From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Holman Bible Dictionary [1]

The site of Hazor is composed of a 30-acre upper tell or mound rising 40 meters above the surrounding plain and a 175-acre lower enclosure which was well fortified. These dimensions make Hazor the largest city in ancient Canaan. Estimates set the population at its height at over 40,000.

The upper tell had twenty-one separate levels of occupation beginning between 2750,2500 B.C. and continuing down to the second century B.C. Canaanites occupied Hazor until Joshua destroyed it. The Israelites controlled it until 732 B.C. when the Assyrians captured the city. Hazor then served as a fortress for the various occupying powers until the time of the Maccabees.

The lower enclosure had five levels of occupation beginning about 1750 B.C. and continuing until Joshua destroyed it. It was never rebuilt.

Hazor's location was strategic both economically and militarily. It overlooked the Via Maris, the major overland trade route from Egypt to the north and east, and thus became a major trading center. It is mentioned extensively in both Egyptian and Mesopotamian records in conjunction with the other major trading cities of the day. Hazor also overlooked the Huleh Valley, a critical defense point against armies invading from the north.

 Joshua 11:1-15;  Joshua 12:19 relate how Jabin, king of Hazor, rallied the forces of the northern cities of Canaan against Joshua. Hazor was “the head of all those kingdoms” (  Joshua 11:10 ), that is, it was the dominant city-state of the Canaanite kingdoms. Joshua defeated the Canaanite forces, slew the leaders, including Jabin, and burned the city of Hazor. Modern archaeology lends support to this biblical account. The size and location of the city of Hazor, as well as references to it in other ancient literature, would indicate that Hazor probably controlled a vast portion of Canaan. Yadin's excavation of Hazor indicated that the city was destroyed by fire in the second third of the thirteenth century B.C.

The next mention of Hazor in the Old Testament is troublesome. In  Judges 4:1 we again find a Jabin as king of Canaan ruling from Hazor. His troops led by Sisera of Harosheth-hagoyim were routed by Deborah and Barak. Some Bible students see a discrepancy between this story and the story in Joshua, saying Jabin was killed generations earlier and Hazor destroyed and taken into Israelite control. The traditional solution to this discrepancy stresses that Jabin is referred to in the past tense—”who reigned in Hazor.” Jabin was not alive at the time of the battle with Deborah, but Sisera had previously been commander of Jabin's forces. Hazor need not exist at this time as Sisera lived at Harosheth-ha-goiim (location unknown.) A different solution on the basis of archaeological excavations claims the story concerning Jabin in Joshua is accurate. The city was destroyed by Joshua and was not rebuilt as a city until the time of Solomon. The most ancient account of the defeat of Sisera by Deborah and Barak appears in the poetic account of   Judges 5:1 , which mentions neither Jabin nor Hazor (compare  1 Samuel 12:9 ). This approach sees  Judges 4:1 as a later account influenced by the story in Joshua. The straight biblical narrative seems to assume Joshua destroyed but did not occupy it, though it was allotted to Naphtali: (  Joshua 19:36 ). The Canaanite dynasty of Jabin maintained or regained control with one or more kings named Jabin.  1 Kings 9:15 mentions that Solomon rebuilt the walls of Hazor, Megiddo and Gezer. Excavations have discovered conclusive evidence to support this short portion of Scripture. Two layers of Israelite occupation of Hazor between the destruction of the Canaanite city by Joshua and the rebuilding of the city by Solomon show merely semi-nomadic Israelite encampments, evidenced by tent or hut foundation rings, cooking pits, and storage pits. Apparently, no formal city or fortifications existed during the time of the Judges. The city was clearly rebuilt at the time of Solomon, evidenced by the characteristiclly Solomonic gate structures, that is, casehymate walls and a six-chamber gatehouse (three on each side) with two square towers. Comparing the gates at Hazor with those at Gezer and Megiddo, Yadin found them to be identical in both design and dimension. The Solomonic city was much smaller than the Canaanite city. It only covered half of the upper tell.

 2 Kings 15:29 records that Tiglath-pileser III, king of Assyria, captured Hazor and carried its people captive to Assyria. The evidence of this destruction is very great. No less than three feet of ashes and rubble cover the ruins left by this destruction. Prior to the Assyrian invasion, Hazor had been greatly enlarged and strengthened by King Ahab of Israel in anticipation of the attack. The city had grown to fill the entire upper tell. Its fortifications had been strengthened and enlarged, and a special water shaft and tunnel 40 meters deep was dug down to the water table to bring the water supply inside the city.

2. Town in tribal inheritance of Judah ( Joshua 15:23 ), probably to be read with earliest Greek translation as Hazor-Ithnan. This may be modern el-Jebariyeh.

3. Town in southern part of tribal inheritance of Judah, probably to be read as Hazor-Hadattah ( Joshua 15:25 ) with most modern translations. This may be modern el-Hudeira near the Dead Sea's southern end.

4. Town identified with Hezron ( Joshua 15:25 ). See Hezron .

5. Town where part of tribe of Benjamin lived in time of Nehemiah ( Nehemiah 11:33 ). This may be modern khirbet Hazzur four miles north northwest of Jerusalem.

6. Name of “kingdoms” that Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon threatened ( Jeremiah 49:28-33 ). Apparently, small nomadic settlements of Arab tribes are meant. Such settlements would still have rich treasures the Babylonian king coveted.

John Brangenberg

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [2]

("enclosed".) (See Harosheth .)

1. In Naphtali, on a height overlooking Lake Merom ( Joshua 11:1;  Joshua 11:10, "head of all those kingdoms," i.e. the chief city of northern Palestine;  Joshua 12:19;  Joshua 19:36;  Judges 4:2;  Judges 4:17;  1 Samuel 12:9). Burnt by Joshua in order not to leave such a strong place in his rear; rebuilt and made the second Jabin's seat whence he oppressed Israel. Fortified by Solomon as a point of defense at the entering into Palestine from Syria and Assyria; its fortification was one among the works which necessitated. a "levy" of taxes ( 1 Kings 9:15). Its inhabitants were carried to Assyria by Tiglath Pileser ( 2 Kings 15:29). Now Tell Khuraibeh , "the ruins," according to Robinson; but there are no old ruins there and no cisterns. Rather Tel Hara, where is an ancient fortress, and walls, ruins, and pottery (Our Work in Palestine, Palestine Exploration Fund).

2. A city in the extreme S. of Judah ( Joshua 15:23).

3. HAZOR-HADATTAH, "the new Hazor" as distinguished from the former; also in southern Judah ( Joshua 15:25).

4. A city N. of Jerusalem, where the Benjamites resided after the return from Babylon ( Nehemiah 11:33).

Smith's Bible Dictionary [3]

Ha'zor. (Castle).

1. A fortified city, which on the occupation of the country, was allotted to Naphtali.  Joshua 19:36. Its position was apparently, between Ramah and Kedesh,  Joshua 12:19, on the high ground overlooking the Lake of Merom. There is no reason for supposing it, a different place from that of which, Jabin was king.  Joshua 11:1;  Judges 4:2;  Judges 4:17;  1 Samuel 12:9. It was the principal city of the whole of north Palestine.  Joshua 11:10. It was fortified by Solomon,  1 Kings 9:15, and its inhabitants were carried captive by Tiglath-pileser.  2 Kings 15:29. The most probable site of Hazor is Tell Khuraibeh .

2. One of the "cities" of Judah in the extreme south, named next, in order, to Kedesh.  Joshua 15:23.

3. Hazor-Hadattah. "New Hazor". Another of the southern towns of Judah.  Joshua 15:25.

4. A place in which the Benjamites resided, after their return from the captivity.  Nehemiah 11:33.

People's Dictionary of the Bible [4]

Hazor ( Hâ'Sôr ), Enclosure. 1. The city of King Jabin: destroyed by Joshua,  Joshua 11:1;  Joshua 11:10-11; given to Naphtali,  Joshua 19:36; again possessed by the Canaanites,  Judges 4:2. who had for its king Jabin—a generic reigned in Hazor and whose general was Sisera. It was fortified by Solomon,  1 Kings 9:15; its people were carried into captivity by Tiglath-pileser.  2 Kings 15:29. The city appears to have been situated on a hill in the midst of a plain, and was a stronghold.  Joshua 11:4;  Judges 4:3. 2. A city in the south of Judah; probably should be written Hazor-ithman,  Joshua 15:23. 3. Another town of Judah; called Hazor-hadattah, or New Hazor. Josh. 15:25. 4 Hezron, which is Hazor,  Joshua 15:25; rendered by Canon Cook "Kerioth Hezron, which is Hazor." It is supposed to have been the home of Judas Iscariot, the man of Kerioth,  Matthew 10:4; Conder suggested Kheshram, north of Beer-sheba, as the site of this Hazor.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [5]

HAZOR. 1. The city of Jabin (  Joshua 11:1 etc.), in Naphtali (  Joshua 19:36 ), S. of Kedesh ( 1Ma 11:63; 1Ma 11:67 etc. called in Tob 1:2 Asher ), overlooking Lake Semechonitis = cl-Hûleh (Jos. [Note: Josephus.] Ant . V. v. 1). The name probably lingers in Jebel and Merj el-Hadîreh , about 7 miles N. of Safed . It was taken and destroyed by Joshua. Solomon fortified it (  1 Kings 9:15 ). It was taken by Tiglath-pileser iii. (  2 Kings 15:29 ). 2. A town in the Negeb of Judah (  Joshua 15:23 ), unidentified. 3. A town also in the Negeh (  Joshua 15:25 ), identical with Kerioth-hezron . 4. A place in Benjamin, N. of Jerusalem (  Nehemiah 11:33 ), probably Khirbet Hazzûr , between Beit Haninah and Neby Samwîl . 5. The kingdoms of Hazor, named with Kedar (  Jeremiah 49:28 etc.), an Arabian district, possibly on the border of the desert.

W. Ewing.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [6]

1. Ancient city and capital of northern Palestine. It was taken and burnt by Joshua; rebuilt and allotted to Naphtali, but was retaken by a second Jabin, king of Canaan, who was defeated by Deborah and Barak. It was fortified by Solomon, and was afterwards taken by Tiglath-pileser, and the inhabitants carried to Assyria.  Joshua 11:1-13;  Joshua 12:19;  Joshua 19:36;  Judges 4:2,17;  1 Samuel 12:9;  1 Kings 9:15;  2 Kings 15:29 . Identified by some with Jebel Hadireh, 31 50' N, 35 12' E .

5. Place in 'the east' that was to be smitten by Nebuchadnezzar, and be a desolation for ever.  Jeremiah 49:28,30,33 . Not identified.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [7]

1. A chief city of northern Canaan, whose king Jabin, at the head of an allied host, was defeated by Joshua,  Joshua 11:1-13 . Hazor revived, however, and for a time oppressed the Israelites; but was subdued by Barak, fortified by Solomon, and remained in the possession of Israel until the invasion of Tiglathpileser,  Joshua 19:36;  Judges 4:2;  1 Kings 9:15;  2 Kings 15:29 . It lay not far from Lake Merom.

2. A region in Arabia, laid waste by Nebuchadnezzar,  Jeremiah 49:28 -  33 . Its location is unknown.

3. Cities in Judah and Benjamin,  Joshua 15:23;  Nehemiah 11:33 .

Easton's Bible Dictionary [8]

  • "Kerioth and Hezron" ( Joshua 15 ::  25 ) should be "Kerioth-hezron" (as in the RSV), the two names being joined together as the name of one place (e.g., like Kirjath-jearim), "the same is Hazor" (RSV). This place has been identified with el-Kuryetein, and has been supposed to be the home of Judas Iscariot. (See Kerioth .)

    Copyright Statement These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., DD Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain.

    Bibliography Information Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Hazor'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/ebd/h/hazor.html. 1897.

  • Bridgeway Bible Dictionary [9]

    Before Israel’s conquest of Canaan, Hazor was the chief city of the far northern region of Canaan. When the armies of Israel entered Canaan under Joshua, they conquered Hazor and burnt it ( Joshua 11:1;  Joshua 11:10-11). In the division of Canaan that followed, Hazor fell within the tribal area of Naphtali ( Joshua 19:32;  Joshua 19:36). Later the local people regained control of Hazor and rebuilt the city, though in due course the Israelites drove them out ( Judges 4:2;  Judges 4:23-24). In the reign of Solomon, Hazor became Israel’s main defence outpost on its northern frontier ( 1 Kings 9:15).

    Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [10]

    (Heb. Chatsor', חָצוֹר , Village (See Hazer)-; Sept. Ἀσώρ , but Αὐλή ) in  Jeremiah 49:28;  Jeremiah 49:30;  Jeremiah 49:33), the name of several places. (See En-Hazor); (See Baalhazor); (See Hazor-Hadattah); (See Hazerim).

    1. A city near the waters of lake Merom (Huleh), the seat of Jabin, a powerful Canaanitish king, as appears from the summons sent by him to all the neighboring kings to assist him against the Israelites ( Joshua 11:15). He and his confederates were, however, defeated and slain by Joshua, and the city burned to the ground ( Joshua 11:10-13; Josephus, Ant. 5, 5, 1): being the only one of those northern cities which was burned by Joshua, doubtless because it was too strong and important to leave standing in his rear. It was the principal city of the whole of North Palestine, "the head of all those kingdoms" ( Joshua 10:10; see Jerome, Onomast. s.v. Asor). Like the other strong places of that part, it stood on an eminence ( תֵּל ,  Joshua 11:13, A.V. "strength"), but the district around must-have been on the whole flat, and suitable for the maneuvers of the "very many" chariots and horses which formed part of the forces of the king of Hazor and his confederates ( Joshua 11:4;  Joshua 11:6;  Joshua 11:9;  Judges 4:3). But by the time of Deborah and Barak the Canaanites had recovered part of the territory then lost, had rebuilt Hazor, and were ruled by a king with the ancient royal name of Jabin, under whose power the Israelites were, in punishment for their sins, reduced. From this yoke they were delivered by Deborah and Barak, after which Hazor remained in quiet possession of the Israelites, and belonged to the tribe of Naphtali ( Joshua 19:36;  Judges 4:2;  1 Samuel 12:9). Solomon did not overlook so important a post, and the fortification of Hazor, Megiddo, and Gezer, the points of defense for the entrance from Syria and Assyria, the plain of Esdraelon, and the great maritime lowland respectively, was one of the chief pretexts for his levy of taxes ( 1 Kings 9:15).. Later still it is mentioned in the list of the towns and districts whose inhabitants were carried off to Assyria by Tiglath-Pileser ( 2 Kings 15:29; Josephus, A Nt. 9: 11, 1). We encounter it once more in  1 Maccabees 11:67, where Jonathan, after encamping for the night at the "water of Gennesar," advances to the "plain of Asor" (Josephus, Ant. 13, 5, 7; the Greek text of the Maccabees has prefixed an n from the preceding word Πεδίον ; A.V. "Nasor") to meet Demetrius, who was in possession of Kadesh (11, 63; Josephus as above). (See Nasor). Raumer queries whether it may not have been the ancient town of Naason, which king Baldwin IV passed on his way from Tiberias to Saphet (Will. Tyr. p. 1014); and his reason for this conjecture is that the Vulgate gives Naason for the Asor ( Ἀσώρ ) of Tobit 1, 1 (Raumer, Palastinza.S. 114, n.). (See Asor).

    The name Hazor still lingers in several places around the upper valley of the Jordan (Robinson, B. R. 3, 63, 81, 401). There is one Hazury on a commanding site above Caesarea Philippi, and close to the great castle of Subeibeh. Here Keith (Land of Israel, p. 374) and Stanley (Sin. and Pal. p. 389) would place the ancient capital of Canaan. But the territory of Naphtali hardly extended so far eastward. Another Hasur is in the plain, a few miles west of the site of Dan; but neither does this site quite accord with the Scripture notices (Porter's Damascus, 1, 304; Van de Velde, Memoir, p. 318). Schwarz (Palest. p. 91) thinks a village which he calls Azur, between Banias and Meshdel (el-Mejel), may be the ancient Hazor; he probably refers to the Ain el-Hazury marked on Zimmerman's Map a little north-east of Banias, which, however, is too far east. There is a place marked as Azur on Zimmerman's Map, a little north-east of Kedes (Kadesh), which unquestionably lay in Naphtali; but M. De Saulcy (Narrat. 2, 406) denies that this can have been the Hazor of Jabin (which he distinguishes from the Hazor of Solomon), and in a long argument (p. 400- 405) he contends that it was situated on the site of some extensive ruins, which he reports at a place called indefinitely el-Khan, on the hills skirting the north-easterly shore of the lake el-Huleh, in the direction of Banias. Van de Velde (Memoir, p. 318) likewise thinks the Hazor of Joshua different from that of Judges (although both were ruled by a Jabin, evidently a hereditary title), and inclines to regard En-Hazor ( Joshua 19:37) as identical with the latter, and with a ruined Hazur in the middle of Galilee (about two hours from Bint Jebeil); while he seems to acquiesce in the identification of the eastern Hazor with a Hazur (Porter, Danascus, 1, 304) or Kasr Autar (Seetzen), or, as he himself calls it, Tell Haze, covered with remains, and jutting out from Merj Ayun towards the Huleh plain. The Hazor of  Joshua 19:36, he believes to be Tell Hazur, southeast of Ramah. All this, however, is vague and confused. Mr. Thomson, who visited this region in 1843, believed Hazor may be identified with the present castle of Hunin, north of the Huleh (Biblioth. Sacra, 1846, p. 202).

    The editor (Dr. Robinson), however, thinks the arguments adduced more plausible than sound (Ib. p. 212), and advocates the opinion of Rev. E. Smith, that Tell Khureibeh, at the south end of the plain of Kedes, is better entitled to be regarded as the site of Hazor (Bibliotheca Sacra, 1847, p. 403). Accordingly, in the new ed. of his Researches, after noticing and rejecting several other sites proposed (3, 63, 81, 402), he at length fixes upon this as best agreeing with the ancient notices of this city (ib. p. 365). There are, as the name Khureibeh, "ruins," implies, some ancient ruins on the tell, but they are those of a village. There are still other ruins of an ancient town which occupy a commanding site on the south bank of wady Hend  j, overlooking the valley and lake of Merom, and about six miles south of Kedesh, which is a not improbable site for the ancient Hazor (Robinson, Bibl. Res. 3, 363, 365); and the plain beneath it, stretching to the shore of the lake, might take the name of the city Asur, as Josephus seems to indicate (1. c.). Ritter (Erdk. 15, 260) accepts the Hazury proposed by Burckhardt (Trav. p. 44); apparently the inconsiderable ruin on the rocky declivity above Banias (Robinson, Res. new ed. 3, 402). Captain Wilson prefers the isolated Tell Harah, covered with ruins, about two miles southeast of Kedesh (Jour. Sac. Lit. 1866, p. 245). But none of these last cited places retain the ancient name. Finally, Dr. Thomson is confident (Land and Book, 1, 439) that the true spot is Hazere (the above Hazur of Van de Velde, east of a more northern Ramah), in the center of the mountainous region overhanging lake Huleh on the northwest, containing numerous ancient remains, and locally connected by tradition with the Israelitish victory; although Dr. Robinson (incorrectly) objects to this site (Bib. Res. new ed. 3:63) that it is too far from the lake, and within the territory of Asher.

    2. A city in the south of Judah (but probably not one of those assigned to Simeon, since it is not named in the list,  Joshua 19:1-9), mentioned between Kedesh (Kadesh-Barnea) and Ithant ( Joshua 15:23, where the Vat. MS. of the Sept. unites with the following name, Ἀσοριωνάν , Alex. MS. omits, Vulg. Asor). We may reasonably conjecture that this was the central town of that name, the other Hazors of the same connection (HazorHadattah, and Kerioth-Hezron or Hazor-Amam) being probably so called for distinction' sake; and in that case we may perhaps locate it at a ruined site marked on Van de Velde's Map as Tayibeh (the Et-Taiyib of Robinson, Res. 3 Appendix, p. 114), on a tell around the south-west base of which runs the wady ed-Dheib, emptying into the Dead Sea. See Nos. 3 and 4.

    3. HAZOR-HADATTAH (for so the Heb. חָצוֹר חֲדִתָּה , i.e. New Hazor, should be understood; since there is no copula between the words, and the sense in  Joshua 15:32 requires this condensation; Sept. omits, Vulg. Asor nova), a city in the south of Judah (but not the extreme Simeonite portion), mentioned between Bealoth and Kerioth ( Joshua 15:25); probably, as suggested in Keil and Delitzsch's Commentary, ad loc. (Edinb. ed. p. 160), the ruined site El-Hudhairah of Robinson's Researches (3, Append. p. 114), south of Hebron, in the immediate vicinity of el-Beyudh (the Beiyudh of Van de Veldes Map, about half way between Kerioth and Arad). See Nos. 2. and 4.

    4. HAZOR-AMAM (to be so joined for the same reasons as in No. 2), probably identified with Kerioth-Herzon (in the Heb. the four names stand הַיא חָצוֹר אֲמָם קְרַיּוֹת חֶצְרוֹן , Villages Of Chetsron Which Is Chatsor Amam; Sept. Αἱ Πόλεις Ἀσερών [v.r. Ἀσερώμ ], Αὕτη Ἐστὶ Ἀσω῎Ρ Καὶ Αμάμ , [v.r. Ἀσερωμάμ ]; Vulg. Carioth, Hesron, Haec Est Asor, Amam), a town in the south of Judah (but apparently not in the Simeonite territory), mentioned between Bealoth and Shema ( Joshua 15:24-26); no doubt (if thus combined) the modern El-Khureyetein, as suggested by Robinson (Researches, 3, Append. p. 114). (See Kerioth).

    5. (Vat. MS. of Sept. omits; Vulg. Asor.) A city inhabited by the Benjamites after the Captivity, mentioned between Ananiah and Ramah ( Nehemiah 11:33); possibly the modern Gazur, a short distance east of Jaffa (for others of the associated names, although likewise within the ancient territory of Dan, are also assigned to Benjamin), since Eusebius and Jerome (Onomast. s.v. Asor) mention a Hazor in the vicinity of Ascalon, although they assign it to Judah, and confound it with those in the south of that tribe (Robinson's Researches, 2, 370, note). From the places mentioned with it, as Anathoth, Nob, Ramah, etc., it would seem to have lain north of Jerusalem, and at no great distance there from. Schwarz thinks it is called Chasor ( חסר ) in the Talmudical writers (Palest. p. 162). Robinson suggests the identity of Hazor and the modern Tell Asur, a ruin on a little hill about six miles north of Bethel (Bib. Res. i1, 264, note). This, however, appears to be too far from Ramah. Tobler mentions a ruin called Khurbet Arsur, near Ramah, a little to the west, the situation of which would answer better to Hazor (Topogr. 2, 400; Van de Velde, Memoir, p. 319). The place in question is probably the same with the BAAL-HAZOR (See Baal-Hazor) (q.v.) of  2 Samuel 13:23.

    6. A region of Arabia, spoken of as an important place, in the vicinity of Kedar, in the prophetic denunciations of desolation upon both by Nebuchadnezzar ( Jeremiah 49:28-33). It can hardly be Petra, as supposed by Vitringa (On Isaiah, i, p. 624), nor the Asor placed by Eusebius 8 miles west of Philadelphia (Hitzig, Jesaias, p. 196), but probably is a designation of the confines of Arabia with south-eastern Palestine, inhabited by nomade tribes dwelling in mere encampments. (See Hazar).

    International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [11]

    hā´zor ( חצור , ḥācōr  ; Νασώρ , Nasō̇r  ; Codex Sinaiticus, Ἀσώρ , Asō̇r ,   1 Maccabees 11:67 ):

    (1) The royal city of Jabin ( Joshua 11:1 ), which, before the Israelite conquest, seems to have been the seat of a wide authority ( Joshua 11:11 ). It was taken by Joshua, who exterminated the inhabitants, and it was the only city in that region which he destroyed by fire ( Joshua 11:11-13 ). At a later time the Jabin Dynasty appears to have recovered power and restored the city ( Judges 4:2 ). The heavy defeat of their army at the hands of Deborah and Barak led to their final downfall ( Judges 4:23 ). It was in the territory allotted to Naphtali ( Joshua 19:36 ). Hazor was one of the cities for the fortification of which Solomon raised a levy ( 1 Kings 9:15 ). Along with other cities in Galilee, it was taken by Tiglathpileser Iii ( 2 Kings 15:29 ). In the plain of Hazor, Jonathan the Maccabee gained a great victory over Demetrius (1 Macc 11:67ff). In Tobit 12 it is called "Asher" (Septuagint Ασήρ , Asḗr ), and Kedesh is said to be "above" it. Josephus ( Ant. , V, v, 1) says that Hazor was situated over the lake, Semechonitis, which he evidently identifies with the Waters of Merom ( Joshua 11:13 ). It must clearly be sought on the heights West of el-Chuleh. Several identifications have been suggested, but no certain conclusion can be reached. Some (Wilson and Guerin) favor Tell Harreh to the Southeast of Qedes, where there are extensive ruins. Robinson thought of Tell Khureibeh, 2 1/2 miles South of Qedes, where, however, there are no ruins. We may take it as certain that the ancient name of Hazor is preserved in Merj el-Chadireh, Southwest of Qedes, and North of Wady 'Uba, and in Jebel Chadireh, East of the Merj, although it has evidently drifted from the original site, as names have so often done in Palestine. Conder suggests a possible identification with Chazzur, farther South, "at the foot of the chain of Upper Galilee ... in position more appropriate to the use of the chariots that belonged to the king of Hazor" ( HDB , under the word).

    (2) A town, unidentified, in the South of Judah ( Joshua 15:23 ).

    (3) A town in the South of Judah ( Joshua 15:25 ). See Kerioth-Hezron .

    (4) A town in Benjamin ( Nehemiah 11:33 ) now represented by Khirbet Ḥazzūr , not far to the East of Neby Samwı̄l .

    (5) An unidentified place in Arabia, smitten by Nebuchadnezzar ( Jeremiah 49:28 ,  Jeremiah 49:33 ).

    Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [12]

    Ha´zor, a city near the waters of lake Merom (Huleh), the seat of Jabin, a powerful Canaanitish king, as appears from the summon sent by him to all the neighboring kings to assist him against the Israelites. He and his confederates were, however, defeated and slain by Joshua, and the city burnt to the ground (;; Josephus Antiq. v.5. 1). But by the time of Deborah and Barak the Canaanites had recovered part of the territory then lost, had rebuilt Hazor, and were ruled by a king with the ancient royal name of Jabin, under whose power the Israelites were, in punishment for their sins, reduced. From this yoke they were delivered by Deborah and Barak, after which Hazor remained in quiet possession of the Israelites, and belonged to the tribe of Naphtali . Hazor was one of the towns rebuilt or much improved by Solomon , and was one of the fortified places of Galilee which the Assyrians under Tiglath-pileser first took on invading Palestine from the north . There is no modern notice of this town.