 Chronicles 24:25). B.C. 1043. 6. Fourth son of Hosah of the children of Merari ( 1 Chronicles 26:11). B.C. 1043.

    7. (Sept. Ζαδαίας V.R. Ζαβδίας . ) A Manassite, whose son Iddo was chief of his tribe in Gilead in the reign of David ( 1 Chronicles 27:21). B.C. 1014.

    8. The son of Benaiah and father of Jahaziel, which last was a Gershonite Levite in the reign of Jehoshaphat ( 2 Chronicles 20:14). B.C. ante 912.

    9. Third named of the five princes of Judah in the reign of Jehoshaphat who were sent with priests and Levites to teach the people the law of Jehovah ( 2 Chronicles 17:7). B.C. 910.

    10. Fourth named of the seven sons of king Jehoshaphat ( 2 Chronicles 21:2). B.C. 887.

    11. (Sept. Αζαρίας . ) Son of the high-priest Jehoiada, in the reign of Joash, king of Judah ( 2 Chronicles 24:20), and therefore the king's cousin. B.C. 838. After the death of Jehoiada, Zechariah probably succeeded to his office, and in attempting to check the reaction in favor of idolatry which immediately followed, he fell a victim to a conspiracy formed against him by the king, and was stoned with stones in the court of the Temple. His dying cry was not that of the first Christian martyr, "Lord, lay not this sin to their charge" ( Acts 7:60), but, "The Lord look upon it, and require it" ( 2 Chronicles 24:20-22). The memory of this unrighteous deed lasted long in Jewish tradition. In the Jerusalem Talmud ( Taanith, fol. 69, quoted by Lightfoot, Temple Service, ch. 36) there is a legend told of eighty thousand young priests who were slain by Nebuzaradan for the blood of Zechariah, and the evident hold which the story had taken upon the minds of the people renders it probable that "Zacharias son of Barachias," who was slain between the Temple and the altar ( Matthew 23:35), is the same with Zechariah, the son of Jehoiada, and that the name of Barachias as his father crept into the text from a marginal gloss, the writer confusing this Zechariah either with Zechariah the prophet, who was the son of Berechiah, or with another Zechariah, the son of Jeberechiah ( Isaiah 8:2). See Castens, De Zacharita Berechice Filio (Lips. 1720); Huth, Ccedes Abelis Et Zachariae (Erlang. 1756); and the Stud. U. Krit. 1841, 2, 673. (See Zacharias).

    12. A prophet in the reign of Uzziah who appears to have acted as the king's counselor, but of whom nothing is known ( 2 Chronicles 26:5). B.C. 807. The chronicler in describing him makes use of a most remarkable and unique expression "Zechariah, who understood the seeing of God," or, as our A.V. has it, "who had understanding in the visions of God" (comp.  Daniel 1:17). As no such term is ever employed elsewhere in the description of any prophet, it has been questioned whether the reading of the received text is the true one. The Sept., Targum, Syriac, Arabic, Pashi, and Kimchi, with many of Kennicott's MSS., read ביראת , "in the fear of," for בראות , and their reading is most probably the correct one. Smith.

    13. (Sept. Ζαχαρία ) A chief of the Reubenites at the time of the captivity by Tiglath-pileser (1 Chronicles 5, 7). B.C. cir. 740.

    14. The father of Abijah, or Abi, Hezekiah's mother ( 2 Chronicles 29:1); mentioned also in  2 Kings 18:2 (Sept. Ζαγχαῖος , A. V. "Zachariah"). B.C. ante 726.

    15. Second named of the "sons" of Asaph the minstrel, who in the reign of Hezekiah took part with other Levites in the purification of the Temple ( 2 Chronicles 29:13). B.C. 726.

    16. The son of Jeberechiah, who was taken by the prophet Isaiah as one of the "faithful witnesses to record," when he wrote concerning Maher-shalal- hash-baz ( Isaiah 8:2). B.C. 723. He was not the same as Zechariah the prophet, who lived in the time of Uzziah and died before that king, but he may have been the Levite of that name who in the reign of Hezekiah assisted in the purification of the Temple ( 2 Chronicles 29:13). As Zechariah the prophet is called the son of Berechiah, with which Jeberechiah is all but identical, Bertholdt ( Einleit. 4: 1722, 1727) conjectured that some of the prophecies attributed to him, at any rate ch. 9-11, were really the production of Zechariah, the contemporary of Isaiah, and were appended to the volume of the later prophet of the same name (Gesenius, Der Proph. Jesaia, 1, 327). Another conjecture is that Zechariah the son of Jeberechiah is the same as Zechariah the father of Abijah, the queen of Ahaz (Poli Synopsis, ad loc.); the witnesses summoned by Isaiah being thus men of the highest ecclesiastical and civil rank.

    17. The Son of Jeroboam Ii, being the fourteenth king of Israel, and the last of the house of Jehu. There is a difficulty about the date of his reign. We are told that Amaziah ascended the throne of Judah in the second year of Joash king of Israel, and reigned 29 years ( 2 Kings 14:1-2). He was succeeded by Uzziah or Azariah in the 27th year of Jeroboam II, the successor of Joash ( 2 Kings 15:1), and Uzziah reigned 52 years. On the other hand, Joash king of Israel reigned 16 years ( 2 Kings 13:10), was succeeded by Jeroboam, who reigned 41 years ( 2 Kings 14:23), and he by Zechariah, who came to the throne in the 38th year of Uzziah king of Judah ( 2 Kings 15:8). Thus we have (1) from the accession of Amaziah to the 38th of Uzziah 29+38=67 years; but (2) from the second year of Joash to the accession of Zechariah (or at least to the death of Jeroboam) we have 15+41 =56 years. Further, the accession of Uzziah, placed in the 27th year of Jeroboam, according to the above reckoning, occurred in the 15th. This latter synchronism is confirmed, and that with the 27th year of Jeroboam contradicted, by  2 Kings 14:17, which tells us that Amaziah king of Judah survived Joash king of Israel by 15 years. Most chronologers assume an interregnum of 11 years between Jeroboam's death and Zechariah's accession, during which the, kingdom was suffering from the anarchy of a disputed succession, but this does not solve the difference between  2 Kings 14:17 and  2 Kings 15:1. We are reduced to understand the number 27 in  2 Kings 15:1 as referring to the years of Jeroboam's viceroyship on the occasion of his father's war with Syria ( 2 Kings 13:14-25). (See Chronology).

    Josephus ( Ant. 9: 10, 3) places Uzziah's accession in the 14th year of Jeroboam, a variation of a year in these synchronisms being unavoidable, since the Hebrew annalists in giving their dates do not reckon fractions of years. But in any case we must place Zechariah's accession early in B.C. 770. His reign lasted only six months. He was killed in a conspiracy of which Shallum (q.v.) was the head, and by which the prophecy in 10:30 was accomplished. We are told that during his brief term of power he did evil, and kept up the calf-worship inherited from the first Jeroboam, which his father had maintained in regal splendor at Bethel ( Amos 7:13). (See Kingdom Of Israel).

    In the English version of  2 Kings 15:10 we read "And Shallum the son of Jabesh conspired against him and smote him Before The People, And slew him, and reigned in his stead." And so the Vulg., "percussitque eum Palam et interfecit." But in the Sept we find Κεβλαάμ instead of Before The People, i.e. Shallum and Keblaam killed Zechariah. The common editions read Ἐν Κεβλαάμ meaning that Shallum killed Zechariah in Keblaam; but no place of such a name is known, and there is nothing in the Hebrew to answer to Ἐν . The words translated Before The People, Κεβλαάμ , Palam, are קָבָל עָ . Ewald ( Geschichte, 3, 598) maintains that קָבָל never occurs in prose [Is not the objection rather that the word is Chaldee? It occurs repeatedly in Daniel ( Daniel 2:31;  Daniel 3:3;  Daniel 5:1;  Daniel 5:5;  Daniel 5:10), and also in the Chaldee portions of Ezra ( Ezra 4:16;  Ezra 6:13)], and that עָם would be = הָעָם if the Latin and English translations were correct. He also observes that in  2 Kings 15:14;  2 Kings 15:25;  2 Kings 15:30, where almost the same expression is used of the deaths of Shallum, Pekahiah, and Pekah, the words Before The people are omitted. Hence he accepts the translation in the Vatican MS. of the Sept., and considers that Kabalam or Κεβλαάμ was a fellow- conspirator or rival of Shallum, of whose subsequent fate we have no information. On the death of Zechariah, Shallum was made king, but after reigning in Samaria for a month only, was in his turn dethroned and killed by. Menahem. To these events Ewald refers the obscure passage in  Zechariah 11:8 : "Three shepherds also I cut off in one month, and my soul abhorred them" the three shepherds being Zechariah, Kabalam, and Shallum. This is very ingenious: we must remember, however, that Ewald, like certain English divines (Mede, Hammond, Newcome, Seeker Pyve Smith), thinks that the latter chapters of the prophecies of Zechariah belong to an earlier date than the rest of the book. (See Book Of Zechariah).

    18. A Kohathite Levite in the reign of Josiah, who was one of the overseers of the workmen engaged in the restoration of the Temple ( 2 Chronicles 34:12). B.C. 628.

    19 . Second named of the three rulers of the Temple in the reign of Josiah ( 2 Chronicles 35:8). B.C. 628. He was probably, as Bertheau conjectures, "the second priest" (comp.  2 Kings 25:18).

    20. Son of Shiloni and father of Joiarib among the descendants of Perez ( Nehemiah 11:5). B.C. long ante 536.

    21. A priest, son of Pashur and father of Amzi ( Nehemiah 11:12). B.C. long ante 536.

    22. Son of Amariah and father of Uzziah, of the family of Perez ( Nehemiah 11:4). B.C. ante 536.

    23. The representative of the priestly family of Iddo in the days of Joiakim the son of Jeshua ( Nehemiah 12:16). B.C. 536. He was possibly the same as Zechariah the prophet the son of Iddo.

    24. The eleventh in order of the twelve minor prophets.

    1. Of his personal history we know but little. He is called in his prophecy the son of Berechiah and the grandson of Iddo, whereas in the book of Ezra (5:1; 6:14) he is said to have been the son of Iddo. Various attempts have been made to reconcile this discrepancy. Cyril of Alexandria ( Pref. Comment. Ad Zechariah ) supposes that Berechiah was the father of Zechariah according to the flesh, and that Iddo was his instructor, and might be regarded as his spiritual father. Jerome, too, according to some MSS., has in  Zechariah 1:1, "filium Barachia, filium Addo,"as if he supposed that Berechiah and Iddo were different names of the same person, and the same mistake occurs in the Sept. Τὸν Τοῦ Βαραχίου Υἱὸν Ἀδδώ . Gesenius ( Lex. S.V. בֵּן ) And Rosenm Ü ller (On Zechariah 1, 1 ) take בִּר in the passages in Ezra to mean: "Grandson," as in  Genesis 29:5 Laban is termed "then son," i.e. "grandson," of Nahor. Others, again, have suggested that in the text of Ezra no mention is made of Berechiah, because he was already dead, or because Iddo was the more distinguished person, and the generally recognized head of the family. Knobel thinks that the name of Berechiah has crept into the present text of Zechariah from  Isaiah 8:2, where mention is made of a Zechariah "the son of Jeberechiah ," which is virtually the same name (Sept. Βαραχίου ) as Berechiah. His theory is that ch. 9-11 of our present book of Zechariah are really the work of the older Zechariah ( Isaiah 8:2); that a later scribe finding the two books, one bearing the name of Zechariah the son of Iddo, and the other that of Zechariah the son of Berechiah, united them into one, and at the same time combined the titles of the two, and that hence arose the confusion which at present exists. This, however, is hardly a probable hypothesis. It is surely more natural to suppose, as the prophet himself mentions his father's name, whereas the historical books of Ezra and Nehemiah mention only Iddo, that Berechiah had died early, and that there was now no intervening link between the grandfather and the grandson. The son, in giving his pedigree, does not omit his father's name: the historian passes it over as of one who was but little known or already forgotten. This view is confirmed if we suppose the Iddo here mentioned to have been the Iddo the priest who, in  Nehemiah 12:4, is said to have returned from Babylon in company with Zerubbabel and Joshua. He is there said to have had a son Zechariah ( Nehemiah 12:16), who was contemporary with Joachim the son of Joshua; and this falls in with the hypothesis that owing to some unexplained cause-perhaps the death of his father Zechariah became the next representative of the family after his grandfather Iddo. Zechariah, according to this view, like Jeremiah and Ezekiel before him, was priest as well as prophet. He seems to have entered upon his office while yet young ( נִעִר  Zechariah 2:4; comp.  Jeremiah 1:6), and must have been born in Babylon, whence he returned with the first caravan of exiles under Zerubbabel and Joshua.

    It was in the eighth month, in the second year of Darius, that he first publicly discharged his office. B.C. 519. In this he acted in concert with Haggai, who must have been considerably his senior if, as seems not improbable, Haggai had been carried into captivity, and hence had himself been one of those who had seen "the house" of Jehovah "in her first glory" ( Haggai 2:3). Both prophets had the same great object before them; both directed all their energies to the building of the second Temple. Haggai seems to have led the way in this work, and then to have left it chiefly in the hands of his younger contemporary. The foundations of the new building had already been laid in the time of Cyrus, but during the reigns of Cambyses and the pseudo Smerdis the work had been broken off through the jealousies of the Samaritans. When, however, Darius Hystaspis ascended the throne (521) things took a more favorable turn. He seems to have been a large-hearted and gracious prince, and to have been well- disposed towards the Jews. Encouraged by the hopes, which his accession held out, the prophets exerted themselves to the utmost to secure the completion of the Temple. From this time, for a space of nearly two years, the prophet's voice was silent, or his words have not been recorded. But in the fourth year of king Darius, in the fourth day of the ninth month, there came a deputation of Jews to the Temple, anxious to know whether the fast-days which had been instituted during the seventy years captivity were still to be observed.

    On the one hand, now that the captivity was at an end, and Jerusalem was rising from her ashes such set times of mourning seemed quite out of place. On the other hand, there was still much ground for serious uneasiness; for some time after their return they had suffered severely from drought and famine ( Haggai 1:6-11), and who could tell that they would not so suffer again? The hostility of their neighbors had not ceased; they were still regarded with no common jealousy; and large numbers of their brethren had not yet returned from Babylon. It was a question, therefore, that seemed to admit of much debate. It is impossible not to see of how great moment, under such circumstances, and for the discharge of the special duty with which he was entrusted, would be the priestly origin of Zechariah.

    Too often the prophet had to stand forth in direct antagonism to the priest. In an age when the service of God had stiffened into formalism, and the priests lips no longer kept knowledge, the prophet was the witness for the truth, which lay beneath the outward ceremonial, and without which the outward ceremonial was worthless. But the thing to be dreaded now was not superstitious formalism, but cold neglect. There was no fear now lest in a gorgeous temple, amid the splendors of an imposing ritual and the smoke of sacrifices ever ascending to heaven, the heart and life of religion should be lost. The fear was all the other way, lest even the body, the outward form and service, should be suffered to decay. The foundations of the Temple had indeed been laid, but that was all ( Ezra 5:16). Discouraged by-the opposition which they had encountered at first, the Jewish colony had begun to build, and were not able to finish; and even when the letter came from Darius sanctioning the work, and promising his protection, they showed no hearty disposition to engage in it. At such a time no more fitting instrument could be found to rouse the people, whose heart had grown cold, than one who united to the authority of the prophet the zeal and the traditions of a sacerdotal family. Accordingly, to Zechariah's influence we find the rebuilding of the Temple in a great measure ascribed. "And the elders of the Jews builded," it is said, "and they prospered through the prophesying of Haggai the prophet and Zechariah the son of Iddo" ( Ezra 6:14).

    It is remarkable that in this juxtaposition of the two names both are not styled prophets-not "Haggai and Zechariah the prophets," but "Haggai the prophet and Zechariah the son of Iddo." Is it an improbable conjecture that Zechariah is designated by his father's (or grandfather's) name, rather than by his office, in order to remind us of his priestly character? Be this as it may, we find other indications of the close union which now subsisted between the priests and the prophets. Various events connected with the taking of Jerusalem and the captivity in Babylon had led to the institution of solemn fast-days; and we find that when a question arose as to the propriety of observing these fast-days, now that the city and the Temple were rebuilt, the question was referred to "the priests which were in the house of Jehovah, and to the prophets" a recognition not only of the joint authority, but of the harmony subsisting between the two bodies, without parallel in Jewish history. The manner, too, in which Joshua the high-priest is spoken of in this prophecy shows how lively a sympathy Zechariah felt towards him.

    Later traditions assume, what is indeed very probable, that Zechariah took personally an active part in providing for the liturgical service of the Temple. He and Haggai are both said to have composed psalms with this view. According to the Sept., Psalm 137:145; according to the Peshito, 125, 126; according to the Vulg., 111, are psalms of Haggai and Zechariah. The triumphant "hallelujah," with which many of them open, was supposed to be characteristic of those psalms which were first chanted in the second Temple, and came with an emphasis of meaning from the lips of those who had been restored to their native land The allusions, moreover, with which these psalms abound, as well as their place in the Psalter, leave us in no doubt as to the time when they were composed, and lend confirmation to the tradition respecting their authorship. If the later Jewish accounts (the Talmudic tract Megillah, 17:2; 18:1; Rashi Ad Baba Bathra, 15:1) may be trusted, Zechariah, as well as Haggai, was a member of the great synagogue. The patristic notices of the prophet are worth nothing. According to these, he exercised his prophetic office in Chaldea, and wrought many miracles there; returned to Jerusalem at an advanced age, where he discharged the duties of the priesthood, and where he died and was buried by the side of Haggai (Pseudepiph. De Proph. c. 21; Dorotheus, p. 144; Isidorus, c. 51).

    2. The genuine writings of Zechariah help us but little in our estimation of his character. Some faint traces, however, we may observe in them of his education in Babylon. Less free and independent than he would have been had his feet trodden from childhood the soil.

    "Where each old poetic mountain Inspiration breathed around,"

    he leans avowedly on the authority of the older prophets, and copies their expressions. Jeremiah especially seems to have been his favorite, and hence the Jewish saying that "the spirit of Jeremiah dwelt in Zechariah." But in what may be called the peculiarities of his prophecy he approaches more nearly to Ezekiel and Daniel. Like them, he delights in visions; like them, he uses symbols and allegories rather than the bold figures and metaphors which lend so much force and beauty to the writings of the earlier prophets; like them, he beholds angels ministering before' Jehovah and fulfilling his behests on the earth. He is the only one of the prophets who speaks of Satan. That some of these peculiarities are owing to his Chaldean education can hardly be doubted. It is at least remarkable that both Ezekiel and Daniel, who must have been influenced by the same associations, should in some of these respects so closely resemble Zechariah, widely as they differ from him in others.

    Even in the form of the visions a careful criticism might perhaps discover some traces of the prophet's early training. Possibly the "valley of myrtles" in the first vision may have been suggested by Chaldaea rather than by Palestine. At any rate, it is a curious fact that myrtles are rarely mentioned in the history of the Jews before the Exile. They are found, besides this passage of Zechariah, in  Isaiah 41:19;  Isaiah 55:13, and in  Nehemiah 8:15. The forms of trial in the third vision, where Joshua the high-priest is arraigned, seem borrowed from the practice of Persian rather than Jewish courts of law. The filthy garments in which Joshua appears are those which the accused must assume when brought to trial. The white robe put upon him is the caftan or robe of honor, which to this day in the East is put upon the minister of state who has been acquitted of the charges laid against him. The vision of the woman in the Ephah is also Oriental in its character. Ewald refers to a very similar vision in Tod's Rajasthan, 2, 688. Finally, the chariots issuing from between two mountains of brass must have been suggested, there can scarcely be any doubt, by some Persian symbolism. (See Book Of Zechariah).

    25. The leader of the one hundred and fifty "sons" of Pharosh who returned with Ezra ( Ezra 8:3). B.C. 459.

    26. The leader of the twenty-eight "sons" of Bebai, who came up from Babylon with Ezra ( Ezra 8:11). B.C. 459,

    27. One of the chiefs of the people whom Ezra summoned in council at the river Ahava, before the second caravan returned from Babylon ( Ezra 8:16). B.C. 459. He stood at Ezra's left hand when he expounded the law to the people ( Nehemiah 8:4).

    28. (Sept. Ζαχαρία . ) One of the family of Elam, who had married a foreign wife after the Captivity ( Ezra 10:26). B.C. 458.

    29. One of the priests, son of Jonathan, who blew with the trumpets at the dedication of the city wall by Ezra and Nehemiah ( Nehemiah 12:35;  Nehemiah 12:41). B.C. 446.

    Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [13]

    Zechariah (whom Jehovah remembers), a very common name among the Jews, borne by the following persons mentioned in Scripture.

    Zechariah , 1

    Zechariah, son of Jeroboam II, and fourteenth king of Israel. He ascended the throne in B.C. 772, and reigned six months. The few months of Zechariah's reign just sufficed to evince his inclination to follow the bad course of his predecessors; and he was then slain by Shallum, who usurped the crown. With his life ended the dynasty of Jehu (; ).

    Zechariah , 2

    Zechariah, high priest in the time of Joash, king of Judah. He was son, or perhaps grandson, of Jehoiada and Jehosheba; the latter was the aunt of the king, who owed to her his crown, as he did his education and throne to her husband [JOASH]. Zechariah could not bear to see the evil courses into which the monarch eventually fell, and by which the return of the people to their old idolatries was facilitated, if not encouraged. Therefore, when the people were assembled at one of the solemn festivals, he took the opportunity of lifting up his voice against the growing corruptions. This was in the presence of the king, in the court of the temple. The people were enraged at his honest boldness, and with the connivance of the king, if not by a direct intimation from him, they seized the pontiff, and stoned him to death, even in that holy spot, 'between the temple and the altar.' His dying cry was not that of the first Christian martyr, 'Lord, lay not this sin to their charge' (), but 'The Lord look upon it, and require it' (). It is to this dreadful affair that our Lord is supposed to allude in ; .

    Zechariah , 3

    Zechariah, described as one 'who had understanding in the visions of God' (). It is doubtful whether this eulogium indicates a prophet, or simply describes one eminent for his piety and faith. During his lifetime Uzziah, king of Judah, was guided by his counsels, and prospered: but went wrong when death had deprived him of his wise guidance. Nothing is known of this Zechariah's history. It is possible that he may be the same whose daughter became the wife of Ahaz, and mother of Hezekiah (; ).

    Zechariah , 4

    Zechariah, son of Jeberechiah, a person whom, together with Urijah the high priest, Isaiah took as a legal witness of his marriage with 'the prophetess' (). This was in the reign of Ahaz, and the choice of the prophet shows that Zechariah was a person of consequence.

    Zechariah , 5

    Zechariah, the eleventh in order of the Minor Prophets, was 'the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo, the prophet.' He seems to have entered upon his office in early youth (). The period of his introduction to it is specified as the eighth month of the second year of Darius, a very short time later than the prophet Haggai. The mission of Zechariah had especial reference to the affairs of the nation that had been restored to its territory. The second edict, granting permission to rebuild the temple, had been issued, and the office of Zechariah was to incite the flagging zeal of the people, in order that the auspicious period might be a season of religious revival as well as of ecclesiastical reorganization; and that the theocratic spirit might resume its former tone and energy in the breasts of all who were engaged in the work of restoring the 'holy and beautiful house,' where their fathers had praised Jehovah. The prophet assures them of success in the work of re-erecting the sacred edifice, despite of every combination against them; for Zerubbabel 'should bring forth the head stone with shouting, Grace, grace unto it'—comforts them with a solemn pledge that, amid fearful revolutions and conquests by which other nations were to be swept away, they should remain uninjured; for, says Jehovah, 'He that toucheth you toucheth the apple of mine eye'—sketches in a few vivid touches the blessings and glory of the advent of Messiah—imparts consolation to those who were mourning over their un-worthiness, and pronounces a heavy doom on the selfish and disobedient, and on such as in a remote age, imbibing their spirit, 'should fall after the same example of unbelief.' The pseudo-Epiphanius records some prodigies wrought by Zechariah in the land of Chaldea, and some wondrous oracles which he delivered; and he and Dorotheus both agree in declaring that the prophet died in Judea in a good old age, and was buried beside his colleague Haggai.

    The book of Zechariah consists of four general divisions.

    I. The introduction or inaugural discourse ().

    II. A series of nine visions, extending onwards to Zechariah 7, communicated to the prophet in the third month after his installation. These visions were—

    A rider on a roan horse among the myrtle-trees, with his equestrian attendants, who report to him the peace of the world, symbolizing the fitness of the time for the fulfillment of the promises of God, his people's protector.

    Four horns, symbols of the oppressive enemies by which Judah had been on all sides surrounded, and four carpenters, by whom these horns are broken, emblems of the destruction of these anti-theocratic powers.

    A man with a measuring-line describing a wider circumference for the site of Jerusalem, as its population was to receive a vast increase, foreshowing that many more Jews would return from Babylon and join their countrymen, and indicating the conversion of heathen nations under the Messiah, when out of Zion should go forth the law and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.

    The high-priest Joshua before the angel of the Lord, with Satan at his right hand to oppose him. The sacerdotal representative of the people, clad in the filthy garments in which he had returned from captivity, seems to be a type of the guilt and degradation of his country; while forgiveness and restoration are the blessings which the pontiff symbolically receives from Jehovah, when he is reclad in holy apparel and crowned with a spotless turban, the vision at the same time stretching into far futurity, and including the advent of Jehovah's servant the Branch.

    A golden lamp-stand fed from two olive-trees, one growing on each side, an image of the value and divine glory of the theocracy as now seen in the restored Jewish church, supported, not 'by might nor by power, but by the Spirit of Jehovah,' and of the spiritual development of the old theocracy in the Christian church, which enlightens the world through the continuous influence of the Holy Ghost.

    A flying roll, the breadth of the temple-porch, containing on its one side curses against the ungodly, and on its other anathemas against the immoral, denoting that the head of the theocracy, the Lord of the temple, would from his place punish those who violated either the first or the second table of his law.

    A woman in an ephah (at length pressed down into it by a sheet of lead laid over its mouth), borne along in the air by two female figures with storks' wings, representing the sin and punishment of the nation. The fury, whose name is Wickedness, is repressed, and transported to the land of Shinar; i.e. idolatry, in the persons of the captive Jews, was forever removed at that period from the Holy Land, and, as it were, taken to Babylon, the home of image-worship.

    Four chariots issuing from two copper mountains, and drawn respectively by red, black, white, and spotted horses, the vehicles of the four winds of heaven, a hieroglyph of the swiftness and extent of divine judgments against the former oppressors of the covenant people. Judgments seem issuing from God's holy habitation in the midst of the 'mountains which are round about Jerusalem,' or from between those two hills, the ravine dividing which forms the valley of Jehoshaphat, directly under the temple mountain, where dwelt the head of the theocracy.

    The last scene is not properly a vision, but an oracle in connection with the preceding visions, and in reference to a future symbolical act to be performed by the prophet. In presence of a deportation of Jews from Babylon, the prophet was charged to place a crown on the head of Joshua the high-priest, a symbol which, whatever was its immediate signification, was designed to prefigure the royal and sacerdotal dignity of the man whose name is Branch, who should sit as 'a priest upon his throne.'

    The meaning of all the preceding varied images and scenes is explained to the prophet by an attendant angelic interpreter.

    Iii. A collection of four oracles delivered at various times in the fourth year of Darius, and partly occasioned by a request of the nation to be divinely informed, whether, now on their happy return to their fatherland, the month of Jerusalem's overthrow should be registered in their sacred calendar as a season of fasting and humiliation. The prophet declares that these times should in future ages be observed as festive solemnities.

    IV. Zechariah 8-11 contains a variety of prophecies unfolding the fortunes of the people, their safety in the midst of Alexander's expedition, and their victories under the Maccabean chieftains, including the fate of many of the surrounding nations, Hadrach (Persia), Damascus, Tyre, and Philistia.

    V. Zechariah 12-14 graphically portrays the future condition of the people, especially in Messianic times, and contains allusions to the siege of the city, the means of escape by the cleaving of the Mount of Olives, with a symbol of twilight breaking into day, and living water issuing from Jerusalem, concluding with a blissful vision of the enlarged prosperity and holiness of the theocratic metropolis, when upon the bells of the horses shall be inscribed 'holiness unto the Lord.'

    The language of Zechariah has not the purity and freshness of a former age. A slight tinge of Chaldaism pervades the composition. The symbols with which he abounds are obscure, and their prosaic structure is diffuse and unvaried. The rhythm of his poetry is unequal, and its parallelisms are inharmonious and disjointed. His language has in many phrases a close alliance with that of the other prophets, and occasional imitations of them, especially of Ezekiel, characterize his oracles. He is also peculiar in his introduction of spiritual beings into his prophetic scenes.

    Zechariah , 6

    Zechariah, the father of John the Baptist [[[John The Baptist]]]

    The Nuttall Encyclopedia [14]

    A Hebrew prophet who appears to have been born in Babylon during the captivity, and to have prophesied in Jerusalem at the time of the restoration, and to have contributed by his prophecies to encourage the people in rebuilding the temple and reorganising its worship; his prophecies are divided into two great sections, but the authenticity of the latter has been much debated; he is reckoned one of the Minor Prophets.