From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [1]

The adj. ‘good’ (ἀγαθός, καλός) may be used of any quality, physical as well as moral, thing, or person that may be approved as useful, fit, admirable, right. In the moral sense it connotes in the NT not only righteousness but kindness, helpfulness, love. For Jesus, God alone was “nod without limitation or qualification ( Mark 10:18,  Luke 18:19); and while His own moral discipline on earth was going on, He disclaimed that epithet for Himself (cf.  Matthew 19:17, with its attempt to escape the apparent difficulty of the disclaimer). This Divine perfection is shown in an impartial, universal beneficence ( Matthew 5:45), which men are to imitate ( Matthew 5:48). The same conviction of what God is, and what man, therefore, should be, is found in St. Paul’s counsels ( Ephesians 4:31-32;  Ephesians 5:1-2). Jesus Himself is the expression and activity of this Divine perfection, and so it is characteristic of Him to go about ‘doing good’ ( Acts 10:38), as He Himself indicates in His reply to the Baptist ( Matthew 11:4-5); and this, too, He enjoin as the practice of His disciples ( Luke 6:27; cf.  Matthew 25:31 ff.,  Mark 14:7,  Luke 19:8-9). St. Paul echoes the teaching of Jesus when he bids the Romans ‘overcome evil with good’ ( Romans 12:21), and assures them that such conduct will have its reward ( Romans 2:10). The distinction St. Paul makes between ‘a righteous man ‘and ‘the good man’ ( Romans 5:7) deserves special attention. Just as God because He is righteous reckons righteous ( Romans 3:26), so it is because God is good in Himself that He is ever showing His goodness to all men, especially in Christ and His Cross ( Romans 5:8,  Ephesians 4:32) and calling all men to be the imitators of His goodness (1 Corinthians 13).

Although the following article is dealing with the Christian moral ideal as ‘goodness,’ this brief statement in introducing the subject of ‘the good’ as man’s ‘chief end’ has been made for two reasons. ( a ) In the Christian view, God Himself is man’s chief good, for in His fellowship alone is man’s perfection, glory, and blessedness, and it is God’s goodness that man enjoys for ever; and ( b ) it is because of this goodness-this self-giving of God’s perfection as love-that the chief good is given to man. It is in Christ that man so possesses God, and it is through Christ that God so communicates Himself to man. The total impression of the apostolic writings is that Christ Himself is the Good, for in Him and through Him alone man has God as Love.

We must note, however, that the chief good is presented to us in three distinctive phrases in the different types of teaching in the NT. In the Synoptics, on the lips of Jesus Himself, it is ‘the kingdom of God’ ( Matthew 6:33); in the Fourth Gospel it is ‘eternal life’ ( John 20:30-31), although we also find the second representation in  Matthew 19:16,  Mark 10:17,  Luke 18:18, and the first in  John 3:5; in the Pauline Epistles it is ‘the righteousness of God’ or ‘of faith’ ( Philippians 3:9), or, more generally, salvation ( Romans 1:18;  Romans 1:17).

The idea of the good combines character and condition; it includes Tightness and happiness, holiness and blessedness, or, as the Shorter Catechism puts it: ‘man’s chief end is to glorify God and to enjoy Him for ever.’ Man, by claiming God’s goodness, enjoying and praising it, and by showing a like goodness, glorifies God: that is, sets forth the honour, worth, beauty, and majesty of God’s moral perfection ( Romans 15:6;  Romans 15:9,  1 Corinthians 6:20,  2 Corinthians 9:13; cf.  Colossians 3:17,  1 Peter 4:10-11). As God is grace, God’s claim on man is for faith: and this is his supreme duty ( Hebrews 11:8). Thus the two aspects of the good pass into one another: man fulfils his obligation to God by making fully his own the salvation God offers in Christ. We need not then further pursue the idea of the good as duty , but may confine ourselves to it as boon .

(1) For Plato and Aristotle the good necessarily included both well-being (εὐδαιμονία) and also well-doing; a man must have health, wealth, beauty, and intellect as well as the virtues to attain fully the good. Here the first great distinction of the Christian view emerges. A man’s good is independent of his outward circumstances. As Jesus taught His disciples not to be anxious about food or raiment, but to leave all to the care and bounty of the Heavenly Father, who would add all these things to those who first sought His Kingdom and righteousness ( Matthew 6:19-34), so St. Paul assures Christian believers that even the very worst circumstances imaginable cannot really injure them, for ‘all things work together for good to them that love God’ ( Romans 8:28). The declaration has some affinity with Stoic thought; but the difference lies in this, that for Stoic self-sufficiency there is substituted the possession of the love of God in Christ as the satisfying portion of the soul ( Romans 8:39). While there is this independence of outward circumstances, there is no cynic-like contempt for bodily needs, and the labour that meets these ( 1 Thessalonians 4:11,  2 Thessalonians 3:10,  Romans 12:11;  Romans 12:17). Private property even may become part of the Christian’s good, as affording the opportunity for the generosity which is so highly recommended as a Christian grace ( Romans 12:8;  Romans 12:13;  2 Corinthians 8:1-15).

(2) A second feature of the Christian view that distinguishes it from the Greek is that the good is not the result of fortune or the reward of merit, but the gift of Gods grace ( Romans 5:21;  Romans 6:23). It does include a duty to be done, but it is primarily a boon to be claimed. Hence the pre-eminence of faith as the primary, if not the supreme, grace of the Christian life. For human self-sufficiency there is substituted dependence upon God ( 2 Corinthians 2:16;  2 Corinthians 3:5-6;  2 Corinthians 12:9).

(3) A third characteristic is the emphasis on sin in the Christian view as the evil from which there must be escape. The good includes deliverance from sin in the two-fold sense, corresponding to the two-fold reference of sin in relation to God, and in relation to a man’s own nature. There is forgiveness of sin, reconciliation with God, the peace of God ( Romans 3:22-26;  Romans 5:10;  Romans 1:7;  Romans 2:10, etc.); a man is set in right relation with God, so that God’s approval and not His displeasure rests upon him, and he does not distrust, or feel estranged from, God, but is at borne with God as a child with a father. There is also the breaking of the power of sin, and the banishment of the love of sin, by a new motive and a new strength ( Romans 6:1-11;  Romans 7:25,  2 Corinthians 5:14,  Philippians 4:13). There is a present conquest of evil, and victory over the world. This is a present good claimed more or less, according to the measure of faith; but as Christians are not merely owners of the present but also heirs of the future good ( Romans 8:17;  Titus 3:7,  1 Peter 1:4; cf.  Hebrews 11:9), hope as well as faith is necessary to claim the full salvation ( Romans 8:24,  1 Thessalonians 5:8,  1 Peter 1:3).

(4) Into the contents of the Christian hope, the details of the apostolic Eschatology ( q.v. [Note: quod vide, which see.] ), it is beyond the scope of this article to enter; but one feature, because of its distinction from, or even opposition to, the Greek view, may here he mentioned. The Greek thinker, if he did hope for a future life, looked for the release of the soul from its imprisonment in the body-for a disembodied immortality; but the Christian good includes not merely the survival of the soul in death, but resurrection-the restoration of the entire personality ( Romans 8:23,  2 Corinthians 5:1-4,  Philippians 3:21). This does not involve the absurdity of a material identity of the body buried and the body raised, for St. Paul expressly distinguishes the one from the other as the natural and the spiritual ( 1 Corinthians 15:42-44), but only the conviction that the future life will be a completely human one.

(5) As we may surely reckon as an dement in the Christian good the fellowship of believers, the membership of the body of Christ ( 1 Corinthians 12:12-31,  Ephesians 1:23), the κοινωνία of the Spirit ( 2 Corinthians 13:14 : the common life of the Church in the Spirit), so the Christian life is not individual but universal; it is the subjection of all things to Christ, the destruction of all evil, the cessation of all pain and grief, the victory of the saints, and God all and in all. No such wider hope inspired the Greek thinkers. It is true that the expectation of an immediate return of Christ in power and glory precludes our interpreting this universal good as a historical evolution of mankind in manners, morals, laws, institutions, and pieties to so glorious and blessed a consummation, and we are left uncertain as to the mode in which the process is to be conceived. But the hope is a fact of apostolic life.

(6) There is one feature in the Christian good peculiar to St. Paul. As a Pharisee he had felt the burden and the bondage of the Law, and groaned under its judgment, but he had discovered its impotence, and so for him the Christian good included the end of the Law ( Galatians 4:21-31;  Galatians 5:1), for Christian morality is not legal-the observance of the letter-but spiritual-the expression of the new life found in Christ ( 2 Corinthians 3:1-11). It may be doubted, however, whether even all believers in the Apostolic Age were morally mature enough to be released from all outward restraints, and to be left only to inward constraint; and St. Paul’s counsels and commands even in his letters show that this end of the Law was ideal rather than actual. It is certain that the Christian Church in the course of its history generally has been legal rather than spiritual in its morality, and so this part of the Christian good has been unrealized.

(7) In the apostolic view of the Christian good there are two features which may he regarded as of temporary and local rather than of permanent and universal significance for Christian faith: ( a ) the expectation of the speedy Second Advent of Christ in power and glory to usher in the Last Things, which faded out of the Christian consciousness, with from time to time futile attempts to revive it, as the course of human history contradicted it; and ( b ) the belief which became more prominent in subsequent centuries than it was in the Apostolic Age, that the evil to be overcome and destroyed was embodied in personal evil principles and powers, over whom Christ gained the victory, and from whom He effected deliverance for the believer ( Romans 8:38-39,  1 Corinthians 15:24,  Ephesians 1:21,  Colossians 2:15). For the details on both these subjects the relevant articles must be consulted, as all that is here necessary is merely the mention of them for the completeness of the treatment of the present topic.

Such is the Christian good; is it regarded as destined to be universal? Does the NT otter us a theodicy? It has been already indicated that the Christian hope does include the victory of Christ over all His foes, and the subjection of all things to Him, and at last of Himself to God ( 1 Corinthians 15:24-28); but these confident predictions do not clearly or fully answer the question whether all men will at last be saved-that is, become sharers of the good. While there are a few passages pointing towards universal restoration , there are others indicating eternal punishment , and some even on which has been based a theory of conditional immortality . This problem seems insoluble even with the data not only of the Scriptures, but also of human experience; and accordingly, whatever Christian wishes and hopes may be, we cannot affirm that the Christian good presents the final destiny of the race in cloudless sunshine without any shadow; and thus the believer must walk not by sight, but by faith, in the belief that whatever the Heavenly Father does is wisest, kindest, best. As has been shown in the articleEvil, the Christian attitude is neither optimism nor pessimism , but meliorism -the belief that the world not only needs redemption, but is being redeemed in Christ.

Literature.-W. Beyschlag, NT Theology , Eng. translation, 1895. bk. i. ch. viii., bk. ii. ch. v., bk. iv. chs. vi. ix., bk. v. ch. v.; G. B. Stevens, The Theology of the NT , 1899, pt. i. chs. iii. xii., pt. ii. chs. vi. vii., pt. iv. chs. v. viii. xii., pt. vi. ch. v., pt. vii. ch. iv.; T. von Haering, The Christian Faith , Eng. translation, 1913, ii. 800-926; A. M. Fairbairn, The Philosophy of the Christian Religion , 1902, pp. 94-168; O. Pfleiderer, The Philosophy of Religion 2, Eng. translation, 1886-88, vol. iv. ch. iv.

Alfred E. Garvie.

King James Dictionary [2]

GOOD, a.

1. Valid legally firm not weak or defective having strength adequate to its support as a good title a good deed a good claim. 2. Valid sound not weak, false or fallacious as a good argument. 3. Complete or sufficiently perfect in its kind having the physical qualities best adapted to its design and use opposed to bad,imperfect, corrupted, impaired. We say, good timber, good cloth, a good soil, a good color.

And God saw every thing that he had made, and

behold, it was very good.  Genesis 1

4. Having moral qualities best adapted to its design and use, or the qualities which God's law requires virtuous pious religious applied to persons, and opposed to bad, vitious, wicked, evil.

Yet peradventure for a good man some would

even dare to die.  Romans 5

5. Conformable to the moral law virtuous applied to actions.

In all things showing thyself a pattern of good works.

 Titus 2

6. Proper fit convenient seasonable well adapted to the end. It was a good time to commence operations. He arrived in good time. 7. Convenient useful expedient conducive to happiness.

It is not good that the man should be alone.  Genesis 2

8. Sound perfect uncorrupted undamaged. This fruit will keep good the whole year. 9. Suitable to the taste or to health wholesome salubrious palatable not disagreeable or noxious as fruit good to eat a tree good for food.  Genesis 2 10. Suited to produce a salutary effect adapted to abate or cure medicinal salutary beneficial as, fresh vegetables are good for scorbutic diseases. 11. Suited to strengthen or assist the healthful functions as, a little wine is good for a weak stomach. 12. Pleasant to the taste as a good apple.

My son, eat thou honey, because it is good, and the honeycomb, which is sweet to thy taste.  Proverbs 24

13. Full complete.

The protestant subjects of the abbey make up a good third of its people.

14. Useful valuable having qualities or a tendency to produce a good effect.

All quality, that is good for any thing,is originally founded on merit.

15. Equal adequate competent. His security is good for the amount of the debt applied to persons able to fulfill contracts.

Antonio is a good man.

16. Favorable convenient for any purpose as a good stand for business a good station for a camp. 17. Convenient suitable safe as a good harbor for ships. 18. Well qualified able skillful or performing duties with skill and fidelity as a good prince a good commander a good officer a good physician. 19. Ready dexterous.

Those are generally good at flattering who are good for nothing else.

20. Kind benevolent affectionate as a good father good will. 21. Kind affectionate faithful as a good friend. 22. Promotive of happiness pleasant agreeable cheering gratifying.

Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity.  Psalms 133

23. Pleasant or prosperous as, good morrow, Sir good morning. 24. Honorable fair unblemished unimpeached as a man of good fame or report.

A good name is better than precious ointment.

 Ecclesiastes 7

25. Cheerful favorable to happiness. Be of good comfort. 26. Great or considerable not small nor very great as a good while ago he is a good way off, or at a good distance he has a good deal of leisure I had a good share of the trouble. Here we see the primary sense of extending, advancing. 27. Elegant polite as good breeding. 28. Real serious not feigned.

Love not in good earnest.

29. Kind favorable benevolent humane.

The men were very good to us.  1 Samuel 25

30. Benevolent merciful gracious.

Truly God is good to Israel, even to such as are

of a clean heart.  Psalms 73

31. Seasonable commendable proper.

Why trouble ye the woman, for she hath

wrought a good work on me.  Matthew 26

32. Pleasant cheerful festive.

We come in a good day.  1 Samuel 25

33. Companionable social merry.

It is well known, that Sir Roger had been a good fellow in his youth.

34. Brave in familiar language. You are a good fellow. 35. In the phrases, the good man, applied to the master of the house,and good woman, applied to the mistress, good sometimes expresses a moderate degree of respect, and sometimes slight contempt. Among the first settlers of New England, it was used as a title instead of Mr. as Goodman Jones Goodman Wells. 36. The phrase good will is equivalent to benevolence but it signifies also an earnest desire, a hearty wish, entire willingness or fervent zeal as, we entered into the service with a good will he laid on stripes with a good will. 37. Comely handsome well formed as a good person or shape. 38. Mild pleasant expressing benignity or other estimable qualities as a good countenance. 39. Mild calm not irritable or fractious as a good temper. 40. Kind friendly humane as a good heart or disposition.

Good advice, wise and prudent counsel.

Good heed, great care due caution.

In good south, in good truth in reality.

To make good, to perform to fulfill as, to make good one's word or promise that is to make it entire or unbroken.

1. To confirm or establish to prove to verify as, to make good a charge or accusation. 2. To supply deficiency to make up a defect or loss. I will make good what is wanting. 3. To indemnify to give an equivalent for damages. If you suffer loss, I will make it good to you. 4. To maintain to carry into effect as, to make good a retreat.

To stand good, to be firm or valid. His word or promise stands good.

To think good, to see good, is to be pleased or satisfied to think to be expedient.

If ye think good, give me my price.  Zechariah 11

As good as, equally no better than the same as. We say, one is as good as dead.  Hebrews 11

As good as his word, equaling in fulfillment what was promised performing to the extent.

GOOD, n. That which contributes to diminish or remove pain, or to increase happiness or prosperity benefit advantage opposed to evil or misery. The medicine will do neither good nor harm. It does my heart good to see you so happy.

There are many that say, who will show us any good.  Psalms 4

1. Welfare prosperity advancement of interest or happiness. He labored for the good of the state.

The good of the whole community can be promoted only by advancing the good of each of the members composing it.

2. Spiritual advantage or improvement as the good of souls. 3. Earnest not jest.

The good woman never died after this, till she came to die for good and all.

The phrase, for good and all, signifies, finally to close the whole business for the last time.

4. Moral works actions which are just and in conformity to the moral law or divine precepts.

Depart from evil, and do good.  Psalms 34

5. Moral qualities virtue righteousness.

I find no good in this man.

6. The best fruits richness abundance.

I will give you the good of the land.  Genesis 45

GOOD, To manure. Not in use.

GOOD, adv. As good, as well with equal advantage. Had you not as good go with me? In America we use goods,the Gothic word. Had you not as goods go?

In replies, good signifies well right it is satisfactory I am satisfied. I will be with you to morrow answer, good, very good. So we use well, from the root of L. valeo, to be strong.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words [3]

A. Adjective.

Ṭôb ( טוֹב , Strong'S #2896), “good; favorable; festive; pleasing,;pleasant; well; better; right; best.” This word appears in Akkadian, Aramaic, Arabic, Ugaritic, and Old South Arabic. Occurring in all periods of biblical Hebrew, it appears about 559 times.

This adjective denotes “good” in every sense of that word. For example, ṭôb is used in the sense “pleasant” or “delightful”: “And he saw that [a resting place] was good, and the land that it was pleasant; and bowed his shoulder to bear [burdens] …” (Gen. 49:15). An extension of this sense appears in Gen. 40:16, where ṭôb means “favorable” or “in one’s favor”: “When the chief baker saw that the interpretation was good , he said unto Joseph.…” In 1 Sam. 25:8, the emphasis is on the nuance “delightful” or “festal”: “… Let the young men find favor in thine eyes: for we come in a good day.…” God is described as One who is “good,” or One who gives “delight” and “pleasure”: “But it is good for me to draw near to God: I have put my trust in the Lord God, that I may declare all thy works” (Ps. 73:28).

In 1 Sam. 29:6, this word describes human activities: “… As the Lord liveth, thou hast been upright, and thy going out and thy coming in with me in the [army] is good in my sight.…” Ṭôb can be applied to scenic beauty, as in 2 Kings 2:19: “Behold, I pray thee, the situation of this city is pleasant, as my lord seeth: but the water is naught, and the ground barren.” Second Chron. 12:12 employs a related nuance when it applies the word to the conditions in Judah under King Rehoboam, after he humbled himself before God: “… Things went well.”

Ṭôb often qualifies a common object or activity. When the word is used in this sense, no ethical overtones are intended. In 1 Sam. 19:4, ṭôb describes the way Jonathan spoke about David: “And Jonathan spake good of David unto Saul his father, and said unto him, Let not the king sin against his servant, against David; because he hath not sinned against thee, and because his works have been [toward thee] very good.” First Samuel 25:15 characterizes a people as “friendly” or “useful”: “But the men were very good unto us, and we were not hurt, neither missed we any thing, as long as we were conversant with them, when we were in the fields.…” Often this word bears an even stronger emphasis, as in 1 Kings 12:7, where the “good word” is not only friendly but eases the life of one’s servants. God’s “good word” promises life in the face of oppression and uncertainty: “… There hath not failed one word of all his good promise, which he promised by the hand of Moses his servant” (1 Kings 8:56). Ṭôb often characterizes a statement as an important assertion for salvation and prosperity (real or imagined): “Is not this the word that we did tell thee in Egypt, saying, Let us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians? For it had been better —for us to serve the Egyptians, than that we should die in the wilderness” (Exod. 14:12). God judged that man’s circumstance without a wife or helpmeet was not “good” (Gen. 2:18). Elsewhere ṭôb is applied to an evaluation of one’s well-being or of the wellbeing of a situation or thing: “And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness” (Gen. 1:4—the first occurrence).

Ṭôb is used to describe land and agriculture: “And I am come down to deliver them out of the [power] of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land unto a good [fertile] land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey …” (Exod. 3:8). This suggests its potential of supporting life (Deut. 11:17). Thus the expression “the good land” is a comment about not only its existing, but its potential, productivity. In such contexts the land is viewed as one aspect of the blessings of salvation promised by God; thus the Lord did not permit Moses to cross the Jordan and enter the land which His people were to inherit (Deut. 3:26-28). This aspect of the “good land” includes overtones of its fruitfulness and “pleasantness”: “And he will take your fields, and your vineyards, and your oliveyards, even the best of them …” (1 Sam. 8:14). Ṭôb is used to describe men or women. Sometimes it is used of an “elite corps” of people: “And he will take your menservants, and your maidservants, and your goodliest young men, and your asses …” (1 Sam. 8:16). In 2 Sam. 18:27, Ahimaaz is described as a “good” man because he comes with “good” military news. In 1 Sam. 15:28, the word has ethical overtones: “The Lord hath rent the kingdom of Israel from thee this day, and hath given it to a neighbor of thine, that is better than thou” (cf. 1 Kings 2:32). In other passages, ṭôb describes physical appearance: “And the damsel was very fair to look upon [literally, “good of appearance”] …” (Gen. 24:16). When applied to one’s heart, the word describes “well-being” rather than ethical status. Therefore, the parallel idea is “joyous and happy”: “… And they … went unto their tents joyful and glad of heart for all the goodness that the Lord had done for David …” (1 Kings 8:66). Dying “at a good old age” describes “advanced age,” rather than moral accomplishment, but a time when due to divine blessings one is fulfilled and satisfied (Gen. 15:15).

Ṭôb indicates that a given word, act, or circumstance contributes positively to the condition of a situation. Often this judgment does not mean that the thing is actually “good,” only that it is so evaluated: “When the chief baker saw that the interpretation was good …” (Gen. 40:16). The judgment may be ethical: “It is not good that ye do: ought ye not to walk in the fear of our God because of the reproach of the heathen …?” (Neh. 5:9). The word may also represent “agreement” or “concurrence”: “The thing proceedeth from the Lord: we cannot speak unto thee bad or good” (Gen. 24:50).

Ṭôb is often used in conjunction with the Hebrew word ra’ah —(“bad; evil”). Sometimes this is intended as a contrast; but in other contexts it may mean “everything from good [friendly] to bad [unfriendly],” which is a way of saying “nothing at all.” In other contexts, more contrast is suggested: “And what the land is that they dwell in, whether it be good or bad …” (Num. 13:19). In this case, the evaluation would determine whether the land could support the people well or not.

In Gen. 2:9, ṭôb contrasted with evil has moral overtones: “… the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil.” The fruit of this tree, if consumed, would reveal the difference between moral evil and moral “good.” This reference also suggests that, by eating this fruit, man attempted to determine for himself what “good” and evil are.

B. Verbs.

Yâṭab ( יָטַב , Strong'S #3190), “to go well, be pleasing, be delighted, be happy.” This verb appears 117 times in the Old Testament. The meaning of the word, as expressed in Neh. 2:6, is “pleased.”

Ṭôb ( טוֹב , Strong'S #2895), “to be joyful, glad, pleasant, lovely, appropriate, becoming, good, precious.” Ṭôb has cognates in Akkadian and Arabic. The verb occurs 21 times in the Old Testament. Job 13:9 is one example of the word’s meaning, “to be good”: “Is it good that he should search you out?”

Holman Bible Dictionary [4]

 1 Chronicles 16:34 Psalm 119:68 Genesis 1:31 Exodus 18:9 Ezra 7:9 Psalm 34:8 Philippians 1:6 Psalm 52:9 Joshua 21:45 Psalm 119:39 Romans 7:12 James 1:17 Genesis 50:20 Romans 8:28 Psalm 14:1 14:3 Mark 10:18 Ephesians 2:10 Colossians 1:10

Charles Buck Theological Dictionary [5]

In general, is whatever increases pleasure, or diminishes pain in us; or, which amounts to the same, whatever is able to procure or preserve to us the possession of agreeable sensations, and remove those of an opposite nature. Moral good denotes the right conduct of the several senses and passions, or their just proportion and accommodation to their respective objects and relations. Physical good is that which has either generally, or for any particular end, such qualities as are expected or desired.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [6]

good ( טוב , ṭōbh , טוּב , ṭūbh , יטב , yāṭabh  ; ἀγαθός , agathós , ἀγαθόν , agathón , καλός , kalós , καλόν , kalón ): In English "good" is used in various senses, most of which are represented in the Bible.

(1) In the Old Testament the commonest word is ṭōbh , occurring very frequently and translated in a great variety of ways. Of the different shades of meaning, which frequently run into each other, the following may be distinguished: ( a ) Possessing desirable qualities , beneficial , agreeable , e.g. "good for food" (  Genesis 2:9 ); "We will do thee good" ( Numbers 10:29 ); Who will show us any good?" ( Psalm 4:6 ); "good tidings of good" ( Isaiah 52:7 ). ( b ) Moral excellence , piety: "to know good and evil" (  Genesis 3:22 ); "that which is right and good" (  Deuteronomy 6:18  ;  1 Samuel 12:23 ); "good and bad" ( 1 Kings 3:9 , the Revised Version (British and American) "evil"); "Depart from evil and do good" ( Psalm 37:27 ); "a good man" ( Proverbs 12:2 ); compare  Isaiah 5:20;  Micah 6:8 , etc. ( c ) Kind , benevolent: "The men were very good unto us" (  1 Samuel 25:15 ); "Give thanks unto Yahweh; for he is good" ( 1 Chronicles 16:34 ); "the good Yahweh" ( 2 Chronicles 30:18 ); "God is good to Israel" ( Psalm 73:1 ); "Yahweh is good to all" ( Psalm 145:9 ), etc. ( d ) Serviceable , adequate , sufficient: "saw the light that it was good" (  Genesis 1:4; so  Genesis 1:10 ,  Genesis 1:12 etc.); "not good that the man should be alone" (  Genesis 2:18 ); in the frequent phrase, "if it seem good" ( 1 Chronicles 13:2;  Esther 5:4 , etc.), sometimes rendered, "if it please" ( Nehemiah 2:5 ,  Nehemiah 2:7;  Esther 1:19 , etc.). ( e ) Not small or deficient (full, complete): "a good old age" (Gen 15, 15;   Genesis 25:8 ); "a good dowry" ( Genesis 30:20 ); "good ears," "years," "kine" ( Genesis 41:24 ,  Genesis 41:26 ,  Genesis 41:35 ); "good understanding" ( 1 Samuel 25:3 ); "good trees" - "land" ( 2 Kings 3:19 ,  2 Kings 3:25 ), etc. ( f ) Not blemished , fair , honorable: "tender and good" (  Genesis 18:7 ); "good kids" ( Genesis 27:9 ); "good report" ( 1 Samuel 2:24; compare  2 Kings 20:3;  Jeremiah 24:2 ); and the renderings "fair" ( Genesis 26:7 , etc.), "beautiful" ( 2 Samuel 11:2 ), "pleasant" ( 2 Kings 2:19 ), etc. ( g ) Pleasure-giving , happy: "glad of heart" (  1 Kings 8:66;  Esther 5:9 ); sometimes in the King James Version and the Revised Version (British and American) translated "merry" ( Judges 16:25;  1 Samuel 25:36;  2 Samuel 13:28;  Proverbs 15:15 , the Revised Version (British and American) "cheerful"), etc.

Changes that may be noted in the Revised Version (British and American) are such as, "good" for "ready" ( Isaiah 41:7 ); "I have no good beyond thee" for "My goodness extendeth not to thee" ( Psalm 16:2 ); "goodly" for "good" ( Psalm 45:1 ); "good" for "goodness" ( Psalm 107:9 ); "good" for "well" ( Zechariah 8:15 ).

Ṭūbh means something good , e.g. "the good of the land" (  Genesis 45:18 ,  Genesis 45:20;  Deuteronomy 6:11;  Job 21:16 , the Revised Version (British and American) "prosperity").

Yāṭabh , "to do good," occurs several times, as, I will surely do thee good" (  Genesis 32:12 ); "to do good" ( Leviticus 5:4 ); "Make your ways and your doings good," the Revised Version (British and American) "amend" ( Jeremiah 18:11;  Zephaniah 1:12 , etc.).

Numerous other Hebrew words are rendered "good" in various verbal connections and otherwise, as "to bring good tidings" ( 2 Samuel 4:10;  Isaiah 40:9 , etc.); "take good heed" ( Deuteronomy 2:4;  Deuteronomy 4:15;  Joshua 23:11 ); "make good" ( Exodus 21:34 ), etc.; "good will" ( racōn ,  Deuteronomy 33:16;  Malachi 2:13 ); "what good?" the Revised Version (British and American) "what advantages?" ( kishrōn ,  Ecclesiastes 5:11 ); "good for nothing," the Revised Version (British and American) "profitable" ( cālēaḥ ,  Jeremiah 13:10 ), etc. In  Jeremiah 18:4 , "as seemed good to the potter," the word is yāhsār , which means literally, "right."

(2) In the New Testament the words most frequently translated "good" are agathos and kalos ̌ . The former, agathos , denotes good as a quality , physical or moral. Thus, "He maketh his sun to rise on the evil and the good" (  Matthew 5:45 ); "good gifts" ( Matthew 7:11 ); "Good Master (the Revised Version (British and American) "Teacher") ... Why callest thou me good? none is good save one" ( Mark 10:17 f;   Luke 18:18 f; compare   Matthew 19:16 ); "they that have done good" ( John 5:29 ). Sometimes it is equivalent to "kind" (thus  Titus 2:5 the Revised Version (British and American)); to agathon is "that which is good" ( Luke 6:45;  Romans 7:13;  1 Thessalonians 5:15;  1 Peter 3:13 ), etc.; "that which is honest," the Revised Version (British and American) "honorable" ( 2 Corinthians 13:7 ); "meet" ( Matthew 15:26;  Mark 7:27 ); "worthy," the Revised Version (British and American) "honorable" ( James 2:7 ); agathon is "a good thing," as "good things to them that ask him" ( Matthew 7:11 ); Can any good thing come out of Nazareth?" ( John 1:46 ), etc.; agathoergéō ( 1 Timothy 6:18 ), and agathopoiéō ( Mark 3:4;  Acts 14:17 ), etc., "to do good."

Kalos is properly, "beautiful," "pleasing," "useful," "noble," "worthy" in a moral sense, e.g. "that they may see your good works" (  Matthew 5:16 ); "She hath wrought a good work on me" ( Matthew 26:10; Mk 14, 6); "the good shepherd" ( John 10:11 ,  John 10:14 ); "Many good works have I showed you" ( John 10:32 ); "good and acceptable before God" ( 1 Timothy 5:4; the Revised Version (British and American) omits "good"); "the good fight" ( 2 Timothy 4:7 ); "good works" ( Titus 2:7 ); "the good word of God" ( Hebrews 6:5 ). But it is often practically equivalent to agathos , e.g. "good fruit" ( Matthew 3:10 ); "good ground" ( Matthew 13:23 ); "good seed" ( Matthew 13:24 ); but the idea of useful may underlie such expressions; to kalon is properly "that which is beautiful." It occurs in  Romans 7:18 ,  Romans 7:21;  1 Thessalonians 5:21 , "Hold fast that which is good." In Rom 7 it seems to be used interchangeably with to agathon ̌ . In  Romans 5:7 , "the good man" ( ho agathos ) is distinguished from "a righteous man" ( dı́kaios ): "For the good man some one would even dare to die" (compare  Romans 7:16;  Hebrews 5:14;  James 4:17 ); kalō̇s , "well," "pleasantly," is translated "good" ( Luke 6:27;  James 2:3 ); kalodidáskalos ( Titus 2:3 ), "teachers of good things," the Revised Version (British and American) "of that which is good."

"Good" occurs in the rendering of many other Greek words and phrases, as eudokı́a , "good pleasure" (  Ephesians 1:9 ); "good will" ( Luke 2:14;  Philippians 1:15 ); sumphérō , "to bear together," "not good to marry" ( Matthew 19:10 ), the Revised Version (British and American) "expedient"; philágathos , "a lover of good" ( Titus 1:8 ); chrēstologı́a , "good words" ( Romans 16:18 , the Revised Version (British and American) "smooth speech," etc.).

The following changes in the Revised Version (British and American) may be noted. In  Luke 2:14 for "men of good will" ( eudokia ) the Revised Version (British and American) reads "in whom he is well pleased," margin "good pleasure among men, Greek men of good pleasure." The meaning is "men to whom God is drawing nigh in goodwill or acceptance"; compare  Luke 4:19 , "the acceptable year of the Lord";  Luke 4:43 , "Preach the good tidings of the kingdom of God." In  Matthew 11:5;  Luke 4:43;  Luke 7:22;  1 Peter 1:25 and (American Standard Revised Version)   Revelation 14:6 "the gospel" is changed into "good tidings." In   Matthew 18:8 f;   Mark 9:43 ,  Mark 9:15 ,  Mark 9:47;  Luke 5:39 , good is substituted for "better"; on the last passage in notes "Many authorities read 'better'"; in  1 Corinthians 9:15 "good ... rather" for "better"; "good" is substituted in   Luke 1:19;  Luke 8:1 and   Acts 13:32 for "glad"; in   Acts 6:3 for "honest"; in   Hebrews 13:9 for "a good thing." In   2 Thessalonians 1:11 , all the good pleasure of his goodness" becomes "every desire of goodness" (m "Gr good pleasure of goodness"); in  1 Timothy 3:2 , "good" ( kósmios ) becomes "orderly." There are many other instances of like changes. See Goodness; Good , Chief .

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [7]

(Lat. bonum) is variously defined by moralists, according to the nature of their ethical theories. The Stoic would define it to be that which is according to nature; the Epicurean, that which increases pleasure or diminishes pain; the Idealist, that which accords with the fitness of things; the Christian theologian, that which accords with the revealed will of God. So the philosophical schools give various and even contradictory definitions of the highest good (summumsbonum). Thus Aristippus placed it in pleasure in activity; Epicurus, in pleasure in repose; Zeno, in tranquillity of mind; Kant, in well being conditioned on morality; the Materialists, in self-love.

Schleiermacher states his views of. the subject as follows: In ethics there are three fundamental conceptions duty, virtue, good. Duty is the obligation of morals action; virtue is the moral power of the agent; the highest good is the objectives aim of both. In the Systems of Kant and Fichte, ethics is the doctrine of duty, and its development becomes simply a treatment of individual virtues. In opposing this view, Schleiermacher maintains that a system of moral precepts, or formulas of duty, even though it might embrace the whole life of man, could only be applied in isolated cases and single acts, leaving the moral life as a whole. still unexplained. It is only in a very limited sphere that a moral agent acts alone, and without reference to other agents; and his virtue has relation to a general state of things, to produce which other agents cooperate. Schleiermacher charges the existing ethical systems with making an unnatural schism between the law of action (duty) and the active power (virtue) on the one hand, and the resulting actions on the other hand; and also with leaving entire spheres of human action, of unquestionably moral character, in the domain of adiaphora (things indifferent), instead of brinmging them under the authority of moral law. To remedy these alleged confusions, Schleiermacher seeks for an organic principle of ethics, which shall be at once objective, systematic, and comprehensive. He finds it in the highest good, which can be completely apprehended, not in its relations to the individual merely, but with reference to the human race as a whole. From this principle the whole sphere of ethics may be mapped, placing universal nature on the one hand, and the organizing reason (the universal reason of humanity) on the other. In this theory Schleiermacher expressly recognizes the authority of Plato, who, in his Philebus investigated the "highest good." Aristotle, in whom the idea of virtue was the highest, places the highest good in Εὐδαιμονία , individual happiness not, however, in the Epicurean sense, but in the sense of Ζωῆς Τελείας Ἐνέργεια Κατ᾿ Ἀπετὴν Τελείαν , the working out or realization of a perfect life through perfect virtue.

In the further development of the history of ethics, so far as relates to the definition of the "highest good," we must particularly notice the distinction (1) between the individual and the general, indicated in Plato and Aristotle, and carried to the greatest extent by Epicurus and the Stoics; (2) the resulting distinction between the objective and subjective, according to which the "highest good" is, on the one hand, a condition of man (e.g. Epicurean enjoyment, Stoical endurance); or, on the other hand, a product of human activity, the end of humanity as a whole;. (3) the consequent moral theories of pleasure or of activity, according to the farmer of which the "highest good" lies in enjoyment, while according to the latter it lies in moral activity. In the language of Christian theology "the highest good" is the kingdom of God, which includes within itself all ethical elements, the individual and the general, activity and happiness, theory and practice, means and end. The means of securing the "highest good" is to promote the advancement of that kingdom; the end, the "highest good" itself, is the coming. of that kingdom, to the individual. in his personal salvation to the universal race, in the realization of the promise "God shall be all in all!" See Schleiermacher, Ethische Abhandlungen, in his Phil. Nachlassen, 2:12, 13; Herzog, Real-Encyklop. s.v. Ethik, Tugend.