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Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [1]

1: Ἰησοῦς (Strong'S #2424 — Noun Masculine — iesous — ee-ay-sooce' )

is a transliteration of the Heb. "Joshua," meaning "Jehovah is salvation," i.e., "is the Savior," "a common name among the Jews, e.g.,  Exodus 17:9;  Luke 3:29 (RV);   Colossians 4:11 . It was given to the Son of God in Incarnation as His personal name, in obedience to the command of an angel to Joseph, the husband of His Mother, Mary, shortly before He was born,  Matthew 1:21 . By it He is spoken of throughout the Gospel narratives generally, but not without exception, as in  Mark 16:19,20;  Luke 7:13 , and a dozen other places in that Gospel, and a few in John.

 Matthew 1:1,18 16:21 Mark 1:1 John 1:17 17:3 Acts 8:16 19:5,17 Acts 7:59 Acts 9:17 Acts 16:31 Acts 10:36 Acts 16:18 Revelation 1:9 12:17 14:12 17:6 19:10 Hebrews 13:20 Acts 9:1-6 Acts 24:24 Philippians 2:5 Philippians 2:11

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [2]

This is the Greek form of the Hebrew name Joshua (‘salvation of Jahweh’), as we find it in the Septuagintand NT writings. It is thus applied to-

1. Jesus Christ  ; see articleChrist, Christology.

2. Joshua the son of Nun , who led Israel into Canaan; referred to by Stephen in his speech before the council ( Acts 7:45) and by the writer to the Hebrews ( Hebrews 4:8). See Joshua.

3. Jesus surnamed Justus ( Colossians 4:11), a Christian convert of Jewish descent who was with the Apostle Paul in Rome at the date of his writing the Epistle to the Colossians. He is described, along with Mark and Aristarchus, as a fellow-worker unto the Kingdom of God and as having been a comfort unto the Apostle. This reference singles out the three mentioned as the only members of the ‘circumcision’ who had been helpful to the Apostle in Rome, and reminds us of the constant hatred which the narrower Jewish Christians exhibited towards St. Paul, and also of the failure of many of the Roman Christians to assist and stand by the Apostle during his imprisonment (cf.  Philippians 2:20-21,  2 Timothy 4:10). It has been pointed out that the mention of Jesus in this passage by the Apostle creates difficulties for those who impugn the authenticity of the Epistle and suggest that it is based on Philemon. If Philemon is genuine, why add an unknown name which might arouse suspicion? It is extremely unlikely that an imitator would add a name which so soon became sacred among Christians (cf. A. S. Peake, in Expositor’s Greek Testament , ‘Colossians,’ 1903, p. 546).

W. F. Boyd.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [3]

Jesus , the Gr. form of the name Joshua or Jeshua, is employed as a designation of 1. Joshua the son of Nun (AV [Note: Authorized Version.] of 1Ma 2:55 , 2Es 7:37 , Sir 46:1 ,   Acts 7:45 ,   Hebrews 4:8 , in all of which passages RV [Note: Revised Version.] has Joshua ). 2.   Esther 5:11  Esther 5:11 = Jeshua of   Ezra 2:6 and   Nehemiah 7:11 .   Nehemiah 7:3 . 1Es 5:24 = Jeshua of   Ezra 2:36 and   Nehemiah 7:39 .   Nehemiah 7:4 . Jeshua (Joshua), the high priest ( 1Es 5:5;   Esther 5:8  Esther 5:8; 1Es 5:48; 1Es 5:56; 1Es 5:68; 1Es 5:70; 1Es 6:2;   Esther 9:19  Esther 9:19 , Sir 49:12 ). 5. A Levite ( 1Es 5:26; 1Es 5:58; 1Es 8:63; 1Es 9:48 ) who in   Ezra 2:40;   Ezra 3:9 is called Jeshua. 6. An ancestor of our Lord (  Luke 3:29 RV [Note: Revised Version.] , where AV [Note: Authorized Version.] has Jose ). 7. Jesus, son of Sir 8:1-19 . Jesus called Justus , a Jewish Christian residing in Rome, saluted by St. Paul in   Colossians 4:11 .   Colossians 4:9 . See next article.

Easton's Bible Dictionary [4]

  • The third was the year of opposition, when the public favour ebbed away. His enemies multiplied and assailed him with more and more pertinacity, and at last he fell a victim to their hatred. The first six months of this final year were passed in Galilee, and the last six in other parts of the land.", Stalker's Life of Jesus Christ, p. 45.

    The only reliable sources of information regarding the life of Christ on earth are the Gospels, which present in historical detail the words and the work of Christ in so many different aspects. (See CHIRST .)

    Copyright Statement These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., DD Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain.

    Bibliography Information Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Jesus'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. 1897.

  • Smith's Bible Dictionary [5]

    Je'sus. (Saviour).

    1. The Greek form of the name, Joshua or Jeshua , a contraction of Jehoshua, that is, "Help Of Jehovah" or "Saviour".  Numbers 13:16.

    2. Joshua, the son of Nun.  Numbers 27:18;  Hebrews 4:8. See Jehoshua .

    3. Jesus, called Jestus, a Christian, who was with St. Paul at Rome.  Colossians 4:11. (A.D. 57).

    Fausset's Bible Dictionary [6]

    1. Greek of Joshua, Jeshua, or Jehoshua ("salvation of Jehovah"):  Acts 7:45;  Hebrews 4:8.

    2. Called Justus: with Paul, at Rome, saluted the Colossians ( Colossians 4:11): "of the circumcision, a fellow worker unto the kingdom of God," and so "a comfort" to the apostle.

    Morrish Bible Dictionary [7]

    1. The Greek form of Joshua, it occurs in  Acts 7:45; Heb, 4:8, for Joshua the son of Nun.

    2. Jesus called JUSTUS.A fellow-worker who had been a comfort to Paul while a prisoner at Rome.   Colossians 4:11 .

    Webster's Dictionary [8]

    (n.) The Savior; the name of the Son of God as announced by the angel to his parents; the personal name of Our Lord, in distinction from Christ, his official appellation.

    Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [9]

    See Jerusalem

    Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [10]

    ( Ι᾿Ησοῦς , Gen., Dat., and Voc. Οῦ , Acc. Οῦν ; from the Heb. יֵשׁוִּ , Yeshu ' A, "Jeshua " or "Joshua;" Syr. Yeshu ) , the name of several persons (besides our Savior) in the New Testament, the Apocrypha, and Josephus. For a discussion of the full import and application of the name, (See Jesus Christ).

    1. JOSHUA (See Joshua) (q.v.) the son of Nun ( 2 Esdras 7:37; Ecclesiastes 46:1;  1 Maccabees 2:55;  Acts 7:45;  Hebrews 4:8; so also Josephus, passim).

    2. JOSHUA, or JESHUA (See Jeshua) (q.v.) the priest, the son of Jehozadak ( 1 Esdras 5:5;  1 Esdras 5:8;  1 Esdras 5:24;  1 Esdras 5:48;  1 Esdras 5:56;  1 Esdras 5:68;  1 Esdras 5:70;  1 Esdras 6:2;  1 Esdras 9:19; Ecclesiastes 49:12; so also Josephus, Ant. 11, 3, 10 sq.).

    3. JESHUA (See Jeshua) (q.v.) the Levite ( 1 Esdras 5:58;  1 Esdras 9:48). 4. Jesus, The Son Of Sirach ( Ι᾿Ησοῦς Υἱὸς Σειράχ ; Vulgate Jesus Filius Sirach ) , is described in the text of Ecclesiasticus (1, 27) as the author of that book, which in the Sept., and generally in the Eastern Church, is called by his name the Wisdom Of Jesus, The Son Of Sirach, or simply the Wisdom Of Sirach, but in the Western churches, after the Vulgate, the Book Of Ecclesiasticus. The same passage speaks of him as a native of Jerusalem, and the internal character of the book confirms its Palestinian origin. The name JESUS was of frequent occurrence (see above), and was often represented by the Greek Jason (see Josephus, Ant. 12, 5, 1). In the apocryphal list of the seventy-two commissioners sent by Eleazar to Ptolemy it occurs twice (Aristophanes, Hist. ap. Hody, De Text. p. 7), but there is not the slightest ground for connecting the author of Ecclesiasticus with either of the persons there mentioned. The various conjectures which have been made as to the position of the son of Sirach from the contents of his book as, for instance, that he was a priest (from 7, 29 sq.; 45; 49, 1), or a physician (from 38, 1 sq.) are equally unfounded. The evidences of a date B.C. cir. 310-270, are as follows: 1. In ch. 44, 1-1,21. the praises of the ancient worthies are extolled down to the time of Simon, who is doubtless Simon I, or "the Just" (B.C. 370-300). 2. The Talmud most distinctly describes the work of Ben-Sira as the oldest of the apocryphal books (comp. Tosefoth Idaim, ch. 2). 3. It had a general currency, and was quoted at least as early as the 2d century B.C. (comp. Aboth, 1, 5; Jerusalem Nazier, 5, 3), which shows that it must have existed a considerable period to have obtained such circulation and respect; and, 4. In the description of these great men, and throughout the whole of the book, there is not the slightest trace of those Hagadic legends about the national worthies which were so rife and numerous in the second century before Christ. On the other hand, the mention of the "38th year of king Euergetes" (translator's prologue) argues a later date. (See Ecclesiacticus).

    Among the later Jews the "Son of Sirach" was celebrated under the name of Ben-Sira as a writer of proverbs, and some of those which have been preserved offer a close resemblance to passages in Ecclesiasticus; but in the course of time a later compilation was substituted for the original work of Ben-Sira (Zunz).

    According to the first prologue to the book of Ecclesiasticus, taken from the Synopsis of the Pseudo-Athanasius (4, 377, ed. Migne), the translator of the book bore the same name as the author of it. If this conjecture were true, a genealogy of the following form would result: 1. Sirach 2. Jesus, son (father) of Sirach (author of the book). 3. Sirach 4. Jesus, son of Sirach (translator of the book). It is, however, most likely that the last chapter, "The prayer of Jesus, the Son of Sirach," gave occasion to this conjecture. The prayer was attributed to the translator, and then the table of succession followed necessarily from the title attached to it.

    As to the history and personal character of Ben-Sira, this must be gathered from his book, as it is the only source of information which we possess upon the subject. Like all his coreligionists, he was trained from his early life to fear and love the God of his fathers. He traveled much both by land and sea when he grew up, and was in frequent perils ( Sirach 34:11-12). Being a diligent student, and having acquired much practical knowledge from his extensive travels, he was intrusted with some office at court, and his enemies, who were jealous of him, maligned him before the king, which nearly cost him his life ( Sirach 51:6-7). To us, however, his religious life and sentiments are of the utmost importance, inasmuch as they describe the opinions of the Jews during the period elapsing between the O.T. and N. Test. Though deeply penetrated with the fear of God, which he declared was the only glory of man, rich, noble, or poor ( Sirach 10:22-24), still the whole of Ben-Sira's tenets may be described as limited, and are as follows: Resignation to the dealings of Providence ( Sirach 11:21-25); to seek truth at the cost of life (4, 28); not to use much babbling in prayer (7, 14); absolute obedience to parents, which in the sight of God atones for sins ( Sirach 3:1-16;  Sirach 7:27-28); humility ( Sirach 3:17-19;  Sirach 10:7-18;  Sirach 10:28); kindness to domestics ( Sirach 4:30;  Sirach 7:20-21;  Sirach 33:30-31); to relieve the poor ( Sirach 4:1-9); to act as a father to the fatherless, and a husband to the widow ( Sirach 4:10); to visit the sick ( Sirach 7:35); to weep with them that weep ( Sirach 7:34); not to rejoice over the death of even the greatest enemy ( Sirach 7:7), and to forgive sins as we would be forgiven ( Sirach 28:2-3). He has nothing in the whole of his book about the immortality of the soul, a future judgment, the existence of spirits, or the expectation of a Messiah. (See Sirach).

    5. (See Barabbas).

    6. (Col. 4, 11). (See Justus). JESUS is also the name of several persons mentioned by Josephus, especially in the pontifical ranks. (See High Priest).

    1. A high priest displaced by Antiochus Epiphanes to make room for Onias (Ant. 12, 5, 1; 15, 3, 1). 2. The son of Phabet, deprived by Herod of the high priesthood in order to make way for his own father-in-law Simon ( Ant. 15, 9,4).

    3. Son of Sie, successor of Eleazar ( Ant. 17, 13, 1).

    4. The son of Damnaeus, made high priest by Agrippa in place of Ananus (Ant. 20, 9, 1).

    5. The son of Gamaliel, and successor of the preceding in the high priesthood (Ant . 20, 9, 4; compare War , 4, 4,3).

    6. Son of Ananus, a plebeian, and the utterer of the remarkable doom against Jerusalem, which was fulfilled during the last siege simultaneously with his own death ( War, 6, 5, 3).

    7. A priest, son of Thebuthus, who surrendered to Titus the sacred utensils of the Temple ( War, 6, 8, 3).

    8. Son of Sepphias, one of the chief priests and governor of Tiberias (War, 2, 20, 4).

    9. Son of Saphat, a ringleader of the Sicarii during the last war with the Romans (War, 3, 9, 7).

    International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [11]

    jē´zus ( Ἰησοῦς , Iēsoús , for יהושׁע , yehōshua‛ ):

    (1) Joshua, son of Nun (the King James Version  Acts 7:45;  Hebrews 4:8; compare 1 Macc 2:55; 2 Esdras 7:37).

    (2) (3) High priest and Levite. See Jeshua , 2,5.

    (4) Son of Sirach. See Sirach .

    (5) An ancestor of Jesus ( Luke 3:29 , the King James Version "Jose").

    (6) (7) See the next three articles.

    Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [12]

    Jesus, surnamed Justus [JUSTUS].