From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [1]

CAPTAIN. —1. This word is the Authorized Version rendering of two Greek terms in the Gospels:—(1) χιλίαρχος, properly ‘leader of a thousand’ ( John 18:12, Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘chief captain,’ (Revised Version margin) ‘military tribune’; see also  Mark 6:21,  Acts 21:31-33;  Acts 21:37;  Acts 22:24;  Acts 22:26-29;  Acts 23:10;  Acts 23:15;  Acts 23:17-19;  Acts 23:22;  Acts 24:7;  Acts 24:22-23,  Revelation 6:15;  Revelation 19:18). (2) στρατηγός, properly ‘leader of an army,’ ‘general’ ( Luke 22:4;  Luke 22:52; see also  Acts 4:1;  Acts 5:24;  Acts 5:26).

1. χιλίαρχος is used ( a ) in a vague general sense of a superior military officer, and ( b ) technically as the Greek equivalent of the Roman prœfeetus or tribunus militum . The Roman garrison in the citadel at Jerusalem, consisting of a cohort (τάγμα = NT σπεῖρα, ‘band’ [καθῆστο γἁρ ἀεὶ ἐπʼ αὑτῆς τάγμα Ῥωμαίων, Josephus BJ v. v. 8]) of provincial troops, Syrian Greeks, and Samaritans, whose commandant would be a civis Romanus ( Acts 22:28), while they would be presented with the Imperial franchise on their discharge, was reinforced during the Passover by additional troops which were stationed in one of the Temple buildings (Mommsen, Prov. Rom . [Note: Roman.] Emp ., English translation ii. 186). The χιλίαρχος is also called φρούραρχος by Josephus ( Ant . xv. xi. 4, xviii. iv. 3); see Schürer, HJ P [Note: JP History of the Jewish People.] i. ii. 55. The legion consisting normally of 6000 men, the six tribuni took command for two months in turn. Palestine, however, being a Roman province of the second rank, did not possess a full legionary garrison. Mommsen gives its strength, at a subsequent period, as consisting of a detachment ( ala ) of cavalry and five cohorts of infantry, or about 3000 men.

2. στρατηγὸς τοῦ ἱεροῦ, the commandant of the Temple Levites. Josephus mentions the ‘captain’ (στρατηγός) of the Levitical guard in the time of Claudius ( Ant . xx. vi. 2), and in that of Trajan ( BJ vi. v. 3). Possibly the officers (ὑπηρέται) who assisted in the arrest of Jesus ( John 18:3; cf.  John 7:32; cf.  John 7:45) belonged to this body. This ‘captain’ of the Temple ( 2 Maccabees 3:4 ὁ προστάτης τοῦ ἰεροῦ) is mentioned in  Jeremiah 20:1 LXX Septuagint as ἡγούμενος and in  Nehemiah 11:11 as ἀπέναντι τοῦ οἴκου τοῦ θεοῦ ‘the ruler of the house of God’ (Vulgate prineeps domus Dei Dei = אישהרהבת Mishna, Middoth i. § 2). The duty of this ‘captain of the mount of the Temple’ was to keep order in the Temple, visit the stations of the guard during the night, and see that the sentries were duly posted and alert. He and his immediate subalterns are supposed to be intended by the ‘rulers’ (ἄρχοντες) mentioned in  Ezra 9:2 and Neh. passim (στρατηγοί or ἄρχοντες). See Schürer, HJ P [Note: JP History of the Jewish People.] ii. i. 258. The chief constable of this priestly corps of Temple police was naturally himself a Levite.

Literature—Josephus, Ant . x viii. 5, xv xi. 4, xviii. iv. 3, xx vi. 2, BJ v. v. 8, vi. v. 3; Schurer, HJ P [Note: JP History of the Jewish People.] i. ii. 55, ii. i. 258; Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible, article ‘Captain.’

P. Henderson Aitken.

II. Besides these two military or semi-military uses of ‘captain’ in the Gospels, we have to notice the employment of the term as a title for Christ in  Hebrews 2:10 (Authorized Version and (Revised Version margin)) and  Hebrews 12:2 ((Revised Version margin)). In both cases the corresponding word in the Greek text is ἀρχηγός, a word which otherwise is found in the NT only in  Acts 3:15;  Acts 5:31 (both times in Acts applied to Christ, and in each case rendered ‘Prince,’ with ‘Author’ as a marginal alternative in  Acts 3:15).

In accordance with its derivation (ἀρχή and ἡγέομαι), ἁρχηγός originally meant a leader, and so naturally came to be applied to a prince or chief. From this the transition was easy to the further meaning of a first cause or author, which is not infrequent in the philosophical writers. For the ‘Captain’ of Authorized Version in  Hebrews 2:10, Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 substitutes ‘author,’ giving ‘captain’ in the margin; and in  Hebrews 12:2 both VSS [Note: SS Versions.] have ‘author,’ though Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 again gives ‘captain’ as a marginal rendering.

But when Jesus is called ἀρχηγὸς τῆς σωτηρίας ( Hebrews 2:10), the meaning is not merely that He is the Author of our salvation. The context suggests that the idea of a leader going before his saved ones (cf.  Hebrews 6:20) ought to be adhered to (see Davidson, Hebrews, ad loc .). Similarly when He is called τῆς πίστεως ἀρχηγός ( Hebrews 12:2), the idea is that of one who has led the way along the path of faith. In both cases the term ‘Captain’ may be unsuitable, since it is apt to suggest military images which had no place in the writer’s mind; but ‘leader,’ at all events, should be retained, since the idea of leadership and not of authorship seems best to express his purpose (see Bruce, Expositor , 3rd ser. viii. [1888] p. 451). For a full treatment of the subject in its apologetic and homiletic aspects, Bruce’s chapter on ‘The Captain of Salvation’ ( op. cit. pp. 447–461) should be read in whole.

Literature.—The Lexicons of Grimm-Thayer and Cremer, s.v.  ; W. R. Smith in Expos . 2nd ser. [1881] ii. 422; D. Brown, ib . 5th ser. [1895] ii. 434 ff. See also C. J. Vaughan, P. Rendall, and B. F. Westcott on  Hebrews 2:10; J. A. Selbie in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible iv. 102a; and P. H. Chase, Credibility of the Acts , 129 f.

J. C. Lambert.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [2]

1: Χιλίαρχος (Strong'S #5506 — Noun Masculine — chiliarchos — khil-ee'-ar-khos )

denoting "a commander of 1000 soldiers" (from chilios, "a thousand," and archo, "to rule"), was the Greek word for the Persian vizier, and for the Roman military tribune, the commander of a Roman cohort, e.g.,  John 18:12;  Acts 21:31-33,37 . One such commander was constantly in charge of the Roman garrison in Jerusalem. The word became used also for any military commander, e.g., a "captain" or "chief captain,"  Mark 6:21;  Revelation 6:15;  19:18 .

2: Στρατηγός (Strong'S #4755 — Noun Masculine — strategos — strat-ay-gos' )

originally the commander of an army (from stratos, "an army," and ago, "to lead"), came to denote "a civil commander, a governor" (Latin, duumvir), the highest magistrate, or any civil officer in chief command,  Acts 16:20,22,35,36,38; also the "chief captain" of the Temple, himself a Levite, having command of the Levites who kept guard in and around the Temple,  Luke 22:4,52;  Acts 4:1;  5:24,26 . Cp.  Jeremiah 20:1 .

3: Ἀρχηγός (Strong'S #747 — Adjective — archegos — ar-khay-gos' )

see Author (No. 2).

 Acts 28:16

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [3]

CAPTAIN . This word occurs very frequently in the OT (AV [Note: Authorized Version.] and RV [Note: Revised Version.] ), and appears to have been favoured by the translators as a comprehensive term to denote a ruler, or a military commander of any unit, whatever its size might be. In modern military language it means especially the commander of a company of infantry, numbering about 100 to 110 men, and is quite unsuitable as a translation. It represents in OT 13 different Hebrew words. In Ezekiel it is often used for the secular head of the Messianic kingdom: ‘prince’ will there and often elsewhere do as a rendering; ‘officer’ and ‘chief’ will suit other passages. There are further places where none of these words will do as a translation. In the NT it translates four Greek words, and means: (1)   John 18:12 ,   Acts 22:28 a Roman military officer, a tribune of the soldiers, in command of about 1000 men, constituting the garrison of Jerusalem (hence   Revelation 6:15;   Revelation 19:18 in a general sense); (2)   Luke 22:4;   Luke 22:52 ,   Acts 4:1 etc., the captain of the Temple, a Levite, who had under him a body of police, probably themselves also priests, whose duty it was to keep order in the Temple at Jerusalem and guard it by night; (3)   Hebrews 2:10 (RV [Note: Revised Version.] ‘author’) leader, initiator; (4)   Acts 28:16 AV [Note: Authorized Version.] ‘captain of the guard’ (wanting in RV [Note: Revised Version.] ), a doubtful reading and of doubtful sense. See also Army, § 2 .

A. Souter.

People's Dictionary of the Bible [4]

Captain. In the Old Testament the rendering of a Hebrew word generally signifying a military officer. There were various ranks, from the captains of 50 to the captain of the host (or commander-in-chief).  1 Samuel 17:18;  2 Samuel 19:13;  2 Kings 1:9;  2 Kings 11:15. Captains of the guard are also mentioned.  Genesis 37:36;  2 Kings 25:8. These were military officers, charged, it would seem, with the defence of the royal person, and with the execution of sentences pronounced by the king: comp.  1 Kings 2:29-34;  1 Kings 2:46. The officer in the New Testament, called a captain in  Acts 28:16, was probably the commander of the prætorian troops at Rome, but the R. V. omits the clause containing the word. There is another Hebrew word translated sometimes "captain,"  Joshua 10:24, A. V. ("chiefs" in the R.V.), sometimes "ruler,"  Isaiah 3:6, which denotes both a military and a civil officer. The captain of the temple,  Luke 22:4;  Acts 4:1;  Acts 5:24, was not a military man, but the chief of the priests and Levites that watched in the temple at night. Comp.  Psalms 134:1. The word "captain" applied to our Lord,  Hebrews 2:10, has not a military signification.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [5]

In the O.T. this word is used for one filling any office of rule or command: as the head of a tribe,  Numbers 2:3-29; commander of an army, etc. The person who appeared to Joshua as 'a man' declared himself to be 'captain of the Lord's host.' He told Joshua to remove his shoes from his feet, for the ground was holy, evincing that he was God's representative to lead their warfare.  Joshua 5:14,15 . In the N.T. the Lord is called 'Captain' of our salvation, ἀρχηγός, 'chief leader.'  Hebrews 2:10 .

There was also a 'Captain Of The Temple' στρατηγός.  Luke 22:4,52;  Acts 4:1;  Acts 5:24,26 . This word is literally 'the leader of an army;' it is also applied to magistrates,  Acts 16:20 , but the captain of the temple was set not over the soldiers, but over the priests and Levites: cf.  Numbers 3:32;  1 Chronicles 9:11;  Jeremiah 20:1 .

THE Chief Captain or High Captain is χιλίαρχος, lit. 'Captain of a thousand,' applied to the chief of the soldiers in Jerusalem.  Acts 21 - 25.

Captain Of The Guard  Acts 28:16 , is στρατοπεδάρχης,properly 'commander of a camp,' but here the prefect of the Praetorian Guard, an officer to whom state prisoners were entrusted at Rome.

Webster's Dictionary [6]

(1): (n.) The master or commanding officer of a merchant vessel.

(2): (n.) One in charge of a portion of a ship's company; as, a captain of a top, captain of a gun, etc.

(3): (n.) A head, or chief officer

(4): (n.) By courtesy, an officer actually commanding a vessel, although not having the rank of captain.

(5): (n.) The foreman of a body of workmen.

(6): (n.) A military leader; a warrior.

(7): (v. t.) To act as captain of; to lead.

(8): (a.) Chief; superior.

(9): (n.) The military officer who commands a company, troop, or battery, or who has the rank entitling him to do so though he may be employed on other service.

(10): (n.) An officer in the United States navy, next above a commander and below a commodore, and ranking with a colonel in the army.

(11): (n.) A person having authority over others acting in concert; as, the captain of a boat's crew; the captain of a football team.

Easton's Bible Dictionary [7]

  • The Captain of our salvation is a name given to our Lord ( Hebrews 2:10 ), because he is the author and source of our salvation, the head of his people, whom he is conducting to glory. The "captain of the Lord's host" ( Joshua 5:14,15 ) is the name given to that mysterious person who manifested himself to Abraham ( Genesis 12:7 ), and to Moses in the bush ( Exodus 3:2,6 , etc.) the Angel of the covenant. (See Angel .)

    Copyright Statement These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., DD Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain.

    Bibliography Information Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Captain'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. 1897.

  • Smith's Bible Dictionary [8]


    1. As a purely military title, "captain" answers to sar in the Hebrew army and tribune in the Roman army. The captain of the guard in  Acts 28:16 was probably the prefectus pratorio .

    2. Katsin , occasionally rendered captain, applies sometimes to a military,  Joshua 10:24;  Judges 11:6,11;  Isaiah 22:3;  Daniel 11:18, sometimes to a civil command, for example,  Isaiah 1:10;  Isaiah 3:6.

    3. The captain of the Temple, mentioned in  Luke 22:4;  Acts 4:1;  Acts 5:24, superintended the guard of priests and Levites, who kept watch by night in the Temple.

    King James Dictionary [9]

    CAPTAIN, n.

    1. Literally, a head or chief officer appropriately, the military officer who commands a company, whether of infantry, cavalry, artillery or matrosses. 2. The commander of a ship of war, or of a merchantman. But the latter is often called a master. 3. The commander of a military band, a sense that occurs in the sciptures as a captain of fifty. 4. A man skilled in war or military affairs as, Lord Wellington is a great captain. 5. A chief commander. Shak. But in this sense rarely used, but in composition.

    Captain-general, is the commander in chief of an army, or of the militia. The covernor of a state is Captain-General of the militia.

    Captain-Lieutenant, is an officer, who with the rank of captain and pay of lieutenant, commands a company or troop. Thus the colonel of a regiment being the captain of the first company, that company is commanded by a Captain-Lieutenant.

    Captain-Bashaw, or Capudan Bashaw, in Turkey, is the High Admiral.

    CAPTAIN, a. Chief valiant.

    Fausset's Bible Dictionary [10]

    Captain Of The Temple ( Luke 22:4;  Acts 4:1;  Acts 5:24): not military, but over the guard of the temple, consisting of priests and Levites ( 2 Kings 12:9), "the priests that kept the door" ( 2 Kings 25:18); they visited the posts by night, and saw that the sentries were on the alert. In  Hebrews 2:10, (Greek "Prince leader of their salvation,") the antitypical Joshua who leads us into the heavenly Canaan. The same Greek in  Hebrews 12:2, "the Author," rather "Prince leader of our faith."  Acts 3:15, "Prince of life."

    Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [11]

    We meet this title in one passage of the word of God, and but one, as far as my memory chargeth me, applied to the Lord Jesus Christ; and that is in the second chapter of Hebrews, and the tenth verse. And very sweetly and eminently so, must we consider the name in reference to him. For he it was, most probably, that Joshua saw in vision, long before his incarnation, before the walls of Jericho, as captain of the Lord's host, and before whom Joshua fell on his face. ( Joshua 5:13-15) It is very blessed to see and know the Lord Jesus under this character, and to fight under his banner.

    Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types [12]

     2 Chronicles 13:12 (a) One of the many positions taken by our Lord for the blessing of His people. We are soldiers of Jesus Christ as we find in  Hebrews 2:10. See2Ti  2:3.

    Holman Bible Dictionary [13]

    Prince Of Life

    International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [14]

    kap´tin  : In the King James Version there are no fewer than 13 Hebrew words, and 4 different Greek words, which are rendered by this one English word. In the Revised Version (British and American) some of these are rendered by other English words, and so we find for "captain": "marshal" (Jer 27;  Nahum 3:17 ), "prince" ( 1 Samuel 9:16 ), "governor" ( Jeremiah 51:23 ,  Jeremiah 51:18 ), while in the case of one of these Hebrew words a different construction is found altogether ( Jeremiah 13:21 ).

    1. In the Old Testament

    Of Hebrew words in the Old Testament rendered by "captain" (1) The most frequent is שׂר , sar , which denotes "a military commander," whether of thousands or hundreds or fifties ( Numbers 31:48;  1 Samuel 8:12 and many other places). Sar is the chief officer of any department, civil and religious, as well as military - captain of the guard the King James Version and the Revised Version (British and American), chief of the executioners the Revised Version, margin ( Genesis 37:36 ); chief butler ( Genesis 40:9 ); chief baker ( Genesis 40:16 ); chief of a district ( Nehemiah 3:15 ); chiefs of tribes (Naphtali; Zebulun,  Psalm 68:27 ); chiefs over gangs of slaves ( Exodus 1:11 ); chiefs of the priests and the Levites ( Ezra 8:29 ). (2) רב , rabh , later Hebrew for chief of the executioners or captain of the guard, a title always given to Nebuzar-adan ( 2 Kings 25:8;  Jeremiah 39:9 ) and to Arioch ( Daniel 2:14 ). Compare also Rab-mag, chief of the magicians ( Jeremiah 39:13 ), and Ashpenaz, chief of the eunuchs ( Daniel 1:3 ). (3) ראשׁ , rō'sh , "head" over a host (Israel in the wilderness,  Numbers 14:4 ), over tribes ( Deuteronomy 29:10 , where the Revised Version (British and American) renders "heads"), over thousands ( 1 Chronicles 12:20 ). Abijah, king of Judah, before joining battle against Jeroboam, claimed "God himself is with us for our captain" the King James Version, "with us at our head" the Revised Version (British and American) ( 2 Chronicles 13:12 ). (4) שׁלישׁ , shālı̄sh , originally the third man in the chariot, who, when the chief occupant was the king, or commander-in-chief, was of the rank of captain ( 2 Kings 7:2;  2 Kings 9:25 ), the term "third man" being generalized to mean "a captain" in  2 Kings 10:25;  2 Chronicles 8:9 , where "chief of his captains" combines (1) and (4). (5) נגיד , nāghı̄dh , leader by Divine appointment: of Saul ( 1 Samuel 9:16 , "captain," the King James Version, "prince" the Revised Version (British and American)  1 Samuel 10:1 ); of David ( 2 Samuel 5:2 ); of Hezekiah ( 2 Kings 20:5 ); with a charge in connection with the temple ( 2 Chronicles 31:13 ). It is the word used of Messiah "the prince" ( Daniel 9:25 ), who is also Prince of the Covenant ( Daniel 11:22 ). (6) נשׂיא , nāsı̄' , rendered "captain" in the King James Version  Numbers 2:3 ,  Numbers 2:5 ,  Numbers 2:7 only, there in the Revised Version (British and American) and in other places, both the King James Version and the Revised Version (British and American), rendered "prince." In   1 Chronicles 7:40 "chief of the princes" combines (3) and (6). (7) פחה , peḥāh , is found almost entirely in a foreign title denoting "governor," and belongs to the later history of Israel ( Nehemiah 2:7 ,  Nehemiah 2:9;  Ezra 8:36;  Haggai 1:1 ), rendered "captain" in exclusively foreign associations ( 1 Kings 20:24;  2 Kings 18:24;  Daniel 3:27 f). (8) קצין , ḳācı̄n (from root of ḳadi , Arabic for "judge"), denotes "dictator," almost "usurper," and is found in "rulers of Sodom" the King James Version and the Revised Version (British and American), "judges of Sodom" the Revised Version, margin ( Isaiah 1:10 ), used of Jephthah in sense of "captain" the King James Version, "chief" the Revised Version (British and American) ( Judges 11:6 ), found combined with (3), "head and captain" (King James Version, "head and chief" the Revised Version (British and American)  Judges 11:11 ). In  Joshua 10:24 it denotes commanders of troops, the King James Version "captains of the men of war," the Revised Version (British and American) "chiefs of the men of war." (9) כּר , kar , in  Ezekiel 21:22 "to set captains" the King James Version, is translated "to set battering rams" the Revised Version (British and American). (10) בּעל , ba‛al , only once in "captain of the ward" ( Jeremiah 37:13 ). (11) טפסר , ṭiphṣar , a dignitary belonging to an oriental court, in the King James Version rendered "captain," in the Revised Version (British and American) "marshal" ( Nahum 3:17;  Jeremiah 51:27 ). (12) שׁלּיט , shallı̄ṭ , in  Daniel 2:15 of Arioch, the king's captain; in   Ecclesiastes 8:8 "having power over," and in   Ecclesiastes 7:19 used of "mighty men" (the Revised Version (British and American) "rulers").

    2. In the New Testament

    Of Greek words rendered by "captain" in New Testament there are the following: (1) ἀρχηγός , archēgós , rendered "captain" in  Hebrews 2:10 the King James Version but relegated to the margin in the Revised Version (British and American), where "author" (of their salvation) is preferred, this being the rendering of   Hebrews 12:2 the King James Version and the Revised Version (British and American), "author" (and finisher of our faith), "captain" being still retained in the Revised Version, margin. Compare   Acts 3:15 and   Acts 5:31 , where the same Greek word is rendered "Prince," the Revised Version, margin of the former passage giving "Author." In the Risen and Ascended Christ the various conceptions Thus expressed are found to blend. (2) χιλίαρχος , chilı́archos , the Latin tribunus militum of which there were six to a legion, commanding the six cohorts of which it was composed. In its lit. acceptation it would be "commander of a thousand," and it is so used in   Acts 22:28 where it designates the commander of the Roman garrison in Jerusalem, consisting of a cohort, and is rendered "chief captain" (  John 18:12;  Acts 21:31;  Acts 22:24;  Acts 24:22 ). It is used more vaguely in the sense of "military officer" in  Mark 6:21;  Revelation 6:15;  Revelation 19:18 . (3) στρατηγός , stratēgós , used only by Luke in the New Testament, and almost exclusively of ( a ) officials in charge of the Temple ( Luke 22:4 ,  Luke 22:52;  Acts 4:1;  Acts 5:24 ,  Acts 5:26 ). The captain of the Temple had the superintendence of the Levites and priests who were on guard in and around the Temple, and under him were stratēgoi , who were also captains of the Temple police, although they took their instruction from him as their head. He was not only a priest, but second in dignity only to the high priest himself; ( b ) The exception to Luke's general usage is where the word is used of the chief authorities in civil affairs at Philippi; where "the magistrates," as the word is rendered ( Acts 16:20 f), called themselves "praetors" ( stratēgoi ). In the case of Paul and Silas they placed themselves in peril of removal from their office by ordering them to be beaten, being Romans and uncondemned. (4) στρατοπεδάρχης , stratopedárchēs , the captain of the guard to whom Julius of the Augustan band (according to the Textus Receptus of the New Testament,  Acts 28:16 ) delivered Paul and his fellow-prisoners. The word has disappeared from the Revised Version (British and American), but the passage in which it occurs has attestation which satisfies Blass, Sir William Ramsay, and other scholars. It was supposed that this was the captain of the Praetorian guard, but Mommsen and Ramsay believe him to be the princeps peregrinorum castrorum . See Augustan Band; Army , Roman .


    Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [15]

    is the rendering, in the Auth. Vers., of numerous Hebrews and several Greek words, of which the following only require special elucidation. For the כָּרַי , Kari ´ , rendered "captains,"  2 Kings 11:4;  2 Kings 11:19, (See Cherethites).

    (1.)' As a purely military title, captain answers to שִׂר , Sar, in the Hebrew army, and Χιλίαρχος (Tribunus) in the Roman. (See Army). The "captain of the guard" ( Στρατοπεδάρχης ) spoken of in  Acts 28:16 was the Praetorian Praefect. (See Chronology) p. 312, b.

    (2.) קָצַין , I Katsin', which is occasionally rendered Captain, applies sometimes to a military ( Joshua 10:24;  Judges 11:6;  Judges 11:11;  Isaiah 22:3;  Daniel 11:18), sometimes to a civil command (e.g.  Isaiah 1:10;  Isaiah 3:6): its radical sense is division, and hence decision without reference to the means employed: the term illustrates the double office of the שֹׁפֵט , Shophet', or Dictator ("judge"). (See Judge).

    (3.) שָׁלַישׁ , Shalish ( Exodus 14:7;  Exodus 15:4;  2 Samuel 23:8;  1 Kings 9:22;  2 Kings 9:25;  2 Kings 10:25;  2 Kings 15:25;  1 Chronicles 11:11;  1 Chronicles 12:18;  2 Chronicles 8:9; "lord,"  2 Kings 7:2;  2 Kings 7:17;  2 Kings 7:19;  Ezekiel 23:23; "prince,"  Ezekiel 23:15), prop. a Third man, i.e. one of three, Gr. Τριστάτης , a higher order of soldiers, who fought from chariots, Chariot-Warriors ( Exodus 14:7;  Exodus 15:4;  1 Kings 9:22; Ἀναβάται , Παραβάται , Homr. Iliad, 23:32; Eurip. Supplic. 679); employed also for the body-guard of kings ( 1 Kings 9:22;  2 Kings 10:25;  1 Chronicles 11:11;  1 Chronicles 12:18). The Sept. has Rptararatm, i.e. according to Origen and Gregory of Nyssa (in the Catenae), "soldiers fighting from chariots," and so called because each chariot contained three soldiers, one of whom managed the horses, while the other two fought (comp. Ewald, Gesch. Isr. 2:81). For although on the Egyptian monuments usually but one, or at most two appear in the war-chariots, yet occasionally, as certainly in the Assyrian bas-reliefs, in addition to the driver and the warrior, an armor-bearer or umbrella-bearer is depicted as standing in the chariot, who might properly be termed ternarius, or a third man. (See Chariot). It is true the Hebrew army did not originally consist of cavalry, although chariots were in use among the Canaanites, and the first occurrences of the term שָׁלַישׁ are in connection with the Egyptians; but at alater date a chariot-squadron was organized ( 1 Kings 10:26; comp. 9:9; 5:6;  2 Samuel 8:4). Consequently, it is not strange that among the battalions of David and Solomon ( 2 Samuel 23:8) there should be named as a prominent hero the leader of these shalishim ( ראשׁ הִשָּׁלַשַׁי , or, rather, הִשָּׁלַשַׁים ; comp. Gesenius, Lehrgeb. p. 525; B Ö tticher, Spec. p. 38 sq.; Ewald, Gramm. Hebrews 5 th ed. § 152, c. 177 a). Solomon's chariot-men ( שָׁלַשָׁיו ) are mentioned ( 1 Kings 9:22;  2 Chronicles 8:9) as next to the priefects of his chariot-force ( שָׂרֵי רַכְבּוֹ ). After the times of Solomon there certainly were chariot- combatants ( Essedarii) as royal officers in the northern kingdom, and in the reign of Jehu runners and charioteers ( וְהִשָּׁלַשַׁים הָרָצַים ) formed, as it were, the king's Praetorian cohort ( 2 Kings 10:25); and the chief of these Praetorians (called by eminence הִשָּׁלַישׁ or שָׁלַשׁ הִמֶּלֶךְ ) was among the most noble of the regal attendants (q. d. adjutant-general). Accordingly, Joram had an officer of this title, "on whose hand the king leaned" ( 2 Kings 7:2;  2 Kings 7:17;  2 Kings 7:19); Jehu's charioteer was Bidkar ( 2 Kings 9:26); and Pekah held this eminent office under Pekahiah ( 2 Kings 15:25). Others, however (after Drusius), hold that the שָׁלַישׁ was merely the third officer in rank after the king, or commanded a third part of the army (comp. the Roman Tertiarii). So the Greek glossarists (ap. Drusius Ad Ezech. and in Fragm. Vet. Interpr. Gr. p. 145; Schleusner, Nov. Thesaur. s.v. Τριστάτης ; Dufresne, Glossar. s.v.; see Rosenm Ü ller, Scholia ad  Exodus 14:7). (See Chief Of Three).

    (4.) The " captain of the Temple" ( Στρατηγὸς Τοῦ Ἱεροῦ ) , mentioned by Luke ( Acts 4:1;  Acts 5:24) in connection, with the priests, was not a military officer, but superintended the guard of priests and Levites who kept watch by night in the Temple. The "captains" mentioned  Luke 22:4, were probably his subalterns. The office appears to have existed from an early date the "priests that kept the door". ( 2 Kings 12:9;  2 Kings 25:18) are described by Josephus (Ant. 10:8, 5) as "the officers guarding the Temple" ( Τοὺς Φυλάσσοντας Τὸ Ἱερὸν Ἡγεμόνας ) : a notice occurs in  2 Maccabees 3:4, of a praefect of the Temple ( Προστάτης Τοῦ Ἱεροῦ ) ; this officer is styled Στρατηγός or captain by Josephus (Ant. 20:6, 2; War, 6:5, 3); and in the Mishna (Middoth, 1, § 2) th איש הר ה , "the captain of the mountain of the Temple;" his duty, as described in the place last quoted, was to visit the posts during the night, and see that the sentries were doing their duty (comp.  1 Chronicles 9:11;  2 Chronicles 31:13;  2 Chronicles 35:8-9;  Jeremiah 20:1). (See Temple).

    The rank or power of an Israelitish captain was designated by the number of men under his command, as captain of fifty, or captain of a thousand, (See Centurion); and the commander or chief of the whole army was called the captain of the host (q.v.). The divisions of the army were regulated in some measure by the division of families, as the heads of families were usually officers. Captains of hundreds, or larger companies, were probably what would be called in modern phrase staff-officers, and formed the councils of war. (See War). Sometimes distinguished men who were not Hebrews were promoted to high stations in the army ( Deuteronomy 1:15;  1 Chronicles 13:1;  2 Chronicles 25:5;  2 Samuel 23:39). (See Officer).

    God is called Captain ("Prince") of the Host ( הִצָּבָאשִׁר ,  Daniel 8:11), not as equivalent to "Lord of Hosts," but because he is the head and protector of his people. So in the N.T. our Lord is called Captain of his people's salvation ( Ἀρχηγὸς Τῆς Σωτηρίας Αὐτῶν ,  Hebrews 2:10), because he is the beginner, source, and author of their salvation, the head of his Church, which he conducts, with and in himself, to blessedness (comp.  Joshua 5:14). (See Jehovah).