From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [1]

A — 1: Διδάσκαλος (Strong'S #1320 — Noun Masculine — didaskalos — did-as'-kal-os )

"a teacher" (from didasko, "to teach"), is frequently rendered "Master" in the four Gospels, as a title of address to Christ, e.g.,  Matthew 8:19;  Mark 4:38 (there are more instances in Luke than in the other Gospels);   John 1:38 , where it interprets "Rabbi;"  John 20:16 , where it interprets "Rabboni." It is used by Christ of Himself in  Matthew 23:8 (see No. 6) and   John 13:13-14; by others concerning Him,  Matthew 17:24;  26:18;  Mark 5:35;  14:14;  Luke 8:49;  22:11;  John 11:28 . In  John 3:10 , the Lord uses it in addressing Nicodemus, RV, "the teacher" (AV, "a master"), where the article does not specify a particular "teacher," but designates the member of a class; for the class see  Luke 2:46 , "the doctors" (RV, marg., "teachers"). It is used of the relation of a disciple to his "master," in  Matthew 10:24,25;  Luke 6:40 . It is not translated "masters" in the rest of the NT, save in the AV of  James 3:1 "(be not many) masters," where obviously the RV "teachers" is the meaning. See Teacher.

A — 2: Κύριος (Strong'S #2962 — Noun Masculine — kurios — koo'-ree-os )

"a lord, one who exercises power," is translated "masters" in  Matthew 6:24;  15:27;  Mark 13:35;  Luke 16:13;  Acts 16:16,19;  Romans 14:4 , AV (RV, "Lord");  Ephesians 6:5,9 (twice), the 2nd time of Christ; so in   Colossians 3:22;  4:1 . See Lord.

A — 3: Δεσπότης (Strong'S #1203 — Noun Masculine — despotes — des-pot'-ace )

one who has "absolute ownership and uncontrolled power," is translated "masters" in  1—Timothy 6:1,2;  Titus 2:9;  1—Peter 2:18; of Christ,  2—Timothy 2:21;  2—Peter 2:1 , RV (for AV, "Lord"); in  Jude 1:4 , RV, it is applied to Christ "(our only) Master (and Lord, Jesus Christ)," AV "(the only) Lord (God);" in  Revelation 6:10 , RV, in an address to God, "O Master" (Av, "O Lord"). It is rendered "Lord" in  Luke 2:29;  Acts 4:24 . See Lord.


A — 4: Ῥαββί (Strong'S #4461 — Noun Masculine — rabbei — hrab-bee' )

was an Aramaic word signifying "my master," a title of respectful address to Jewish teachers.

 Matthew 26:25  Matthew 26:22 Mark 9:5 Matthew 17:4 Matthew 26:25,49 Mark 9:5 11:21 14:45 John 4:31 9:2 11:8 Matthew 23:7-8 John 1:38,49 3:2,26 6:25 Mark 10:51 John 20:16

A — 5: Ἐπιστάτης (Strong'S #1988 — Noun Masculine — epistates — ep-is-tat'-ace )

denotes "a chief, a commander, overseer master." It is used by the disciples in addressing the Lord, in recognition of His authority rather than His instruction (Nos. 1 and 6); it occurs only in  Luke 5:5;  8:24,45;  9:33,49;  17:13 . In the Sept.,  2—Kings 25:19;  2—Chronicles 31:12;  Jeremiah 36:26;  52:25 .

 Matthew 23:8 Mark 10:17,18

A — 6: Καθηγητής (Strong'S #2519 — Noun Masculine — kathegetes — kath-ayg-ay-tace' )

properly "a guide" (akin to kathegeomai, "to go before, guide;" kata, "down," hegeomai, "to guide"), denotes "a master, a teacher,"  Matthew 23:10 (twice); some mss. have it in   Matthew 23:8 , where the most authentic have No. 1.

A — 7: Κυβερνήτης (Strong'S #2942 — Noun Masculine — kubernetes — koo-ber-nay'-tace )

"the pilot or steersman of a ship," or, metaphorically, "a guide or governor" (akin to kubernao, "to guide:" Eng., "govern" is connected; cp. kubernesis, "a steering, pilotage,"  1—Corinthians 12:28 , "governments"), is translated "master" in  Acts 27:11; "shipmaster" in  Revelation 18:17 . In the Sept.,  Proverbs 23:34;  Ezekiel 27:8,27-28 .

B — 1: Κατακυριεύω (Strong'S #2634 — Verb — katakurieuo — kat-ak-oo-ree-yoo'-o )

"to exercise lordship" (kata, "down upon," kurios, "a lord"), is translated "mastered" in  Acts 19:16 , RV, of the action of the evil spirit on the sons of Sceva (AV, "overcame"). In translating the word amphoteron by its primary meaning, "both," the RV describes the incident as referring to two only. It has been shown, however, that in the period of the Koine (see Foreword) amphoteroi, "both," was no longer restricted to two persons. Ramsay ascribes the abruptness of the word here to the vivid narrative of an eye witness. See Dominion , Lord , Lordship.

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [2]

In the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse three words (κυβερνήτης, δεσπότης, κύριος) are translated ‘master’ in the Revised Version. The Authorized Versionhas ‘masters’ for διδάσκαλοι in  James 3:1, the etymological meaning of magistri (so the Rhem.[Note: Rhemish New Testament.]in  Hebrews 5:12). The Revised Versionuses ‘teacher’ uniformly.

1 . In  Acts 27:11 the Revised Versionhas ‘the master’ for ὁ κυβερνήτης (from κυβερνᾶν, Lat. gubernare , ‘govern’), ‘governor.’ So also  Revelation 18:17. The notion is that of steersman (cf.  Ezekiel 27:8;  Ezekiel 27:27 f.).

2 . The term δεσπότης is strictly the antithesis of δοῦλος, and signifies ‘absolute ownership and uncontrolled power’ (Thayer Grimm’s Gr.-Eng. Lexicon of the NT). So we have it in  1 Timothy 6:1 f., a pertinent warning to the Christian δοῦλοι not to presume on the new fellowship in Christ with their δεσπόται, but to give them all the more honour and service. Christianity should make better δοῦλοι (cf. also  Titus 2:9). In  1 Peter 2:18 δεσπότης is in contrast with οἰκέτης; so in  2 Timothy 2:21 it is ἡ οἰκία τοῦ δεσπότου. In  2 Peter 2:1 Christ is called δεσπότης as One Who has purchased His servants. So also  Judges 1:4 and possibly  Revelation 6:10, though the latter may refer to God as in the Septuagint(cf.  Genesis 15:2;  Genesis 15:8 etc.) and  Acts 4:24.

3 . The other term, κύριος, has a wider meaning and is applicable to various relations and ranks of life, and does not necessarily suggest absolutism. The word is originally an adjective from κῦρος, meaning ‘valid,’ ‘authoritative’ (ὁ ἔχων κῦρος), and so the ‘master’ or ‘owner.’ It is applied to the ‘masters’ who exploited the poor girl for gain in  Acts 16:16;  Acts 16:19. It stands in opposition to δοῦλοι, as in  Ephesians 6:5;  Ephesians 6:9,  Colossians 4:1-2. In  Acts 16:30 the jailer uses κύριοι merely as a term of respect to St. Paul and Silas. In  Acts 9:5 ( Acts 22:8) St. Paul uses it in asking Jesus who He is, ‘Who art thou, Lord?’ It is not certain that St. Paul here meant more than respect. It is applied to God as the Ruler of the universe. κύριος used for God is translated ‘Lord’ ( q.v. [Note: .v. quod vide, which see.]) (cf.  Acts 17:24,  1 Timothy 6:15,  Revelation 4:8, etc.). With St. Paul, it may be noted, κύριος usually refers to Christ (cf.  Romans 1:4,  Galatians 6:18) except in the OT quotations (cf.  Romans 4:8;  Romans 9:28 f.; but note  1 Corinthians 3:5). The use of κύριος for Nero makes ‘a polemical parallelism between the cult of Christ and the cult of Caesar’ (Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East , Eng. translation, 1911, p. 353).

A. T. Robertson.

King James Dictionary [3]

M`ASTER, n. L. magister, compounded of the root of magis, major, greater.

1. A man who rules, governs or directs either men or business. A man who owns slaves is their master he who has servants is their master he who has apprentices is their master, as he has the government and direction of them. The man who superintends and directs any business, is master, or master workman.

O thou my friend, my genius, come along,

Thou master of the poet and the song.

Nations that want protectors, will have masters.

2. A director, head, or chief manager as the master of a feast. 3. The owner proprietor with the idea of governing. The master of a house may be the owner, or the occupant, who has a temporary right of governing it.

It would be believed that he rather took the horse for his subject, than his master.

4. A lord a ruler one who has supreme dominion.

Caesar, the world's great master and his own.

5. A chief a principal as the master root of a plant.

One master passion swallows up the rest.

6. One who has possession, and the power of controlling or using at pleasure.

When I have made myself master of a hundred thousand drachmas--

7. The commander of a merchant ship. 8. In ships of war, an officer who takes rank immediately after the lieutenants,and navigates the ship under the direction of the captain. 9. The director of a school a teacher an instructor.

In this sense the word is giving place to the more appropriate words teacher, instructor and preceptor at least it is so in the United States.

10. One uncontrolled.

Let every man be master of his time.

11. An appellation of respect.

Master doctor, you have brought those drugs.

12. An appellation given to young men.

Where there are little masters and misses in a house--

13. A man eminently or perfectly skilled in any occupation, art or science. We say, a man is master of his business a great master of music, of the flute or violin a master of his subject, &c. 14. A title of dignity in colleges and universities as Master of Arts. 15. The chief of a society as the Grand Master of Malta, of free-masons, &c. 16. The director of ceremonies at public places, or on public occasions. 17. The president of a college.

Master in chancery, an assistant of the lord chancellor, chosen from among the barristers to sit in chancery, or at the rolls.

To be master of one's self, to have the command or control of one's own passions.

The word master has numerous applications, in all of which it has the sense of director, chief or superintendent.

As a title of respect given to adult persons, it is pronounced mister a pronunciation which seems to have been derived from some of the northern dialects. supra.

M`ASTER, To conquer to overpower to subdue to bring under control.

Obstinacy and willful neglect must be mastered, even though it costs blows.

Evil customs must be mastered by degrees.

1. To execute with skill.

I will not offer that which I cannot master.

2. To rule to govern.

--And rather father thee than master thee. Not used.

M`ASTER, To be skillful to excel.

Webster's Dictionary [4]

(1): ( v. t.) To own; to posses.

(2): ( v. i.) To be skillful; to excel.

(3): ( v. t.) To gain the command of, so as to understand or apply; to become an adept in; as, to master a science.

(4): ( n.) The commander of a merchant vessel; - usually called captain. Also, a commissioned officer in the navy ranking next above ensign and below lieutenant; formerly, an officer on a man-of-war who had immediate charge, under the commander, of sailing the vessel.

(5): ( n.) A young gentleman; a lad, or small boy.

(6): ( n.) One who has attained great skill in the use or application of anything; as, a master of oratorical art.

(7): ( n.) One who uses, or controls at will, anything inanimate; as, to be master of one's time.

(8): ( n.) A male person having another living being so far subject to his will, that he can, in the main, control his or its actions; - formerly used with much more extensive application than now. (a) The employer of a servant. (b) The owner of a slave. (c) The person to whom an apprentice is articled. (d) A sovereign, prince, or feudal noble; a chief, or one exercising similar authority. (e) The head of a household. (f) The male head of a school or college. (g) A male teacher. (h) The director of a number of persons performing a ceremony or sharing a feast. (i) The owner of a docile brute, - especially a dog or horse. (j) The controller of a familiar spirit or other supernatural being.

(9): ( n.) A vessel having (so many) masts; - used only in compounds; as, a two-master.

(10): ( n.) A person holding an office of authority among the Freemasons, esp. the presiding officer; also, a person holding a similar office in other civic societies.

(11): ( n.) A title given by courtesy, now commonly pronounced mister, except when given to boys; - sometimes written Mister, but usually abbreviated to Mr.

(12): ( v. t.) To become the master of; to subject to one's will, control, or authority; to conquer; to overpower; to subdue.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [5]

1. In the O.T. there are five words so translated, but only one that occurs frequently, adon, which is often rendered 'Lord,' and signifies 'master' either as owner or ruler. In the N.T. there is κύριος,often translated 'Lord:' this is rendered 'master' in reference to God in  Ephesians 6:9;  Colossians 4:1; and is often used as between master and servants.

2. διδάσκαλος, 'teacher.' This is often translated 'master' in the gospels in application to the Lord.  Matthew 8:19;  Mark 4:38;  Luke 3:12;  John 1:38 , etc. It is the same word in  James 3:1 , "Be not many teachers."

3. δεσπότης, master in the sense of 'owner,' as of slaves.  1 Timothy 6:1,2;  2 Timothy 2:21;  Titus 2:9;  1 Peter 2:18 .

4. ἐπιστάτης, 'superintendent, overseer.'  Luke 5:5;  Luke 8:24,45;  Luke 9:33,49;  Luke 17:13 .

5. καθηγητής, 'leader.'  Matthew 23:8,10 .

6. ῥαββί, 'Rabbi,' a Jewish title.  Matthew 26:25,49;  Mark 9:5;  Mark 11:21;  Mark 14:45;  John 4:31 ,  John 9:2;  John 11:8 .

7. κυβερνήτης, 'ship-master.'  Acts 27:11;  Revelation 18:17 .

Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [6]

We use this term upon various occasions, and it is very commonly received among men, such as servants to their employers, children to their teachers, and the like; but strictly and properly speaking, it belongs to none but to the Lord Jesus Christ. So Christ himself enjoined: "Call no man your master, for one is your master, even Christ." ( Matthew 23:10) There is certainly a somewhat of great softness in the expression in relation to Christ. We should not give this title to the person of God the Father, or God the Holy Ghost; it seems too familiar. But eyeing Jesus in our own nature, the heart feels a nearness of affection, and the terms then of master, honoured Lord, seem expressive both of duty and love. Every thing in Jesus, and every office in Jesus, makes this title pleasant. You call me master, and Lord, (saith that gracious Redeemer to his disciples when upon earth) "and you say well, for so I am." ( John 13:13) I know not whether I shall offend, but I cannot forbear making a quotation from the writings of an eminently devout man of the sixteenth century upon the subject: I mean, George Herbert, who seemeth to have hung upon the name of Jesus his master, as the bee hangs upon the flower.

How sweetly doth my master sound, my master!

As ambergris leaves, a rich scent.

Unto the taster—

So doth these words a sweet content,

An oriental fragrancy—my master!

My master! shall I speak? O that to thee

My servant were a little so,

As flesh might be,

That these two words might creep and grow

To some degree of spiciness to thee!

For when my master, which alone is sweet,

And ev'n my unworthiness pleasing,

Shall call and meet

My servant, as thee not displeasing,

That call is but the breathing of the sweet.

This breathing would with gains, by sweet'ning me,

(As sweet things traffic when they meet)

Return to thee:

And so this new commerce, and sweet,

Should all my life employ and busy me.

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary [7]

Throughout the countries of the region of the Bible story, many households were very large and included slaves and hired workers. The head of the household was commonly referred to as the master, and he exercised considerable authority ( Genesis 14:14;  Genesis 24:2;  Genesis 24:9;  1 Samuel 25:14;  1 Samuel 25:17).

In recognition of the dangers that accompanied such authority, Israelite law laid down that a master did not have the right to treat his servants as he wished. He had to recognize their rights, and be fair and honest in all his dealings with them ( Exodus 21:8-11;  Exodus 21:20;  Exodus 21:26-27; see Slave ).

The New Testament further emphasizes the responsibility of masters towards their servants. Christian masters in particular are to be careful the way they treat their servants, because they themselves are answerable to a master, Jesus the Lord ( Ephesians 6:9;  Colossians 4:1; see WORK).

All Christians are servants of this divine Master and must give him their total allegiance ( Matthew 6:24; see Jesus Christ sub-heading ‘Jesus as Lord’). One day their Master will assess their faithfulness in service and reward them accordingly ( Matthew 25:14-30;  Mark 13:33-37;  Romans 14:4;  1 Corinthians 4:1-5; see also Steward ).

Charles Buck Theological Dictionary [8]

A person who has servants under him; a ruler, or instructor. The duties of masters relate to the civil concerns of the family. To arrange the several businesses required of servants; to give particular instructions for what is to be done, and how it is to be done; to take care that no more is required of servants than they are equal to; to be gentle in our deportment towards them; to reprove them when they do wrong, to commend them when they do right; to make them an adequate recompense for their services, as to protection, maintenance, wages and character.

2. As to the morals of servants. Masters must look well to their servants's characters before they hire them; instruct them in the habits of virtue; watch over their morals, and set them good examples.

3. As to their religious interests. They should instruct them in the knowledge of divine things,  Genesis 14:14 .  Genesis 18:19 . Pray with them and for them,  Joshua 24:15 . Allow them time and leisure for religious services, &c.  Ephesians 6:9 .

See Stennett on Domestic Duties, ser. 8; Paley's Moral Phil. vol. 1: 233, 235; Beattie's Elements of Moral Science, vol. 1: 150, 153; Doddridge's Lec. vol. 2: 266.

Holman Bible Dictionary [9]

 Mark 13:35 Luke 13:25 Luke 14:21 Luke 16:13 Ephesians 6:9 2 Matthew 8:19 Matthew 9:11 Matthew 23:8 23:10 Matthew 26:25 Mark 9:5 John 4:31 epistates   Luke 5:5 Luke 8:24 8:45 Luke 9:33 9:49 Luke 17:13

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [10]

MASTER. The Greek word for teacher is tr. [Note: translate or translation.] ‘master’ in   Malachi 1:10  Malachi 1:10 ,   James 3:1 , and in all its occurrences in the Gospels except   Luke 2:46 , where it is ‘doctor,’ and   John 3:2 ‘teacher.’ See Lord and Slave.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [11]

mas´ter ( ארון , 'ādhōn , בּעל , ba‛al , רבּי , rabbı̄  ; δεσπότης , despótēs , διδάσκαλος , didáskalos , κύριος , kúrios , ῥαββί , rhabbı́ ): "Master," when the translation of 'ādhōn , "ruler," "lord" (Sir), often translated "lord," denotes generally the owner or master of a servant or slave (  Genesis 24:9 , etc.;  Genesis 39:2 , etc.;  Exodus 21:4 , etc.;  Deuteronomy 23:15 bis  ;  2 Samuel 9:9 ,  2 Samuel 9:10 twice;   Proverbs 30:10 ); elsewhere it is rather "lord" or "ruler" (often king, e.g.  1 Samuel 24:6 ,  1 Samuel 24:8;  1 Samuel 26:16 ); in the plural 'ădhonı̄m , it is, as the rule, used only of God (but see  Genesis 19:2 ,  Genesis 19:18;  Deuteronomy 10:17;  Psalm 136:3 , "Lord of lords ";  Isaiah 26:13 , "other lords";  Isaiah 19:4 (Hebrew "lords");   Isaiah 24:2 ). Ba‛al , "lord," "owner," is translated "master": "the master of the house" ( Exodus 22:8;  Judges 19:22 ,  Judges 19:23 ); "the ass his master's crib" ( Isaiah 1:3 ). We have it also translated "masters of assemblies" ( Ecclesiastes 12:11 ). See Assemblies , Masters Of . Compare Ecclesiasticus 32:1, "master (of a feast)," the Revised Version (British and American) "ruler";  John 2:9 , "ruler of the feast"; rabh ( Daniel 1:3;  Jonah 1:6 , "ship master "); rabh , Aramaic, "great," "mighty," "elder" ( Daniel 4:9;  Daniel 5:11 ," master of the magicians"); also sar , "head" or "chief" ( Exodus 1:11 , "task masters ";  1 Chronicles 15:27 , "master of the song," the Revised Version margin " the carrying of the ark, Hebrew the lifting up"); ‛ūr , "to call," "to awake," is also rendered "master" in the King James Version, "The Lord will cut off the man that doeth this, the master and the scholar," margin "him that waketh and him that answereth," the Revised Version (British and American) as the King James Version margin ( Malachi 2:12 ).

The verb "to master" does not occur in the Old Testament, but we have in Apocrypha (The Wisdom of  Song of Solomon 12:18 ) "mastering thy power" ( despózōn ischúos ), the Revised Version (British and American) "being sovereign over (thy) strengh."

In the New Testament despotēs answers to 'ādhōn as "master" (  1 Timothy 6:1 ,  1 Timothy 6:2;  2 Timothy 2:21 ), rendered also "Lord" ( Luke 2:29 ,etc.); kurios , is "Master," "Lord," "Sir," used very frequently of God or of Christ ( Matthew 1:20 ,  Matthew 1:22 ,  Matthew 1:24 ), translated "Master" ( Matthew 6:24;  Matthew 15:27; the King James Version  Mark 13:35;  Romans 14:4 , etc.); kathēgētḗs , a "leader," is translated "Master" ( Matthew 23:8 (the King James Version), 10); didaskalos , a title very often applied to our Lord in the Gospels, is "Teacher," translated "Master" in the King James Version  Matthew 8:19;  Matthew 9:11;  Mark 4:38;  Luke 3:12 , etc.; the Revised Version (British and American) "Teacher"; also  John 3:2 ,  John 3:10;  James 3:1 , "be not many masters," the Revised Version (British and American) "teachers"; rhabbi , rhabbei ("Rabbi") (a transliterated Hebrew term signifying "my Teacher") is also in several instances applied to Jesus, the King James Version "Master" ( Matthew 26:25 ,  Matthew 26:49;  Mark 9:5;  Mark 11:21;  John 9:2 (the Revised Version (British and American) leaves untranslated)   Mark 10:51 , "Rabboni," the King James Version "Lord";  John 20:16 ("Rabbouni"), the Revised Version (British and American) "Rabboni," which see).

For "master" the Revised Version (British and American) has "lord" ( 1 Samuel 26:16;  1 Samuel 29:4 ,  1 Samuel 29:10;  Amos 4:1;  Mark 13:35;  Romans 14:4 ); "master" for "lord" ( Genesis 39:16;  2 Peter 2:1;  Revelation 6:10 ); for "good man of the house" ( Matthew 24:43;  Luke 12:39 ), "master of the house"; in  Ephesians 6:5 , the Revised Version margin gives "Gr lords" (in  Ephesians 6:9 , "their Master and yours" is also Greek kurios ); instead of "the only Lord God and our Lord Jesus Christ" ( Judges 1:4 ), the Revised Version (British and American) reads "our only Master and Lord, Jesus Christ," margin "the only Master, and our Lord Jesus Christ"; for "overcame them" ( Acts 19:16 ), "mastered both of them."

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [12]

is the rendering in the A.V. of the following Heb. and Greek words: אָדוֹן , Adon', Κύριος , properly Lord, as usually rendered; בִּעִל , Baual, an Owner hence master in the prevalent sense, Δεσπότης ; also רִב , Rsab, great or chief, usually in combination; שִׂר ; Sar, prince or captain, Ἐπιστάτης ; finally Διδάκαλος , Teacher. On masters of assemblies" ( Ecclesiastes 12:11), (See Assembly). For master of the feast, (See Architriclinus).