From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [1]

Andrew ( Ἀνδρέας, ‘manly’).—In the Synoptic Gospels, Andrew is little more than a name; but the references to him in the Fourth Gospel are of such a character as to leave upon our minds a wonderfully clear impression of the manner of man he was, and of the service which he rendered to the Church of Christ. Andrew was a native of Bethsaida ( John 1:44), but afterwards shared the same house ( Mark 1:29) at Capernaum ( Mark 1:21) with his better known brother Simon Peter. By trade he was a fisherman ( Matthew 4:18), but, attracted by all that he had heard or seen of John the Baptist, for a time at least he left his old work, and, following the Baptist into the wilderness, came to be recognized as one of his disciples ( John 1:35;  John 1:40). A better teacher Andrew could not have had; for if from John he first learned the exceeding sinfulness of sin, by him also he was pointed to the promised Deliverer, the Lamb of God, who was to take away the sin of the world. And when, accordingly, the Christ did come, it was to find Andrew with a heart ready and eager to welcome Him. Of that first interview between the Lord and His new disciple the Fourth Evangelist, who was himself present, has preserved the record ( John 1:35-40), and he it is also who tells us that no sooner had Andrew realized for himself the truth regarding Jesus, than he at once went in search of his brother Peter ( John 1:41-42). And thus to the first-called of Christ’s disciples (πρωτόκλητος, according to a common designation of Andrew in early ecclesiastical writers) was given the joy of bringing next his own brother to the Lord. The call of James and of John, if they had not been previously summoned, would seem to have followed; but in none of these instances did this imply as yet more than a personal relationship to the Saviour. The actual summons to work came later, when, by the Sea of Galilee, Jesus bade Andrew, along with the same three companions, leave his nets and come after Him ( Matthew 4:18 ff.). And this in turn was followed shortly afterwards by Andrew’s appointment to a place in the Apostolic Band ( Matthew 10:2 ff.). His place, moreover, was a place of honour, for his name always occurs in the first group of four, and it is with Peter and James and John that he is again associated in the ‘private’ inquiries to Jesus regarding the time of the Last Things ( Mark 13:3).

Still more interesting, however, as illustrating Andrew’s character, are the two occasions on which he is specially associated with Philip, the only other Apostle who bore a Greek name. The first incident occurred at the Feeding of the Five Thousand, when, in contrast to the anxious, calculating Philip, the downright, practical Andrew thought it worth while to draw the Saviour’s attention to the lad’s little store, even though he too was at a loss as to what it could effect ( John 6:5 ff.). And the second occurred when to Philip, again perplexed by the desire of certain Greeks (Gentiles, therefore) to see Jesus, Andrew suggested that the true course was at least to lay the request before Jesus Himself, and leave Him to decide whether or not it could be granted ( John 12:20 ff.).

After this, with the exception of the incident already referred to ( Mark 13:3), Andrew is not again mentioned in the Gospels, and the only subsequent reference to him in Scripture is the mere mention of his name in  Acts 1:13. Tradition, however, has been busy with his after-history; and he is represented as labouring, according to one account, in Scythia (Eus. Historia Ecclesiastica iii. 1), whence he has been adopted as the patron-saint of Russia; or, according to another, in Achaia. In any case, there is general agreement that he was martyred at Patrae in Achaia, being bound, not nailed, to the cross, in order to prolong his sufferings. There is, however, no warrant for the belief that the cross was of the decussate shape ( X ), as this cross, usually associated with his name, is of a much later date.

A striking tradition preserved in the Muratorian Fragment brings Andrew and John together in their old age as they had been in their youth: ‘The fourth Gospel [was written by] John, one of the disciples ( i.e. Apostles). When his fellow-disciples and bishops urgently pressed him, he said, “Fast with me [from] to-day, for three days, and let us tell one another any revelation which may be made to us, either for or against [the plan of writing].” On the same night it was revealed to Andrew, one of the Apostles, that John should relate all in his own name, and that all should review [his writing]’ (see Westcott, Gospel of St. John , p. xxxv; History of NT Canon , p. 523).

It is also deserving of mention that about 740 Andrew became the patron-saint of Scotland, owing to the belief that his arm had been brought by St. Regulus to the town on the East Coast that now bears his name.

The character of Andrew, as it appears in the few scattered notices that we have of him, is that of a simple, kindly man who had the courage of his opinions, as proved by his being the first of the Baptist’s disciples openly to follow Jesus; who was eager to share with others the privileges he himself enjoyed (witness his search for Peter, and his treatment of the Greeks); and who, his work done, was always ready to efface himself (see especially Lightfoot, Sermons on Special Occasions , p. 160 ff.). Again, when we think of the Apostle in his more official aspect, it is sufficient to recall that he was not only the first home-missionary ( John 1:41), but also the first foreign-missionary ( John 12:22)—evidence, if evidence be wanted, of the close connexion between the two spheres of work.

Literature.—In addition to what has been noted above, and the references to Andrew in the different Lives of Christ, see H. Latham, Pastor Pastorum , p. 156 ff.; the present writer’s The Twelve Apostles (J. M. Dent), p. 24 ff.; Expositor , 1st ser. vii. [1882], 424 ff.; Ker, Sermons , 2nd ser. 100 ff. The principal authority on Andrew’s traditional history is Lipsius. Die Apokryphen Apostelgeschichten und Apostellegenden , i. p. 543 ff.; cf. M. R. James in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible, vol. i. p. 93. His place in Art is discussed by Mrs. Jameson, Sacred and Legendary Art , i. p. 226 ff. We may refer also to Keble’s poem on ‘St. Andrew’s Day’ in The Christian Year , and to the poem on ‘St. Andrew and his Cross’ in the Lyra Innocentium .

George Milligan.

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [2]

A Greek name. A fisherman of Bethsaida at the lake of Gennesareth, son of Jonas. One of the first two called of the apostles; who in his turn called his brother Simon to Jesus ( John 1:35-41). Previously he had been John the Baptist's disciple, and by him had been pointed to Jesus twice as the Lamb of God. Prompt decision for Christ, not levity, led him to obey. A further call took place subsequently and more formally, when, after they had resumed their usual occupation, Jesus found them casting their net into the sea ( Matthew 4:18). Void of the boldness and rocklike robustness of Peter's character, which but few can aspire to, he had that feature which makes him a pattern within the reach of all, a simple, earnest determination in carrying out the dictates of conscience. Another feature in Andrew was, though not so qualified for public usefulness as some, he was as ardent as any to win souls in private to Jesus.

When we admire the foremost apostle through whom 3000 were added to the church on Pentecost, let us not forget that, without Andrew, Simon would never have become Peter. So well known was his love for souls, that when certain Greeks desired to see Jesus, Andrew was the person to whom Philip (whose name also is Greek, and who, like Andrew, when called, in turn called Nathanael) brought them. Then he and Philip (the two whose names imply connection with the Greeks; an interesting coincidence, and who had shown their zeal for conversions) brought them to Jesus ( John 1:43-46;  John 12:20-22). Andrew had his faults too; he shared in the disciples' unbelief when Jesus tried their faith, "Whence shall we buy bread that these (5000) may eat?" (John 6). Andrew answered, "There is a lad here that hath five barley loaves and two small fish, but what are they among so many?"

Even here he suggests a supply, but with defective faith. Andrew was one of the four who asked Jesus privately, "When shall these things be, and what is the sign of Thy coming and the end of the world?" Andrew was not elsewhere admitted to the private interviews which Peter, John, and James enjoyed: at the raising of Jairus daughter, the transfiguration, and Gethsemane. In  Matthew 10:2 and  Luke 6:14 Andrew is next after Peter; but in  Mark 3:10;  Acts 1:14, after the first and foremost three, Peter, James, and John, and before his Greek-named associate Philip. Eusebius makes him after Christ's ascension preach in Scythia; Jerome, in Greece; where tradition makes him to have been crucified on a Crux Decussata , an X-shaped cross.

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [3]

an Apostle of Jesus Christ, a native of Bethsaida, and the brother of Peter. He was at first a disciple of John the Baptist, whom he left to follow our Saviour, after the testimony of John, "Behold the Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world,"  John 1:29 , and was the first disciple received by our Saviour. Andrew then introduced his brother Simon, and they went with him to the marriage in Cana, but afterward returned to their ordinary occupation, not expecting, perhaps, to be farther employed in his service. However, some months after, Jesus meeting them, while fishing together, called them to a regular attendance upon him, and promised to make them fishers of men,  Matthew 4:19 .

After our Saviour's ascension, tradition states that Andrew was appointed to preach in Scythia and the neighbouring countries. According to Eusebius, after this Apostle had planted the Gospel in several places, he came to Patrae, in Achaia, where, endeavouring to convert the pro-consul AEgeas, he was, by that governor's orders, first scourged, and then crucified. The time of his suffering martyrdom is not known; but all the ancient and modern martyrologies of the Greeks and Latins agree in celebrating his festival on the 30th of November. His body was embalmed, and decently interred at Patrae, by Maximilla, a lady of great quality and estate. It was afterward removed to Constantinople, by Constantine the Great, who buried it in the great church which he had built to the honour of the Apostles. It is not known for what reason painters represent St. Andrew's cross like an X. Peter Chrysologus says that he was crucified upon a tree; and the spurious Hippolytus assures us that it was an olive tree. Nevertheless, the tradition which describes him to have been nailed to a cross is very ancient.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [4]

ANDREW . One of the twelve Apostles, Simon Peter’s brother (  John 1:40 ). He belonged to Bethsaida of Galilee (  John 1:44 ), the harbour-town of Capernaum (see Bethsaida), and was a fisherman on the lake in company with Simon (  Matthew 4:18 =   Mark 1:16 ), whose home he also shared (  Mark 1:29 ). Ere he knew Jesus he had been influenced by the preaching of John the Baptist, and became his disciple, and it was on hearing the Baptist’s testimony that he attached himself to Jesus (  John 1:35-40 ). He brought his brother Simon to the newly found Messiah (  John 1:41 ), thus earning the distinction of being the first missionary of the Kingdom of heaven; and it seems that, like the favoured three, he enjoyed a special intimacy with the Master (  Mark 13:3 ). Tradition adds that he was crucified at Patræ in Achaia, and hung alive on the cross for two days, exhorting the spectators all the while.

David Smith.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [5]

Native of Bethsaida, brother of Simon Peter, and a fisherman: he became one of the twelve apostles. He had been a disciple of John, but hearing him say "Behold the Lamb of God!" he followed Jesus. He, at once found his brother Simon and told him that he had found the Messiah. There is little recorded of Andrew; he was one of the four who asked the Lord privately when the destruction of the temple should take place, and what would be the sign when the things spoken of should be fulfilled. After revealing that various judgements were coming the Lord added "But of that day and that hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father."  Mark 13:3,4,32 . The Lord, as the Servant-Prophet (which is the character given by the Spirit in Mark) did not know the day. Tradition says that Andrew laboured in Scythia, Greece, and Asia Minor, and that he was crucified at Patrae in Achaia, on a cross of this form, X, which cross has since borne his name.  Matthew 4:18;  Luke 6:14;  John 1:40,44;  Acts 1:13 , etc.

People's Dictionary of the Bible [6]

Andrew ( Ăn'Dru ), Manly. One of the apostles, the brother—whether older or younger is not known—of Simon Peter, with whom it would seem he lived.  Mark 1:29. He was of Bethsaida, and became one of the disciples of John the Baptist, at whose word he followed Jesus, and afterwards brought his brother Simon.  John 1:40-44. The order in which Andrew is named varies in different places; but generally he stands next after the three chiefs, and is associated with Philip. There are but a few scattered notices of him in the evangelic history.  Mark 13:3;  John 6:8-9;  John 12:22. After the resurrection he is enumerated with the rest of the eleven ( Acts 1:13); and then we hear no more of mm. Tradition has been busy with his later history; and he is said to have been crucified at Patræ in Achaia, on a cross formed like the letter X, which has hence been called "St. Andrew's Cross."

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary [7]

Among those who responded to the preaching of John the Baptist was Andrew, a fisherman from Galilee. He was with John the Baptist in the region around the Jordan Valley when John introduced him to Jesus. Andrew quickly went and told his brother Peter that the Messiah of whom John had spoken had arrived, with the result that Peter soon met Jesus and believed ( John 1:35-42). (For further details of Andrew’s family see Peter .)

When Jesus later went to Galilee, the two brothers left their fishermen’s work to join him in his work ( Matthew 4:18-20). Later again, Jesus included both brothers in his chosen group of twelve apostles ( Matthew 10:2;  Mark 13:3;  Acts 1:13). Two further references to Andrew record how he brought other people to Jesus ( John 6:8-9;  John 12:21-22).

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [8]

One of the twelve apostles, was of Bethsaida, and the brother of Peter,  John 1:40,44 . Being a disciple of John the Baptists, he understood the imitations of his master as to the Lamb of God, and was the first of the apostles to follow him,  John 1:35-40 , and come to the knowledge of the Messiah. Compare  James 4:8 . He was afterwards called as an apostle, on the shore of the Sea of Galilee,  Matthew 4:18; and thenceforth followed Christ to the end,  Mark 13:3   John 6:7   12:22 . Of his later history nothing is known with certainty. It seems probable, however, that after preaching the gospel in Greece, and perhaps Thrace and Scythia, he suffered crucifixion at Patras in Achaia, on a cross of peculiar form, hence commonly known as "St. Andrew's cross."

Smith's Bible Dictionary [9]

An'drew. (Manly). One of the apostles of our Lord,  John 1:40;  Matthew 4:18, brother of Simon Peter. He was of Bethsaida, and had been a disciple of John the Baptist, leaving him to follow our Lord. By his means, his brother Simon was brought to Jesus .  John 1:41.

His place among the apostles seems to have been fourth, next after the three; Peter, James and John, and in company with Philip.  Mark 3:18;  Acts 1:13. The traditions about him are various. He is said to have preached in Scythia, in Greece, in Asia Minor and Thrace, and to have been crucified at Patrae in Achaia.

Easton's Bible Dictionary [10]

 John 1:44 Matthew 4:18 10:2 John 1:40 Matthew 4:18,19 Mark 1:16,17 John 6:8 12:22 Mark 13:3 John 6:9 John 12:22

Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types [11]

 John 1:40 (c) This good man is typical of the believer who, in the zeal of his new experience with Christ goes out after his brother to bring him to the same Saviour. He became a fisher of men and his first catch for CHRIST was Peter.

 John 12:22 (c) Here we find a picture of one who had the reputation of being able to bring men to CHRIST. He was ready to carry the petitions of men to the willing ears of the Lord. This should arouse our desire to be like him.

Holman Bible Dictionary [12]

 John 1:40-41 Matthew 4:18 Mark 13:3 John 6:8 John 12:22 Acts 1:13ApostlesDisciples

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [13]

an´droo ( Ἀνδρέας , Andréas , i.e. "manly." The name has also been interpreted as "the mighty one, or conqueror"): Andrew was the first called of the Twelve Apostles.

I. In New Testament

1. Early History and First Call

Andrew belonged to Bethsaida of Galilee (compare  John 1:44 ). He was the brother of Simon Peter and his father's name was John (compare  John 1:42;  John 21:15 ,  John 21:16 ,  John 21:17 ). He occupies a more prominent place in the Gospel of Jn than in the synoptical writings, and this is explicable at least in part from the fact that Andrew was Greek both in language and sympathies (compare infra ), and that his subsequent labors were intimately connected with the people for whom Jn was immediately writing. There are three stages in the call of Andrew to the apostleship. The first is described in  John 1:35-40 . Andrew had spent his earlier years as a fisherman on the Sea of Galilee, but on learning of the fame of John the Baptist, he departed along with a band of his countrymen to Bethabara (the Revised Version (British and American) "Bethany") beyond Jordan, where John was baptizing ( John 1:28 ). Possibly Jesus was of their number, or had preceded them in their pilgrimage. There Andrew learned for the first time of the greatness of the "Lamb of God" and "followed him" ( John 1:40 ). He was the means at this time of bringing his brother Simon Peter also to Christ ( John 1:41 ). Andrew was probably a companion of Jesus on his return journey to Galilee, and was thus present at the marriage in Cana of Galilee ( John 2:2 ), in Capernaum ( John 2:12 ), at the Passover in Jerusalem ( John 2:13 ), at the baptizing in Judea ( John 3:22 ), where he himself may have taken part (compare  John 4:2 ), and in Samaria ( John 4:5 ).

2. Second Call and Final Ordination

On his return to Galilee, Andrew resumed for a time his old vocation as fisherman, till he received his second call. This happened after John the Baptist was cast into prison (compare  Mark 1:14;  Matthew 4:12 ) and is described in  Mark 1:16-18;  Matthew 4:18 ,  Matthew 4:19 . The two accounts are practically identical, and tell how Andrew and his brother were now called on definitely to forsake their mundane occupations and become fishers of men ( Mark 1:17 ). The corresponding narrative of Luke varies in part; it does not mention Andrew by name, and gives the additional detail of the miraculous draught of fishes. By some it has been regarded as an amalgamation of Mark's account with  John 21:1-8 (see James , Son Of Zebedee ). After a period of companionship with Jesus, during which, in the house of Simon and Andrew, Simon's wife's mother was healed of a fever ( Mark 1:29-31; compare  Matthew 8:14 ,  Matthew 8:15;  Luke 4:38 ,  Luke 4:39 ); the call of Andrew was finally consecrated by his election as one of the Twelve Apostles ( Matthew 10:2;  Mark 3:18;  Luke 6:14;  Acts 1:13 ).

3. Subsequent History

Further incidents recorded of Andrew are: At the feeding of the five thousand by the Sea of Galilee, the attention of Jesus was drawn by Andrew to the lad with five sequent barley loaves and two fishes (Jn 6 History 8.9). At the feast of the Passover, the Greeks who wished to "see Jesus" inquired of Philip, who turned for advice to Andrew, and the two then told Jesus (Jn 12:20-36). On the Mount of Olives, Andrew along with Peter, James and John, questioned Jesus regarding the destruction of Jerusalem and the end of the world (Mk 13:3-23; compare also Mt 24:3-28; Lk 21:5-24).

II. In Apocryphal Literature

The name of Andrew's mother was traditionally Joanna, and according to the "Genealogies of the Twelve Apostles" (Budge, Contendings of the Apostles , II, 49) he belonged to the tribe of Reuben, the tribe of his father. A fragment of a Coptic gospel of the 4th or 5th century tells how not only Thomas ( John 20:27 ), but also Andrew was compelled, by touching the feet of the risen Saviour, to believe in the bodily resurrection (Hennecke, Neutestamentlichen Apokryphen , etc., 38, 39). Various places were assigned as the scene of his subsequent missionary labors. The Syriac Teaching of the Apostles (ed Cureton, 34) mentions Bithynia, Eusebius gives Scythia ( Historia Ecclesiastica , III, i, 1), and others Greece (Lipsius, Apokryphen Apostelgeschichten , I, 63). The Muratorian Fragment relates that John wrote his gospel in consequence of a revelation given to Andrew, and this would point to Ephesus (compare Hennecke id, 459). The Contendings of the Twelve Apostles (for historicity, authorship, etc., of this work, compare Budge, Contendings of the Apostles , Intro; Hennecke, Handbuch zu den neutestamentlichen Apokryphen , 351-58; RE, 664-66) contains several parts dealing with Andrew: (1) "The Preaching of Andrew and Philemon among the Kurds" (Budge, Ii 163ff) narrates the appearance of the risen Christ to His disciples, the sending of Andrew to Lydia and his conversion of the people there. (2) The "Preaching of Matthias in the City of the Cannibals" (Budge, II, 267ff; Reh , 666) tells of how Matthias, on being imprisoned and blinded by the Cannibals, was released by Andrew, who had been brought to his assistance in a ship by Christ, but the two were afterward again imprisoned. Matthias then caused the city to be inundated, the disciples were set free, and the people converted. (3) "The Acts of Andrew and Bartholomew" (Budge, II, 183ff) gives an account of their mission among the Parthians. (4) According to the "Martyrdom of Andrew" (Budge, II, 215) he was stoned and crucified in Scythia.

According to the surviving fragments of "The Acts of Andrew," a heretical work dating probably from the 2nd century, and referred to by Eusebius ( Historia Ecclesiastica , III, ii, 5), the scene of Andrew's death was laid in Achaia. There he was imprisoned and crucified by order of the proconsul Eges (or Aegeates), whose wife had been estranged from him by the preaching of Andrew (compare Hennecke, 459-73; Pick, Apocryphal Acts , 201-21; Lipsius, I, 543-622). A so-called "Gospel of Andrew" mentioned by Innocent I (Ep, I, iii, 7) and Augustine ( Contra Advers. Leg. et Prophet ., I, 20), but this is probably due to a confusion with the above-mentioned "Acts of Andrew."

The relics of Andrew were discovered in Constantinople in the time of Justinian, and part of his cross is now in Peter's, Rome. Andrew is the patron saint of Scotland, whither his arm is said to have been transferred by Regulus. The ascription to him of the decussate cross is of late origin.

III. Character

There is something significant in Andrew's being the first called of the apostles. The choice was an important one, for upon the lead given by Andrew depended the action of the others. Christ perceived that the soul's unrest, the straining after higher things and a deeper knowledge of God, which had induced Andrew to make the pilgrimage to Bethany, gave promise of a rich spiritual growth, which no doubt influenced Him in His decision. His wisdom and insight were justified of the after event. Along with a keenness of perception regarding spiritual truths was coupled in Andrew a strong sense of personal conviction which enabled him not only to accept Jesus as the Messiah, but to win Peter also as a disciple of Christ. The incident of the Feeding of the Five Thousand displayed Andrew in a fresh aspect: there the practical part which he played formed a striking contrast to the feeble-mindedness of Philip. Both these traits - his missionary spirit, and his decision of character which made others appeal to him when in difficulties - were evinced at the time when the Greeks sought to interview Jesus. Andrew was not one of the greatest of the apostles, yet he is typical of those men of broad sympathies and sound common sense, without whom the success of any great movement cannot be assured.

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [14]

( Ἀνδρέας , Manly ) , one of the twelve apostles. His name is of Greek origin (Athen. 15:675; 7:312), but was in use among the later Jews (Josephus, Ant. 1 2, 2, 2; see Dio Cass. 68, 32; comp. Died. Sic. Excerpta Vat. p. 14, ed. Lips.), as appears from a passage quoted from the Jerusalem Talmud by Lightfoot (Harmony,  Luke 5:10). He was a native of the city of Bethsaida in Galilee ( John 1:44), and brother of Simon Peter ( Matthew 4:18;  Matthew 10:2;  John 1:41). He was at first a disciple of John the Baptist ( John 1:39), and was led to receive Jesus as the Messiah in consequence of John's expressly pointing him out as "the Lamb of God" ( John 1:36), A.D. 26. His first care, after he had satisfied himself as to the validity of the claims of Jesus, was to bring to him his brother Simon. Neither of them, however, became at that time stated attendants on our Lord; for we find that thley were still pursuing their occupation as fishermen on the Sea of Galilee when Jesus, after John's imprisonment, called them to follow him ( Matthew 4:18 sq.;  Mark 1:16-17). A.D. 27. (See Peter).

In two of the lists of the apostles ( Matthew 10:2;  Luke 6:13) he is named in the first pai with Peter, but in  Mark 3:18, in connection with Philip, and in  Acts 1:13, With James. In accompanying Jesus he appears as one of the confidential disciples ( Mark 13:3;  John 6:8;  John 12:22), but he is by no means to be confounded (as by Lutzelberger, Kirchl. Tradit. Iber Joh. p. 199 sq.) with the Beloved Disciple of the fourth Gospel (see Licke, Comm. Lib. Joh. 1, 653 sq.; Maier, Conzm. zu Joh. 1, 43 sq.). Very little is related of Andrew by any of the evangelists: the principal incidents in which his name occurs during the life of Christ are the feeding of the five thousand ( John 6:9), his introducing to our Lord certain Greeks who desired to see him ( John 12:22), and his asking, along with his brother Simon and the two sons of Zebedee, for a further explanation of what our Lord had said in reference to the destruction of the temple ( Mark 13:3). Of his subsequent history and labors we have no authentic record. Tradition assigns Scythia (Eusebius, 3, 71), Greece (Theodoret, 1, 1425; Jerome, Ep. 148 ad Maarc.), and, at a later date, Asia Minor, Thrace (Hippolytus, 2:30), and elsewhere (Niceph. 2:39), as the scenes of his ministry. It is supposed that he founded a church in Constantinople, and ordained Stachys (q.v.), named by Paul ( Romans 16:9), as its first bishop. At length, the tradition states, he came to Patrae, a city of Achaia, where A Egeas, the proconsul, enraged at his persisting to preach, commanded him to join in sacrifices to the heathen gods; and upon the apostle's refusal, he ordered him to be severely scourged and then crucified. To make his death the more lingering, he was fastened to the cross, not with nails, but with cords. Having hung two days, praising God, and exhorting the spectators to the faith, he is said to have expired on the 30th of November, but in what year is uncertain. The cross is stated to have been of the form called Crux decussata (X), and commonly known as "St. Andrew's cross;" but this is doubted by some (see Lepsius, De cruce, 1, 7; Sagittar. De cruciatib. martyr. 8, 12). His relics, it is said, were afterward removed from Patrae to Constantinople. (Comp. generally Fabric. Cod. Apocryph. 1, 456 sq.; Salut. Lux Evang. p. 98 sq.; Menolog. Grecor. 1, 221 sq.; Perionii Vit. Apostol. p. 82 sq.; Andr. de Sassy, Andreas frater Petri, Par. 1646.) (See Apostle).

An apocryphal book, bearing the title of "The Acts of Andrew," is mentioned by Eusebius (3, 25), Epiphanius (Haer. 46, 1; 63:1), and others. It seems never to have been received except by some heretical sects, as the Encratites, Origenians, etc; (Fabric. Cod. Apocryph. 2, 747; Kleuker, Ueb. die Apocr. d. N.T. p. 331 sq.). This book, as well as a "Gospel of St. Andrew," was declared apocryphal by the decree of Pope Gelasius (Jones, On the Canon, 1, 179 sq.). Tischendorf has published the Greek text of a work bearing the title "Acts of Andrew," and also of one entitled "Acts of Andrew and Matthew" (Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha, Lpz. 1841). See Hammerschmid, Andreas descriptus (Prag. 1699); Hanke, De Andrea apostolo (Lips. 1698); Lemmius, Memoria Andreae apostoli (Viteb. 1705); Woog, Presbyterorum et diaconorum Achaice de martyrio S. Andrece epistola (Lips. 1749). (See Spurious Acts); (See Spurious Gospels).

Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [15]

An´drew, one of the twelve apostles. He was a native of the city of Bethsaida in Galilee, and brother of Simon Peter. He was at first a disciple of John the Baptist, and was led to receive Jesus as the Messiah in consequence of John's expressly pointing him out as 'the Lamb of God' ( John 1:36). His first care, after he had satisfied himself as to the validity of the claims of Jesus, was to bring to him his brother Simon. Neither of them, however, became at that time stated attendants on our Lord; for we find that they were still pursuing their occupation of fishermen on the sea of Galilee when Jesus, after John's imprisonment, called them to follow him ( Mark 1:14;  Mark 1:18). Very little is related of Andrew by any of the evangelists: the principal incidents in which his name occurs during the life of Christ are, the feeding of the five thousand ( John 6:8); his introducing to our Lord certain Greeks who desired to see him ( John 12:22); and his asking, along with his brother Simon and the two sons of Zebedee, for a further explanation of what our Lord had said in reference to the destruction of the temple ( Mark 13:3). Of his subsequent history and labors we have no authentic record. Tradition assigns Scythia, Greece, and Thrace as the scenes of his ministry: and he is said to have suffered crucifixion at Patræ in Achaia, on a cross of the form (×), commonly known as 'St. Andrew's cross.'