From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [1]

In the Authorized Versionthe word ‘lord’ generally represents the Greek κύριος, with the exception of  Acts 4:24,  2 Peter 2:1,  Judges 1:4, and  Revelation 6:10, where it stands for δεσπότης. In the last three passages the Revised Versionrenders ‘master.’ On the other hand, there are cases where κύριος is rendered ‘master’ both in the Authorized Versionand the Revised Version- e.g.  Acts 16:16;  Acts 16:19,  Ephesians 6:5;  Ephesians 6:9. As a common noun the word ‘lord’ is not of very frequent occurrence. It is used of the Roman Emperor ( Acts 25:26); of a husband ( 1 Peter 3:6); of the heir of a property ( Galatians 4:1); and of the angelic powers ( 1 Corinthians 8:5). But usually it is applied either to God or to Christ, and comes to be used almost as a proper name.

1. The name applied to God .-In the Septuagintκύριος is employed consistently to represent אַדֹנָי, which the Jews substituted in reading for the name יהוה, and hence it became the general designation of God. We meet with it frequently in the NT in this application, sometimes expanded into the title κύριος ὁ θεός, or even κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ παντοκράτωρ ( Revelation 4:8;  Revelation 11:17, etc.). God is addressed as κύριος in prayer ( Acts 1:24). The title is used predicatively of Him in  Acts 17:24 (‘Lord of heaven and earth’). In such phrases as ‘even as the Lord gave’ ( 1 Corinthians 3:5), ‘if the Lord will’ ( 1 Corinthians 4:19; cf.  Romans 1:10;  Romans 15:32), ‘chastened of the Lord’ ( 1 Corinthians 11:32), the reference is probably to God rather than to Christ. Naturally it is God who is referred to where the term occurs in quotations from the OT, as  Acts 3:22,  Romans 4:8;  Romans 9:28 f.,  2 Corinthians 6:17 f.; though, as we shall see, there are occasions where such quotations are interpreted as referring directly to Christ. The reference is likewise to God in various phrases which recall OT associations, such as ‘the Spirit of the Lord’ ( Acts 5:9), ‘the fear of the Lord’ ( Acts 9:31), ‘the hand of the Lord’ ( Acts 11:21). In Rev., with one or two exceptions, the title refers to God- e.g.  Acts 4:8;  Acts 4:11,  Acts 11:15;  Acts 11:17,  Acts 19:1 -though on occasions Christ, in contrast to the kings of the earth, is called ‘King of kings and Lord of lords’ ( Acts 17:14,  Acts 19:16). St. Peter, St. James, and Hebrews seem to use the term indifferently for God or Christ. In the Pauline Epistles the term usually designates Christ, but there are occasional exceptions, and we must determine from the context whether God or Christ is to be understood. Thus, e.g. , in the phrase ‘the word of the Lord,’ i.e. the gospel ( 1 Thessalonians 1:6), we should certainly expect ‘the Lord’ to refer to Christ, yet the phrase recurs in the following chapter in the form ‘the word of God’ ( 1 Thessalonians 2:13). So ‘the Lord of peace’ ( 2 Thessalonians 3:16) corresponds to ‘the very God of peace’ ( 1 Thessalonians 5:23); and  1 Corinthians 3:5, where some take κύριος to apply to Christ, is proved by  1 Corinthians 3:9 to refer to God. But indeed it is difficult to say with certainty in many cases who is intended, and sometimes St. Paul ascribes the same function now to God and now to Christ ( e.g.  1 Corinthians 7:17 compared with  2 Corinthians 10:13). Some ( e.g. Cremer and Godet) would lay down the rule that in the NT κύριος is to be understood as referring to God only in the OT quotations and references (so also Lietzmann, so far as St. Paul is concerned); but it is evident from some of the cases already quoted that such a canon cannot be consistently observed.

2. The name applied to Christ .-For the most part, however, the term is employed in the NT to designate Christ.

(1) The subjection of the believer to Christ .-The simplest instance of the use of the word ‘Lord’ for Christ is in the Gospels, where it describes the relationship of Jesus to the disciples. In this sense it occurs in  Acts 1:6 as a form of address of the Master, and in the phrase frequently recurring throughout the book-‘the Lord Jesus,’ e.g.  Acts 1:21,  Acts 4:33,  Acts 8:16. But such employment of the term is innocent of the doctrinal implication that attaches to it as generally employed in the NT. We meet with it in various forms-sometimes simply κύριος or ὁ κύριος, sometimes ὁ κύριος ἡμῶν, usually with the addition of Ἰησοῦς or Ἰησοῦς Χριστός. What is suggested by this title as assigned to Christ? The simplest answer is that it calls up the relation of king and subject, conceived in the Oriental spirit as that of lord and slave (cf.  2 Kings 17:32;  2 Kings 24:3 [Septuagint]), as typical of that which obtains between Christ and the believer. St. Paul frequently calls himself δοῦλος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ( Romans 1:1,  Galatians 1:10, etc.); on one occasion he uses that term as a worthy designation of a faithful disciple ( Colossians 4:12), and reminds believers that such slavery is the condition into which they have surrendered themselves ( 1 Corinthians 7:22).

(2) The majesty of Christ .-The title κύριος as applied to Christ suggests something more than the relation of subjection in which the believer stands to Him. It is deliberately selected to assign a certain lofty dignity to Christ. It was the custom in the East to call gods by the title ‘Lord’ (Deissmann, Licht vom Osten , 253ff.), and, as we have seen, the practice of the Septuaginthad made this term the familiar one to the Jew for his God Jahweh. The title was deliberately transferred to Christ by the early Christians to signify that they worshipped Him as a Divine Being. In  1 Corinthians 8:5 f. St. Paul defines the Christian attitude to Christ by contrasting it with that of the worshippers of false gods. They worship many so-called gods and lords, but the Christian has but the ‘one God, the Father, of whom are all things and we unto him, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and we through him.’ Here St. Paul places Christ alongside of God as entitled to Divine honour. How such a position is compatible with the strict monotheism of the ‘one God, the Father,’ he does not discuss. It may be, as Johannes Weiss ( Christus , p. 26) suggests, that he selected the title ‘Lord’ for Christ here as predicating a dignity one rank lower than that of Supreme God, and so leaving room for that relation of subordination which the Apostle elsewhere assigns to Him ( 2 Corinthians 1:3,  Ephesians 1:17). It was in virtue of the Resurrection that the Church came to invest Jesus with such unique dignity. This is the standpoint of Peter in  Acts 2:32-36. Jesus of Nazareth, ‘a man approved of God’ (v. 22), has by the Resurrection and Exaltation been made by God ‘both Lord and Christ.’ So in  Romans 1:4 St. Paul says that Jesus has been constituted (ὁρισθέντος) God’s Son in power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection of the dead (cf. also  Ephesians 1:20 ff.). And the well-known passage  Philippians 2:9-11 accounts for Jesus’ investment with the title ‘Lord’ along the same lines. After the humiliation of the Cross ‘God highly exalted him, and gave unto him the name which is above every name; that in the name of Jesus [ i.e. whenever the name is invoked in prayer by oneself or sounded in one’s ears by others (W. Heitmüller, Im Namen Jesu , 1903, p. 66f.)] every knee should bow, of things in heaven and things on earth and things under the earth, and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.’ There is difference of opinion as to whether ‘the name which is above every name’ is the title ‘Lord.’ In view of the confession of Lordship to which the passage leads up, it seems natural to adopt this interpretation. By exalting Jesus, God has raised Him to supreme honour. He has bestowed on Him that name which He had hitherto borne Himself. The passage becomes pregnant with meaning when taken (as Weiss suggests [ op. cit. p. 27]) in connexion with the Septuagintof  Isaiah 42:8 : ἐγὼ κύριος ὁ θεός, τοῦτό μού ἐστι τὸ ὄνομα, τὴν δόξαν μου ἑτέρῳ οὐ δώσω. But this name and this glory God has given to another. He has invested Jesus with the Divine name; He has given Him supreme sovereignty. All beings in heaven and earth must bow the knee before Him. He virtually takes the place of God, the monotheistic position being safeguarded in that concluding phrase, ‘to the glory of God the Father.’

The whole of the NT goes to corroborate the lofty estimate of the dignity of Christ suggested by this title. As Lord He comes in the mind of the Church to take His position alongside of God, to éxercise such functions as had been attributed to God, and to receive such reverence as had been accorded to God alone-according to an interpretation of  Romans 9:5 which is linguistically unexceptionable, He is even called θεός (cf. also  2 Peter 1:1). Prayer is addressed to Him ( Acts 7:60,  Romans 10:12,  1 Corinthians 1:2,  2 Corinthians 12:8). He is expected to judge the world ( 2 Corinthians 5:10 f.,  2 Timothy 4:1;  2 Timothy 4:8), and is endowed with Divine omniscience ( 1 Corinthians 4:5). It is He who assigns their various lots to men ( 1 Corinthians 7:17), who grants power of service and endows with grace ( 1 Timothy 1:12;  1 Timothy 1:14), who stands by and strengthens in time of trouble ( 2 Timothy 4:17), and delivers out of persecutions ( 2 Timothy 3:11). All authority in the Church proceeds from Him ( 1 Corinthians 5:4,  2 Corinthians 10:8;  2 Corinthians 13:10). The most frequent form of benediction invokes His grace. Baptism is performed in His name ( Acts 8:16;  Acts 10:48). That name is invoked when the sick are anointed with oil ( James 5:14); and not only on such formal occasions, but in every word and deed ( Colossians 3:17), for that appears to be the significance of the phrase, one is to ‘do all in the name of the Lord’ (Heitmüller, op. cit. p. 69). He is the Creator of all things ( 1 Corinthians 8:5,  Colossians 1:16) and Lord over all beings ( Acts 10:36,  Romans 10:12), our only Master and Lord ( Judges 1:4).

But perhaps the most striking instance of all of how Christ comes to have the value of God in the Christian consciousness is afforded by the fact that, repeatedly in the NT, quotations from the OT which manifestly refer to God are immediately applied to Christ. Thus, e.g. , the exhortation of the Psalmist to taste and see that the Lord is good ( Psalms 34:8) is interpreted ( 1 Peter 2:3) with reference to the experience of the believer of the salvation of Christ; and St. Paul finds an answer to the question of  Isaiah 40:13 (Septuagint), ‘Who hath known the mind of the Lord?’ in the triumphant declaration, ‘But we have the mind of Christ’ ( 1 Corinthians 2:16). Other instances of this practice will be found in  Romans 10:13,  1 Corinthians 1:31;  1 Corinthians 10:22,  2 Corinthians 3:16;  2 Corinthians 3:18;  2 Corinthians 10:17,  1 Peter 3:15. Such being the significance with which the title is invested, it is small wonder that St. Paul should have regarded acknowledgment of Christ’s Lordship as the mark of the true believer ( Colossians 2:6). To confess Him as Lord with one’s mouth, and to believe in one’s heart that God has raised Him from the dead (observe the connexion between the Resurrection and Lordship), is to be assured of salvation ( Romans 10:9). In cases of ecstasy such confession was the infallible sign of the presence of the Holy Spirit ( 1 Corinthians 12:3). The proclamation of Christ’s Lordship was the central theme of the Apostle’s preaching ( 2 Corinthians 4:5), the universal recognition of that Lordship the consummation of the Divine purpose ( Philippians 2:11).

(3) The protest against Emperor-worship .-There remains to be noted one other aspect of the assertion of Christ’s Lordship-the protest implied against the worship of the Emperor under the same title. Deissmann has shown ( op. cit. p. 255ff.) that already in the time of St. Paul the title was current as a form of address of the Emperor (cf.  Acts 25:26), if not in Rome, at any rate in the East. Caligula had ordered his statue to be erected in the Temple at Jerusalem, and required that he should be worshipped as God. Domitian is called in official reports ‘our Lord and God.’ When such was the tendency that was abroad, it is possible that even in the mouth of a man who, like St. Paul, urged subjection to the higher powers, the proclamation of the Lordship of Christ may have had a polemical nuance . In the middle of the 2nd cent. we find Polycarp laying down his life rather than say κύριος καῖσαρ ( Mart. Polyc. 8:2), and probably long before that time, on the lips of those who repeated it, if not by the men who first employed it, the formula ‘our Lord Jesus Christ’ was uttered with an emphasis on the word our which suggested repudiation of the claims made on behalf of the Emperor (Weinel, Die Stellung des Urchristentums zum Staat , p. 19). St. Paul could say of the Christian, ‘our state is in heaven’ ( Philippians 3:20), and endeavour to keep his religion apart altogether from politics. But when politics invaded the sphere of religion and Caesar laid claim to the things that are Christ’s, it became the duty of the Christian to maintain the sovereignty of his Lord. Such passages as  Philippians 2:9-11,  1 Corinthians 8:5 f. cannot fail to have been interpreted as a protest against the growing tendency to ascribe to the Emperor the reverence which belonged to Christ alone. We hear the same protest in the claim of  Judges 1:4, ‘our only Master and Lord, Jesus Christ,’ and in a milder form in the subtle distinction made in  1 Peter 2:17, ‘ Fear God, honour the king,’ i.e. the Emperor. In Rev. the references to the Emperor-worship become more explicit ( Revelation 13:8;  Revelation 13:15;  Revelation 14:9;  Revelation 20:4), and the protest against it finds freer utterance. Christ is proclaimed King of kings and Lord of lords ( Revelation 17:14;  Revelation 19:16), while the sovereignty of this world becomes the sovereignty of the Lord and of His anointed one, and He shall reign for ever and ever ( Revelation 11:15).

Literature.-A. B. Bruce, Apologetics , 1892, bk. iii. ch. v.; H. Lietzmann, Die Briefe des Apostels Paulus (= Handbuch zum NT , iii. 1 [1910]), p. 53ff.; A. Deissmann, Die Urgeschichte des Christentums im Lichte der Sprachforschung , 1910, Licht uom Osten , 1908; Joh. Weiss, Christus , 1909, Das Urchristentum , 1914, ch. ii. § 5, iv. § 3, vii. § 4; H. Weinel, Die Stellung deg Urchristentums zum Staat , 1908; H. R. Mackintosh, The Person of Jesus Christ , 1912, bk. iii. ch. v.; W. Bousset, Kyrios Christos , 1913.

G. Wauchope Stewart.

Holman Bible Dictionary [2]

Humans as Lord The Hebrew word adon , “lord,” is used more than 300 times in the Old Testament for a human's rule over another person. This is to be distinguished from baal (also “lord”) in that adon represents a personal relationship of the subjection of one person to another, while baal designates the owner of things, including slaves and women. See Baal . At times persons would address someone of equal social status as “lord” out of respect

In the New Testament the Greek word kurios can designate both one who exercises rule over persons as well as the owner of goods. It is also used in respectful address to a father (  Matthew 21:29-30 ) or to a ruler ( Acts 25:26 ). In the era of the Roman caesars, the title kurios symbolized the caesar's position as absolute monarch. It did not mean that the caesar was a god. Kurios was not used in the cults devoted to the worship of the caesars. When the early Christians confessed Jesus as Lord, they protested against the religious claims of the state but not against the rulership of the caesar as such. On the other hand, the Jewish rebels denied the political authority of the caesar. Being exempt from the cult of the caesar, Jews could easily call the caesar: “lord.” Christians had to dispute the caesar's claim to be lord when that claim was understood to mean the caesar was divine. See Emporer Worship.

God the Lord Nations around Israel often called their gods: “lord.” We need to distinguish between the Near Eastern and Greek religions. At first the Greeks did not see themselves in a slave/lord relationship with their gods because they did not believe their gods were responsible for their creation. They could, indeed, call the gods “lord,” but that was not characteristic. Instead, both they and their gods were subject to the same higher power—that is, fate. Thus the Greeks felt no personal responsibility before the gods. The divine manifested itself much more in the political governing structures. In the democracy the divine manifested itself in the law which the citizens served. In the monarchy the divine was embodied in the ruler; and, in the worship of the ruler the law (which lived in all citizens of Greece) was honored.

In the Near East the gods were lords of fate. Humans were thus responsible to the gods. Many gods were called “lord.” Marduk, the national god of Babylon, was called Bel, another form of Baal ( Isaiah 46:1;  Jeremiah 50:2;  Jeremiah 51:44 ). From among humans, the king towered above and beyond all others. The god had transferred the administration of divine law to the king.

In the Old Testament, Lord usually describes the essence of Yahweh: His power over His people ( Exodus 34:23;  Isaiah 1:24 ), over the entire earth ( Joshua 3:13;  Micah 4:13 ), and over all gods ( Deuteronomy 10:17;  Psalm 135:5 ). Thus adon could stand parallel to the personal name of God, Yahweh (  Exodus 15:17 ): Yahweh is Lord; the Lord is Yahweh. Additional terms such as Sabbaoth (that is, Supreme Head and Commander of all the heavenly forces) underscored the absolute lordship of Yahweh ( Isaiah 3:1;  Isaiah 10:16 ,Isaiah 10:16, 10:33 ). Many times adon or the special form adonai was used in direct address to God (439 times), attesting to the honor of God or His representative (2Samuel 7:18-22,  2 Samuel 7:28-29;  Joshua 5:14;  Zechariah 4:4 ). In time a formal designation, adonai jahweh (“the Lord Yahweh”), developed. This corresponded to the uniqueness of Yahweh; and, finally, Yahweh was referred to as adonai alone, especially in Isaiah, Psalms, and Lamentations. Israelites formed personal names with adonai (Adonijah, Adoniram) just as did their neighbors (Adoni-zedek,   Joshua 10:1-3 ), since these peoples also addressed their gods as “lord.”

The designation of Yahweh as adonai led to varied forms of conflict with Baal and his worshipers during the history of Israel: for example, prior to the conquest (  Numbers 25:1 ); during the time of the Judges ( Judges 6:25-32 ); during the monarchy ( 1 Kings 18:1;  1 Kings 22:54;  2 Kings 3:2;  2 Kings 10:18-28 ). Even in Judah, worship of Baal proved a danger ( 2 Kings 11:18;  2 Kings 21:1-5 ). King Josiah's reform finally ended the conflict with Baal by destroying the worship places outside Jerusalem ( 2 Kings 23:1 ). The prophets Hosea, Jeremiah, Zephaniah, and Ezekiel spoke out against the hidden “Baalizing” of the religion of Yahweh. They claimed Israel went to worship Yahweh but did it in such a way they were actually worshiping Baal without naming his name. Yahweh was the supreme Lord over the world; but Baal's worshipers saw Baal as lord of at least a part of the world. He appeared and disappeared with the vegetation, being humiliated and defeated by other gods, even becoming weak, sick, and dying. See God's Pagan. These competing understandings could only mean alternatives and opposition. The revelation of God in the Old Testament, however, speaks against any such alternative or opposition, for Yahweh alone is Lord. He is Lord in His historical acts. Humans have no power over Him. He is Lord in His directions for life. Humans are to obey Him totally. He is the Lord who reveals Himself in His covenant, His law, and His faithfulness.

About 300 B.C. adonai became more frequently used than Yahweh. Thus the Books of Esther, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon do not use the name: Yahweh. The title “Lord” ( adonai ) was no longer an adjective modifying the divine name but was a substitute for the divine name: Yahweh. Origen reported that when Jews read the divine name Yahweh, they would pronounce it adonai , while non-Jews would pronounce it kurios .

In the Greek translation of the Old Testament (Septuagint), written before the time of Christ, “Yahweh” was written in Hebrew characters. In the Dead Sea Scrolls, the scribes out of awe for the divine name wrote it in ancient Hebrew script rather in their normal script. Later, Christian scribes replaced the Hebrew characters in the Greek Bible with kurios . Scribes transmitting the Hebrew Bible showed that Yahweh should not be pronounced but read as adonai by substituting the Hebrew vowels of adonai for those of Yahweh when writing the divine name. See Kere-Kethib . Later readers who did not know this history did not pronounce Yahweh; but neither did they pronounce adonai , as the scribes intended. Rather in the Middle Ages readers of the Hebrew Bible began pronouncing precisely what was written, the mixture of consonants from Yahweh and vowels from adonai , producing the pronunciation of Jehovah, a word that never existed for speakers of classic Hebrew.

In the majority of the books of the New Testament, also, Yahweh, or God was called Lord. That occurs above all in quotations from the Old Testament and in translating terms such as “angel,” “way,” “word,” “day,” “name,” or “hand” of the Lord. In important passages kurios (Lord) appears in the sense of the Old Testament adonai as Creator of the world and Director of history (  Matthew 9:38;  Matthew 11:25;  Acts 17:24;  1 Timothy 6:15; Book of Revelation). In this way Christians preserved and continued the Jewish understanding of God. Since the New Testament and early Christians also called Jesus “Lord,” we have difficulty many times determining whether Jesus or God is meant by “Lord” ( Matthew 24:42;  Mark 5:19-20;  Luke 1:76;  Acts 10:14 ).

Jesus is Lord The two words, “ Kurios Jesus ,” composed the first Christian confession of faith ( 1 Corinthians 12:3;  Romans 10:9 ). The decisive reason for transferring the divine title Lord to Jesus was His resurrection from the dead.

Before His resurrection, Jesus was addressed with the Jewish title of honor Rabbi (“teacher”,   Mark 9:5;  Mark 11:21 , for example). Luke always, and Matthew usually, translated this title into Greek as kurios (“Lord). According to Mark only once did a non-Jew address Jesus as Lord (  Mark 7:28 ), but even that was simply a polite and courteous way of speaking (equivalent to our “sir”). Jesus was also addressed with the Aramaic mari (“lord”,   John 13:13 ). The resurrection changed the respectful student/teacher relationship of the disciples with Jesus into the believers' servant/Lord relationship. The designation of Jesus as Lord in the Gospels (esp. in Luke) is an indication of this shift in relationship. Paul said that God honored Jesus with the title of Lord as His response to Jesus' obedient suffering ( Philippians 2:6-11 ). Jesus in the form of a Servant is the humbled One with the marks of the cross, before whom the entire world will bow down. Thus the Crucified One will experience an act of homage like that due God Himself ( Isaiah 45:23-24 ). His church already gives Him such homage. He has been seated at the right hand of God, which demonstrates the elevation of Jesus to the position of Ruler next to God Himself ( Psalm 110:1; see  Mark 12:35-37 ). Still, the New Testament does not go so far as to identify Jesus with God by calling Him, “ abba ” (that is, father; see Abba ).

Jesus as the Messiah of Israel ( Acts 2:36 ) was installed as Head of His church and Ruler of the cosmos by His resurrection ( Colossians 1:17;  Colossians 2:6 ,Colossians 2:6, 2:10;  Ephesians 1:20-23 ). As such, the church prays for His return: “Come, our Lord” (or in Aramaic, maranatha ,  1 Corinthians 16:22;  1 Corinthians 11:26;  Revelation 22:20 ). The cosmic lordship of Jesus still remains the lordship of God. Jesus will give the judged and redeemed world back to the Father ( 1 Corinthians 15:28 ). The center of this lordship is the power of administration over all things human ( Romans 14:9 ).

The lordship of Jesus has ethical consequences. He makes the significance of all other powers of only relative importance ( 1 Corinthians 8:5-6;  Colossians 2:15 ). The Christian believer is foundationally freed from being servant to any thing or person in the human world ( 1 Corinthians 7:22-23 ). The believer devotes self to serve others, even the ones in power, as his or her lord in voluntary service ( Mark 10:42-45 ). Speaking the word Lord or calling out to Jesus with the title “Lord” is not enough for salvation. Such calling must be accompanied by actions which correspond to the teachings of the resurrected, Crucified One and to His example (  Matthew 7:21-22;  John 13:14-15 ).

Already in Acts, “Lord” had become something like a summary of the Christian message. This expresses itself in a growing, more extensive formulation of the name of Jesus: “Lord Jesus,” “the Lord Jesus,” “the Lord Jesus Christ.” In the introductions and conclusions of Paul's Epistles—as well as at significant places of the logical argument of the Epistles—the name is expressed in especially extensive formulations ( Romans 5:1;  Romans 8:39;  Romans 15:30;  1 Corinthians 15:57 ). The objective fact of the Lordship of Christ is supplemented by the subjective element of personal bonds to Christ through the possessive pronoun: “My/our Lord Jesus Christ.” The “our” in “our Lord” includes all Christians; “your Lord” does not occur in the New Testament. Jesus Christ either joins people together, or He separates them, when they deny His right to be Lord ( Romans 16:18; 1Corinthians 1:2, 1 Corinthians 1:10-13 ). The personal bond or union with Jesus and with one another is especially emphasized in the formula “in the Lord” or “in Christ.” Here it is evident that Lord and Christ are, in the final analysis, interchangeable ( 1 Corinthians 7:22;  2 Corinthians 4:5 ). The Lord is Jesus, through whom God intervened in the activities of the world in order to bring salvation.

How can humans be convinced that the crucified Jesus from Nazareth is the Lord—that is, that in Him God acted in the way that the Bible says and in the way that the world needs? How can people be convinced that He is the Messiah of Israel and the Lord of all people, who comes near to all people as Friend and Brother? How does the Lord of the cosmos become our personal Lord in His church? This happens through the Holy Spirit. God has fully empowered the resurrected Jesus to send out this Spirit ( Acts 2:33 ). Indeed, Paul could say that the Lord is the Spirit ( 1 Corinthians 15:45;  2 Corinthians 3:17 ). This does not signify a total identifying of Jesus with the Spirit of God (compare  2 Corinthians 13:13 ), but it testifies to the inseparable unity of the Lordship of God with the sending of Jesus and with the work of the Spirit. See Christ; God; Holy Spirit; Messiah; Jesus; Rabbi; Resurrection .

Christian Wolf

Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words [3]

'Âdôn ( אָדֹן , Strong'S #113), or 'Âdônay ( אָדֹן , Strong'S #113), “lord; master; Lord.” Cognates of this word appear in Ugaritic and Phoenician. The form 'âdôn appears 334 times, while the form 'âdônay (used exclusively as a divine name) appears 439 times.

Basically, 'âdôn means “lord” or “master.” It is distinguished from the Hebrew word ba’al , which signifies “possessor” or “owner.” 'Âdôn basically describes the one who occupies the position of a “master” or “lord” over a slave or servant: “And the servant put his hand under the thigh of Abraham his master …” (Gen. 24:9). It is used of kings and their most powerful aides. Joseph told his brothers: “So now it was not you that sent me hither, but God: and he hath made me a father [i.e., an adviser] to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and a ruler throughout all the land of Egypt” (Gen. 45:8; cf. 42:30). Only once is this word used in the sense of “owner” or “possessor” (1 Kings 16:24).

'Âdôn is often used as a term of polite address. In some cases, the one so named really occupies a position of authority. In Gen. 18:12 (the first occurrence) Sarah called Abraham her “lord.” On the other hand, this may be a purely honorary title by which the speaker intends to indicate his submission to the one so addressed. Jacob instructed his slaves to speak to “my lord Esau” (Gen. 32:18); i.e., Jacob called his brother Esau “lord.” In places where the speaker is addressing someone calling him “lord,” the word virtually means “you.”

When applied to God, âdôn is used in several senses. It signifies His position as the one who has authority (like a master) over His people to reward the obedient and punish the disobedient: “Ephraim provoked him to anger most bitterly: therefore shall he leave his blood upon him, and his reproach shall his Lord return unto him” (Hos. 12:14). In such contexts God is conceived as a Being who is sovereign ruler and almighty master. The word is often a title of respect, a term of direct address usually assuming a specific concrete lord-vassal or master-servant relationship (Ps. 8:1). In some cases the word appears to be a title suggesting God’s relationship to and position over Israel: “Three times in the year all thy males shall appear before the Lord God” (Exod. 23:17). In such contexts âdôn is a formal divine name and should probably be transliterated if the proper emphasis is to be retained. In the form âdônay the word means “Lord” par excellence or “Lord over all,” even as it sometimes does in the form âdôn (cf. Deut. 10:17, where God is called the “God of gods, and Lord of lords”; Josh. 3:11, where He is called the “Lord of all the earth”).

The word âdônay appears in Gen. 15:2: “And Abram said, Lord God, what wilt thou give me, seeing I go childless,.…” This word frequently appears in Psalms (Ps. 68:17; 86:3) and Isaiah (Isa. 29:13; 40:10).

Yehôvâh ( יהוה , Strong'S #3068), “Lord.” The Tetragrammaton YHWH appears without its own vowels, and its exact pronunciation is debated (Jehovah, Yehovah, Jahweh, Yahweh). The Hebrew text does insert the vowels for âdônay , and Jewish students and scholars read âdônay whenever they see the Tetragrammaton. This use of the word occurs 6,828 times. The word appears in every period of biblical Hebrew.

The divine name YHWH appears only in the Bible. Its precise meaning is much debated. God chose it as His personal name by which He related specifically to His chosen or covenant people. Its first appearance in the biblical record is Gen. 2:4: “These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens.” Apparently Adam knew Him by this personal or covenantal name from the beginning, since Seth both called his son Enosh (i.e., man as a weak and dependent creature) and began (along with all other pious persons) to call upon (formally worship) the name of YHWH , “the Lord” (Gen. 4:26). The covenant found a fuller expression and application when God revealed Himself to Abraham (Gen. 12:8), promising redemption in the form of national existence. This promise became reality through Moses, to whom God explained that He was not only the “God who exists” but the “God who effects His will”: “Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, The Lord [ YHWH ] God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you: this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations. Go, and gather the elders of Israel together, and say unto them, The Lord [ YHWH ] God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, appeared unto me, saying, I have surely visited you, and seen that which is done to you in Egypt: And I have said, I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt unto the land of the Canaanites …” (Exod. 3:15-17). So God explained the meaning of “I am who I am” (Exod. 3:14). He spoke to the fathers as YHWH , but the promised deliverance and, therefore, the fuller significance or experienced meaning of His name were unknown to them (Exod. 6:2-8).

Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types [4]

This title is very widely used for many purposes and reasons. We shall enumerate some of these so that the reader may acquaint himself with the many different ways in which GOD is Lord, and in which various kinds of people, nations and rulers are lords.

The Lord:

He is GOD He is Lord of lords  Deuteronomy 4:35  Deuteronomy 10:17.

He is Lord of all the earth  Joshua 3:11.

The Lord is King The Lord is a refuge  Psalm 10:16  Psalm 14:6.

The Lord is my shepherd  Psalm 23:1.

The Lord is my light  Psalm 27:1.

The Lord is my salvation  Psalm 27:1.

The Lord is my strength  Psalm 28:7.

The Lord is my shield  Psalm 28:7.

The Lord is good  Psalm 34:8.

The Lord is terrible  Psalm 47:2.

The Lord is our defense  Psalm 89:18.

The Lord is upright  Psalm 92:15.

The Lord is merciful  Psalm 103:8.

The Lord is gracious  Psalm 103:8.

The Lord is thy keeper  Psalm 121:5.

The Lord is thy shade  Psalm 121:5.

The Lord is around us  Psalm 125:2.

The Lord is righteous  Psalm 129:4.

The Lord is nigh us  Psalm 145:18.

The Lord is far off  Proverbs 15:29.

The Lord is our Maker  Proverbs 22:2.

The Lord is that Spirit2Co3:17.

The Lord is at hand  Philippians 4:5.

He is the Lord our righteousness  Jeremiah 23:6.

He is the Lord of kings  Daniel 2:47.

He is the Lord of the sabbath  Mark 2:28.

He is Lord and Christ  Acts 2:36.

He is Lord of all  Acts 10:36.

He is Lord of the dead and the living  Romans 14:9.

He is the Lord of glory1Co2:8.

He is the Lord from Heaven1Co15:47.

The Lord is the avenger1Th4:6.

The Lord is faithful2Th3:3.

The Lord is pitiful  James 5:11.

This title is given to us in His Word in order that we may learn to know Him more intimately and trust Him more intelligently in the many vicissitudes of life.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [5]

1. adon, κύριος.These words are commonly translated 'lord.' They are used as a term of respect as between man and man, as seen in the children of Heth to Abraham.   Genesis 23:6; between servants and masters, and once by a wife to her husband.  Genesis 18:12;  Luke 16:3,5;  1 Peter 3:6 . The title 'Lord' is applied to God (  Psalm 90:1 , Adonai ), and in the N.T. to the Lord Jesus, not only as a term of respect, but as owning His constituted lordship.  Acts 2:36;  Philippians 2:11 He is emphatically the Lord as eclipsing every other for the Christian, who delights to appropriate Him as 'My Lord.'  Luke 1:43;  John 20:13;  Philippians 3:8 . To believers collectively He is 'Our Lord Jesus Christ.'

There is also in this title the idea of administration which it is of great consequence to observe. As Man the Lord Jesus is mediator between God and men, and receives blessings for men which are administered through Him as Lord. "To us there is . . . . one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and we through him."   1 Corinthians 8:6 . See  Romans 5:1,2,11,17,21 and other scriptures.

The same Greek word is often used in the LXX for the Hebrew name Jehovah, and is transferred to the N.T. without the article. It stands as a proper name in the sense of Jehovah, as in  Matthew 1:20,22,24 , etc., though the English requires it to be translated 'the Lord.' See GOD.

2. δεσπότης, signifying 'owner, master,' as a man who owns slaves. It is applied to God and to the Lord Jesus,   Luke 2:29;  Acts 4:24;  2 Peter 2:1;  Jude 4;  Revelation 6:10; and in  2 Timothy 2:21 is translated 'master.'

3. ῥαββονί, a word similar to Rabbi, a term of respect among the Jews, signifying 'teacher.' It is applied to the Lord by the blind man in  Mark 10:51; and by Mary in  John 20:16 , where it is untranslated.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [6]

LORD. The Heb. OT has three leading names for God: (1) ‘the name of four letters’ ( lelragrammaton ) JHWH (familiar to us in the incorrect form ‘Jehovah’; the real vocalization is almost certainly ‘Jahweh’ [see God, p. 299 b ]); (2) Adonai  ; (3) Elohim . By a misinterpretation of   Leviticus 24:15 the Jews shrank from uttering the first of these, and added to its four consonants, in their reading of the OT, the vowels of either Adonai or Elohim . When the vowels of the former were added, the AV [Note: Authorized Version.] and RV [Note: Revised Version.] generally translate the word by ‘Lord’; when those of the latter, by ‘God’; using small capitals in each case. If, however, Adonai is originally in the text, they represent it by ‘Lord,’ using an initial capital only. Thus in the OT ‘Lord ‘represents Jahweh when it was read as Adonai  ; and ‘Lord’ represents Adonai when it stands in the original text. This distinctive printing is not observed in the NT. There are several other Hebrew words in the OT expressing the general Idea of lordship, which are rendered by ‘lord’ (  Genesis 45:8 ,   Joshua 13:3 ,   Ezra 8:25 etc.).

In the NT ‘Lord’ is used once as tr. [Note: translate or translation.] of Rabboni (  Mark 10:51 ), and five times of despotçs (  Luke 2:29 ,   Acts 4:24 ,   2 Peter 2:1 ,   Judges 1:4 ,   Revelation 6:10 ); in all the latter cases the RV [Note: Revised Version.] has ‘ master ’ in text or margin. Elsewhere it represents kyrios , applying the title (1) to God (  Matthew 1:20 ,   Acts 5:19 etc.); (2) to Christ (  Luke 6:46 ,   John 20:28 etc.). Indeed, as applied to Christ, it is the highest confession of His Person (  1 Corinthians 12:3 ,   Romans 10:9 ,   Revelation 19:16 ). The form ‘lord’ In NT indicates mere possession of authority (  Matthew 18:25 ,   Luke 16:8 etc.).

Charles T. P. Grierson.

Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [7]

This glorious name is peculiarly and properly the distinguishing name of Jehovah and ought to have been so hallowed and sacred, as never upon any occasion whatever to have been applied to any other, For we read that JEHOVAH is very jealous of His name, and will not allow the very mention of it, unless in a way of reverence to himself, without attaching guilt to the person that doth it. Thus we read, "Thou shalt riot take the name of the Lord thy God in vain: for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain." ( Exodus 20:7) So again ( Isaiah 42:8) "I am the Lord; that is my name, and my glory will I not give to another, neither my praise to graven images." With what reverence and sanctity, therefore, ought the glorious name of JEHOVAH, Lord, to be held? Indeed, though among men, master and lord are sometimes used from servants to their superiors, yet the incommunicable name of JEHOVAH, is never used in this way by any. It is impossible to preserve it too sacred.

JEHOVAH, or Lord, is equally adapted and made use of in common to teach us all the persons of the Godhead Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. We find, it, every part of the word of God, JEHOVAH the Father, so called, (see  Zechariah 2:10) where JEHOVAH the Father is represented as sending JEHOVAH the Son. So again we find JEHOVAH the Father speaking to JEHOVAH the Son, ( Psalms 110:1;  Isaiah 42:5-8) and numberless other instances occur throughout the Bible. In like manner, God the Son is called by this glorious name, ( Jeremiah 23:6) with express designation of character, and this also by JEHOVAH the Father, And throughout both Testaments of Scripture, God the Son possesseth in common with the Father and the Holy Ghost, the distinguishing name of Lord. And no less God the Holy Ghost, ( Numbers 6:24-26) where each glorious person is severally and distinctly called JEHOVAH. ( 2 Corinthians 3:17;  1 John 5:7) See God Jehovah. Ruhumah.

See Ammi.

King James Dictionary [8]

LORD, n.

1. A master a person possessing supreme power and authority a ruler a governor.

Man over man he made not lord.

But now I was the lord of this fair mansion.

2. A tyrant an oppressive ruler. 3. A husband.

I oft in bitterness of soul deplores my absent daughter, and my dearer lord.

My lord also being old.  Genesis 18 .

4. A baron the proprietor of a manor as the lord of the manor. 5. A nobleman a title of honor in Great Britain given to those who are noble by birth or creation a peer of the realm, including dukes, marquises, earls, viscounts and barons. Archbishops and bishops also, as members of the house of lords, are lords of parliament. Thus we say, lords temporal and spiritual. By courtesy also the title is given to the sons of dukes and marquises, and to the eldest sons of earls. 6. An honorary title bestowed on certain official characters as lord advocate, lord chamberlain, lord chancellor, lord chief justice, &c. 7. In scripture, the Supreme Being Jehovah. When Lord, in the Old Testament, is prints in capitals, it is the translation of JEHOVAH, and so might, with more propriety, be rendered. The word is applied to Christ,  Psalms 110 .  Colossians 3 . and to the Holy Spirit,  2 Thessalonians 3 . As a title of respect, it is applied to kings,  Genesis 40 .  2 Samuel 19 . to princes and nobles,  Genesis 42 .  Daniel 4 . to a husband,  Genesis 18 . to a prophet,  1 Kings 18 .  2 Kings 2 . and to a respectable person,  Genesis 24 . Christ is called the Lord of glory,  1 Corinthians 2 . and Lord of lords,  Revelation 19 .

LORD, To invest with the dignity and privileges of a lord.

LORD, To domineer to rule with arbitrary or despotic sway sometimes followed by over, and sometimes by it, in the manner of a transitive verb.

The whiles she lordeth in licentious bliss.

I see them lording it in London streets.

They lorded over them whom now they serve.

Webster's Dictionary [9]

(1): ( v. i.) To play the lord; to domineer; to rule with arbitrary or despotic sway; - sometimes with over; and sometimes with it in the manner of a transitive verb.

(2): ( n.) The Supreme Being; Jehovah.

(3): ( v. t.) To rule or preside over as a lord.

(4): ( v. t.) To invest with the dignity, power, and privileges of a lord.

(5): ( n.) The Savior; Jesus Christ.

(6): ( n.) One of whom a fee or estate is held; the male owner of feudal land; as, the lord of the soil; the lord of the manor.

(7): ( n.) A hump-backed person; - so called sportively.

(8): ( n.) One who has power and authority; a master; a ruler; a governor; a prince; a proprietor, as of a manor.

(9): ( n.) A titled nobleman., whether a peer of the realm or not; a bishop, as a member of the House of Lords; by courtesy; the son of a duke or marquis, or the eldest son of an earl; in a restricted sense, a boron, as opposed to noblemen of higher rank.

(10): ( n.) A title bestowed on the persons above named; and also, for honor, on certain official persons; as, lord advocate, lord chamberlain, lord chancellor, lord chief justice, etc.

(11): ( n.) A husband.

Easton's Bible Dictionary [10]

  • Heb. seren, applied exclusively to the "lords of the Philistines" ( Judges 3:3 ). The LXX. render it by satrapies. At this period the Philistines were not, as at a later period ( 1 Samuel 21:10 ), under a kingly government. (See  Joshua 13:3;  1 Samuel 6:18 .) There were five such lordships, viz., Gath, Ashdod, Gaza, Ashkelon, and Ekron.

    Copyright Statement These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., DD Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain.

    Bibliography Information Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Lord'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/ebd/l/lord.html. 1897.

  • Fausset's Bible Dictionary [11]

    (See Jehovah .) In small letters and with initial capital "Lord" represents Αdonai in KJV of Old Testament. In capitals "LORD" represents Jehovah , except  Exodus 23:17. The "LORD God", Αdonai Jehovah , where it ought to be "the Lord Jehovah," and  Exodus 34:23. "GOD" in capitals also represents Jehovah ( Genesis 15:2, 'Αdonay Υahweh ). "God" in small letters, with initial capital, represents 'Εlohiym . (See God .)

    American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [12]

    This name belongs to God by preeminence; and in this sense ought never to be given to any creature. Jesus Christ, as the Messiah, the Son of God, and equal with the Father, is often called Lord in Scripture, especially in the writing of Paul. The word Lord , in the English Bible, when printed in small capitals, stands always for Jehovah in the Hebrew. See Jehovah .

    People's Dictionary of the Bible [13]

    Lord. The rendering of the two Hebrew words "Jehovah" and "Adonai." When it represents the former it is printed with capitals.  Genesis 15:4. When it represents the latter it is printed with a capital initial.  Psalms 97:5.

    Bridgeway Bible Dictionary [14]

    For the use of ‘Lord’ among the Israelites of Old Testament times see Yahweh . For the use of ‘Lord’ among the followers of Jesus in New Testament times see Jesus Christ sub-heading ‘Jesus as Lord’.

    Smith's Bible Dictionary [15]

    Lord. See God .

    Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology [16]

    See Name And Titles Of Jesus Christ

    Charles Buck Theological Dictionary [17]

    A term properly denoting one who has dominion. Applied to God, the supreme governor and disposer of all things.

    See GOD.

    Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [18]

    is the rendering in the A.V. of several Heb. and Greek words, which have a very different import from each other. "Lord" is a Saxon word signifying ruler or governor. In its original form it is hlaford, which, by dropping the aspiration, became laford, and afterwards, by contraction, lord.

    1. יְהָֹוה , Yehovah , Jehovah , the proper name of the God of the Hebrews, which should always have been retained in that form, but has almost invariably been translated in the English Bible by LORD (and printed thus in small capitals), after the example of the Sept. ( Κω῏ / Ριος ) and Vulg. (Dominus). (See Jehovah).

    2. אָדוֹן , Adon , one of the early words (hence in the early Phoenico-Greek A donis) denoting the most absolute control, and therefore most fitly represented by the English word lord, as in the A.V. (Sept. Κύριος , Vulg. domimus). It is not properly a divine title, although occasionally applied to God ( Psalms 114:7; properly with the art. in this sense,  Exodus 23:13), as the supreme proprietor ( Joshua 3:13); but appropriately denotes a master, as of slaves ( Genesis 24:4;  Genesis 24:27;  Genesis 39:2;  Genesis 39:7), or a king, as ruler of subjects ( Genesis 45:8;  Isaiah 26:13), a husband, as lord of the wife ( Genesis 18:12). It is frequently a term of respect, like our Sir, but with a pronoun attached ("my lord"), and often occurs in the plural. (See Master).

    A modified form of this word is Adonay' ( אֲדוֹנָי ; Sept. Κύριος , Lord, Master ), "the old plural form of the noun אָדוֹן , Adon , similar to that with the suffix of the first person, used as the pluralis excellentiae, by way of dignity, for the name of JEHOVAH. The similar form with the suffix, is also used of men, as of Joseph's master ( Genesis 39:2-3 sq.), of Joseph himself ( Genesis 42:30;  Genesis 42:33; so also  Isaiah 19:4). The Jews, out of superstitious reverence for the name JEHOVAH, always, in reading, pronounce Adonai where Jehovah is written, and hence the letters יהוה are usually written with the points belonging to Adonai, JEHOVAH. The view that the word exhibits a plural termination without the affix is that of Gesenius (Thesaur. s.v. דון ), and seems just, though rather disapproved by professor Lee (Lex. in אדון ). The latter adds that "our English Bibles generally translate יהוה by LORD, in capitals; when preceded by האדון , they translate it GOD; when צבאות , Tzabaoth , follows, by LORD, as in  Isaiah 3:1, The Lord, the LORD of Hosts.' The copies now in use are not, however, consistent in this respect" (Kitto). "In some instances it is difficult, on account of the pause accent, to say whether Adonai is the title of the Deity, or merely one of respect addressed to men. These have been noticed by the Masorites, who distinguish the former in their notes as 'holy,' and the latter as 'profane.' (See  Genesis 18:3;  Genesis 19:2;  Genesis 19:18; and compare the Masoretic notes on  Genesis 20:13;  Isaiah 19:4)." (See Adonai).

    3. Κύριος , the general Greek term for supreme mastery, whether royal or private; and thus, in classical Greek, distinguished from Θεός , which is exclusively applied to God. The "Greek Κύριος , indeed, is used in much the same way and in the same sense as Lord. It is from Κῦρος , authority, and signifies 'master' or 'possessor.' In the Septuagint, this, like Lord in our version, is invariably used for 'Jehovah' and Adonai;' while Θεός , like GOD in our translation, is generally reserved to represent the Hebrew 'Elohim.' Κύριος in the original of the Greek Testament, and Lord in our version of it, are used in much the same manner as in the Septuagint; and so, also, is the corresponding title, Dominus, in the Latin versions. As the Hebrew name JEHOVAH is one never used with reference to any but the Almighty, it is to be regretted that the Septuagint, imitated by our own and other versions, has represented it by a word which is also used for the Hebrew 'Adonai,' which is applied not only to God, but, like our 'Lord,' to creatures also, as to angels ( Genesis 19:2;  Daniel 10:16-17), to men in authority ( Genesis 42:30;  Genesis 42:33), and to proprietors. owners, masters ( Genesis 45:8). In the New Testament, Κύριος , representing 'Adonai,' and both represented by Lords, the last, or human application of the term, is frequent. In fact, the leading idea of the Hebrew, the Greek, and the English words is that of an owner or proprietor, whether God or man; and it occurs in the inferior application with great frequency in the New Testament. This application is either literal or complimentary: literal when the party is really an owner or master. as in  Matthew 10:24;  Matthew 20:8;  Matthew 21:40;  Acts 16:16;  Acts 16:19;  Galatians 4:1, etc.; or when he is so as having absolute authority over another ( Matthew 9:38;  Luke 10:2), or as being a supreme lord or sovereign ( Acts 25:26); and complimentary when used as a title of address, especially to superiors, like the English Master, Sir; the French Sieur, Monsieur; the German Herr, etc., as in  Matthew 13:27;  Matthew 21:20;  Mark 7:8;  Luke 9:54." See Winer, De voce Κύριος (Erlang. 1828).

    4. בִּעִל , master in the sense of domination, applied to only heathen deities, or else to human relations, as husband, etc., and especially to a person skilled or chief in a trade or profession (like the vulgar boss). To this corresponds the Greek Δεσπότης , whence our "despot." (See Baal). The remaining and less important words in the original, thus rendered in the common Bible (usually without a capital initial), are: גְּבַיר , Gebir , prop. denoting physical strength or martial prowess; שִׂר , Sar , a title of nobility; שָׁלַישׁ , Shalish , a military officer, (See Captain); and סֶרֶן , se'ren, a Philistine term; also the Chald. מָרֵא , Mare , an official title (hence the Syriac mar, or bishop); and רִב , Rab , a general name = Praefect , with its reduplicate רִבְרְבָן , Rabreban , and its Greek equivalent Ῥαββονί , "Rabboni."

    Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [19]

    A Saxon word signifying ruler or governor. In the Authorized translation of the Scriptures it is used without much discrimination for all the names applied to God, which cannot be helped, as our language does not afford the same number of distinguishing titles as the Hebrew. When, however, the word represents the dread name of Jehovah, it is printed in small capitals, Lord, and is by this contrivance made a distinguishing term. As the Hebrew name Jehovah is one never used with reference to any but the Almighty, it is to be regretted that the Septuagint, imitated by our own and other versions, has represented it by a word which is also used for the Hebrew 'Adonai,' which is applied not only to God, but, like our 'Lord,' to creatures also, as to angels , to men in authority , and to proprietors, owners, masters . The leading idea of the Hebrew, the Greek, and the English words, is that of an owner or proprietor, whether God or man; and it occurs in the inferior application with great frequency in the New Testament. This application is either literal or complimentary; literal, when the party is really an owner or master, as in;;;;; , etc.; or when he is so as having absolute authority over another , or as being a supreme lord or sovereign and complimentary, when used as a title of address, especially to superiors, like the English Master, Sir, as in;;; .

    It cannot but be deemed desirable that, instead of the extensive use of the word Lord which we have described, discriminating terms should be adopted in translations. Apart from the Jewish superstitions which influenced the Seventy in their translation, there can be no good reason why the name Jehovah should not be retained wherever it occurs in the Hebrew. Then Lord might represent Adonai; or perhaps Sir, or Master, might be used when that word is applied to creatures; and God would very properly represent Elohim.