From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [1]

Tiglath-Pileser [in   1 Chronicles 5:6;   1 Chronicles 5:26 and   2 Chronicles 28:20 corrupted to the form Tilgath-Pilneser ]. This Assyrian ruler, the Tukulti-apil-çsharra of the monuments, was the third of the name. He began to reign about b.c. 745 (13th of Iyyar), and is supposed to have been a usurper. In the Babylonian chronological list he is called Pulu , the Pul of   2 Kings 15:19 , and the Poros of the Canon of Ptolemy. His reign was a very active and important one. Five months after his accession he marched into Babylonia to overthrow the power of the Aramæan tribes. In b.c. 744 he went to Namri to punish the tribes who harassed the Assyrian border. In b.c. 743 he defeated the forces of Sarduris ii. of Ararat at Arpad. Among those who gave tribute on this occasion were Rezin of Damascus, Hiram of Tyre, and Pisiris of Carchemish. Arpad, however, revolted again, and was for three years the objective of Tiglath-pileser’s expeditions (b.c. 742 740). In 739 he went to Ulluba in Mesopotamia, and the presence of his armies there enabled him, in b.c. 738, to make head against Syrian and PhÅ“nician resistance. On this occasion he subjected Kullani, supposed to be the Calno of   Isaiah 10:9 . Rost suggests that Azrian or Izrian (Azariah) of Judah played some part in this expedition, and among those who gave tribute was Menahem of Samaria (  2 Kings 15:19 ). In b.c. 737 his objective was the Medes, in many of whose cities he set up bas-reliefs with the royal image. After this (b.c. 736) his forces were again directed against Mesopotamia, and reached the mountain of Nal. This led the way to the conquest of Ararat in b.c. 735. In b.c. 734 the Assyrian army invaded Pilishta (Philistia) according to Rost, the Mediterranean coastland S. of Joppa. Gaza was captured, and Hanun, the king, having fled, Tiglath-pileser mounted the throne and set up his image in the palace there. In b.c. 733 came the turn of Damascus and also of Israel, the immediate cause being affairs in Judah. Azariah had died, and after the short reign of his son Jotham, Jehoahaz or Ahaz came to the throne. Taking advantage of the change, Pekah of Israel made an alliance with Rezln of Damascus to attack Judah, and captured Elath (  2 Kings 16:5 ff.). Feeling that Judah would be compelled to submit to the allied powers in the end, Ahaz turned to Assyria, sending the best of his own treasures and those of the Temple at Jerusalem to make a worthy present to the Assyrian king (  2 Kings 16:8 ), who therefore came to his aid. Pekah and Rezln withdrew their forces from Judah, but, instead of uniting against the common foe, awaited the Assyrian king’s attack each in his own territory. Marching by the coast-route, Tiglath-pileser assured himself of the submission of his vassals in N. PhÅ“nicia, and attacked N. Israel, capturing Ijon, Abel-beth-maacah, Janoah, Kedesh, Hazor, Gilead, Galilee, and all the land of Naphtali (  2 Kings 15:29 ). These names are not preserved in the annals, though ‘the broad (land of) … -li’ may be, as Hommei suggests, the last named. Pekah saved his land from further harm by paying tribute, but things went harder with Rezin, his ally, who shut himself up in Damascus. The siege which followed ended, in 732, in the capture of the city; 591 towns, including Hadara, Rezin’s own city, were razed to the ground. An attack upon Samsi, queen of the Arabians, followed, the result being that a number of tribes Sabæans, Mas’æans, etc., hastened to propitiate the Assyrian king with gifts. Idi-bi’il, a N. Arabian prince, was made governor on the Musrian border. Meanwhile a number of Israelitish nobles, with Hoshea as leader, revolted, and Pekah fled, but seems to have been murdered. Hoshea thereupon mounted the throne, and bought the recognition of the Assyrian king, who had continued to ravage Syria. Mitinti of Ashkelon, seeing the fate of Rezin of Damascus, seems to have gone mad. He was succeeded by his son Rûkipti, who tried to atone for his father’s disaffection by sending tribute and gifts. Metenna of Tyre likewise became tributary. After the fall of the capital, Damascus became an Assyrian province. According to   2 Kings 16:9 , the people were taken captive to Kir, and Rezln was slain. It was in Damascus that Ahaz made homage to the conqueror, and seeing there an altar which took his fancy, had one made like it. Tiglath-pileser, confident, seemingly, of his hold upon Palestine, did not again invade the country. Its States remained for many years more or less tributary to Assyria, according as that power seemed strong or weak. In b.c. 731 Tiglath-pileser was attracted by events in Babylonia. Ukin-zçr, a Chald¿an prince, having seized the Babylonian throne, the Assyrian king besieged him in his capital Sapia, which he captured in b.c. 729, taking Ukin-zçr prisoner. In b.c. 728 Tiglath-pileser became king of Babylon, but beyond ‘grasping the hand of Bel’ (Merodach) as its ruler, took part in no further Important event. He probably died when making an expedition against a city whose name is lost; and Shalmaneser iv. mounted the throne (25th of Tebeth, b.c. 727). When at home, Tiglath-pileser resided in Nineveh or in Caiah, where he restored the central palace in Hittite style, decorating it with bas-reliefs and the annals of his reign. This building was partly destroyed by Esarhaddon.

T. G. Pinches.

Smith's Bible Dictionary [2]

Tig'lath-pile'ser. (In  1 Chronicles 5:26, and again in  2 Chronicles 28:20, the name of this king is given as Tiglath-pileser). Tiglath-pileser is the second Assyrian king mentioned in Scripture as having come into contact with the Israelites. He attacked Samaria in the reign of Pekah, B.C. 756-736. probably because Pekah withheld his tribute, and having entered his territories, he "took Ijon, and Abel-beth-maachah, and Janoah, and Kedesh, and Hazer, and Gilead, and Galilee, and all the land of Naphtali, and carried them captive to Assyria."  2 Kings 15:29. The date of this invasion cannot be fixed.

After his first expedition, a close league was formed between Rezin, king of Syria, and Pekah, having for its special object the humiliation of Judah. At first, great successes were gained by Pekah, and his confederate,  2 Kings 15:37;  2 Chronicles 28:6-8, but on their proceeding to attack Jerusalem itself, Ahaz applied to Assyria for assistance, and Tiglath-pileser, consenting to aid him, again appeared at the head of an army in these regions. He first marched, naturally, against Damascus. Which he took,  2 Kings 16:9, razing it to the ground, and killing Rezin, the Damascene monarch.

After this, probably, he proceeded to chastise Pekah, whose country, he entered on the northeast, where it bordered upon "Syria of Damascus." Here, he overran the whole district to the east of Jordan, carrying into captivity "the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh,"  1 Chronicles 5:26. Before returning into his own land, Tiglath-pileser had an interview with Ahaz at Damascus.  2 Kings 16:10.

This is all that Scripture tells us of Tiglath-pileser. He reigned, certainly, from B.C. 747 to B.C. 730, and, possibly, a few years longer, being succeeded by Shalmaneser, at least as early as B.C. 785, Tiglath-pileser's wars do not, generally, appear to have been of much importance. No palace, or great building, can be ascribed to this king. His slabs, which are tolerably numerous, show that he must have built, or adorned, a residence at Calah, ( Nimrud ), where they were found.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [3]

King of Assyria, was invited by Ahaz king of Judah to aid him against the kings of Syria and Israel,  2 Kings 16:7-10 . This he did, but exacted also a heavy tribute from Ahaz, so as to distress him without helping him,  2 Chronicles 28:20-21 . From the kingdom of Israel, also, he carried off the inhabitants of many cities captive, and placed them in various parts of his kingdom, B. C. 740, 1 Chronicles 5:26   2 Kings 15:29 , thus fulfilling unconsciously the predictions of Isaiah,  Isaiah 7:17   8:4 . He is supposed to be meant by Jareb, the pleader, in  Hosea 5:13   10:6 . He reigned nineteen years at Nineveh, and was succeeded by his son Shalmaneser.

People's Dictionary of the Bible [4]

Tiglath-pileser ( Tĭg'Lath-Pĭ-Lç'Zer ). The second Assyrian king mentioned in the Scriptures as having come into contact with the Israelites, and the second of the name. He invaded Samaria,  2 Kings 15:29, and after some years destroyed Damascus, taking many captives.  1 Chronicles 5:26. The occasion of the first attack was probably the refusal of Pekah to pay tribute; of the second, the call of Ahaz upon him for assistance against Pekah and Rezin, the king of Syria, Tiglath-pileser at Damascus met Ahaz, who became his vassal.  2 Kings 16:10. He reigned b.c. 747-730.

Holman Bible Dictionary [5]

 2 Kings 16:7 1 Chronicles 5:6 2 Chronicles 28:20 2 Kings 15:19 1 Chronicles 5:26[[History And Religion Of Assyria]]

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [6]

(Heb. Tiglath'Pile'ser, פַּלְאֶסֶר תַּגְלִת ,  2 Kings 15:29;  2 Kings 16:10; or briefly Tiglath'Pele'Ser, תַּגַלִת פֵּלֶסֶר ,  2 Kings 16:7), or (less correctly) Til'Gath- Pilne'Ser (Heb. Tilgath'Pilne'Ser, תַּלַגִּת פַּלְנְאֶסֶר ,  1 Chronicles 5:6;  2 Chronicles 28:20; or briefly Tilgath'Pilne'Ser, תַּלְגִּת פַּלְנֶסֶר , 1. Chronicles 5, 26), an Assyriant king. The Sept. Graecizes the name Θαλγαθφελλα Σάρ (v.r. Θαλγαλφελλασάρ , Ἀλγαθφελλασάρ , Ἀγλὰθ Φαλλασάρ ), Josephus, Θεγλαφαλασσάρης ( Ant. 9 :12,. 3), and the Vulg. Theglath-Phalasar. The monumental name is, according to Rawlinson, Tukulti-Pal-Zira ; . according to Oppert, Tuklat-Pal-Asar (i.e. Assur ); according to Hincks, Tiklat-Pal-Isri ; according to others, Tigulti-Pal-Tsira. The signification of the name is somewhat doubtful. M. Oppert renders it, "Adoratio [sit] filio Zodiaci," and explains "the son of the Zodiac" as Nin, Or Hercules ( Expedition Scientifique En Mesopotamie, 2, 352). It would seem to signify "worship of the son of Assur," perhaps as a royal sobriquet. The Assyrian king of this name mentioned in Scripture is Tiglath-pileser II, an earlier king of the same name having ascended the Assyrian throne about B.C. 1130; of whose reign, or a portion of it, two cylinders are preserved in the British Museum (Rawlinson, Ancient Monarchies, 2, 62- 79). We here condense all the information accessible, from whatever source, concerning the later monarch of this name.

1. Biblical Statements. Tiglathi-Pi'Eser is the second; Assyrian king mentioned in Scripture as having come into contact with the Israelites, the first being Put (q.v.). He attacked Samaria in the reign of Pekah (B.C. 756- 736), on what ground we are not told, but probably because Pekah had withheld his tribute, and, having entered his territories, took Ijon, and Abel-bethmaachah, and Janoah and Kedesh, and Hazor, and Gilead, and Galilee, and all the land of Naphtali, and carried them captive to Assyria" ( 2 Kings 15:29) thus "lightly afflicting the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali" ( Isaiah 9:1) the most northern, and so the most exposed, portion of the country.. The date of this invasion cannot at present be fixed; but it was apparently many years afterwards that Tiglath-pileser made a second expedition into these parts, which had more important results than his former one. It appears that after the date of his first expedition a close league was formed between Rezin,-king of Syria, and Pekah, having for its special object the humiliation of Judaea, and intended to further generally the interests of the two allies. At first great successes were gained by Pekah and his confederate ( 2 Kings 15:37;  2 Chronicles 28:6-8); but on their proceeding to attack Jerusalem itself, and to threaten Ahaz, who was then king, with deposition from his throne, which they were about to give to a pretender, "the son of Tabeal" ( Isaiah 7:6), the Jewish monarch applied to Assyria for assistance, and Tiglath-pileser, consenting to aid him, again appeared at the head of an army in these regions. He first marched, naturally, against Damascus, which he took ( 2 Kings 16:9), razing it (according to his own statement) to the ground, and killing Rezin, the Damascene monarch. After this, probably, he proceeded to chastise Pekah, whose country he entered on the northeast, where it bordered upon "Syria of Damascus." Here he overran the whole district to the east of Jordan, no longer "lightly afflicting" Samaria, but injuring her far "m more grievously, by the way of the sea, in Galilee of the Gentiles" ( Isaiah 9:1), carrying into captivity "the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh" ( 1 Chronicles 5:26), who had previously held this country, and placing them in Upper Mesopotamia from Harran to about Nisibis (ibid.). Thus the result of this expedition was the absorption of the kingdom of Damascus, and of an important portion of Samaria, into the Assyrian empire; and it further brought the kingdom of Judah into the condition of a mere tributary and vassal of the Assyrian monarch.

Before returning into his own land, Tiglath-pileser had an interview with Ahaz at Damascus ( 2 Kings 16:10). Here, doubtless, was settled the amount of tribute which Judaea was to pay annually; and it may be suspected that here, too, it was explained to Ahaz by his suzerain that a certain deference to the Assyrian gods was due on the part of all tributaries, who were usually required to set up in their capital "the laws of Asshur," or "altars to the great gods." The "altar" which Ahaz "saw at Damascus," and of which he sent the pattern to Urijah the priest ( 2 Kings 16:10-11), has been conjectured to have been such a badge of subjection; but it seems to have been adopted only out of love for a prevalent fashion. This is all that Scripture tells us of Tiglath-pileser. He appears to have succeeded Pul, and to have been succeeded by Shalmaneser; to have been contemporary with Rezin, Pekah, and Ahaz; and therefore to have ruled Assyria during the latter half of the 8th century before our era. (See Assyria).

2. Monumental Records. From his own inscriptions we learn that his reign lasted At Least seventeen years; that, besides warring in Syria and Samaria, he attacked Babylonia, Media, Armenia, and the independent tribes in the upper regions of Mesopotamia, thus, like the other great Assyrian monarchs, warring along the whole frontier of the empire; and, finally, that he was (probably) not a legitimate prince, but a usurper and the founder of a dynasty. This last fact is gathered from the circumstance that, whereas the Assyrian kings generally glory in their ancestry, Tiglath-pileser omits all mention of his, not even recording his father's name upon his monuments. It accords remarkably with the statements of Berosus (in Euseb. Chronicles Song Of Solomon 1, 4 ) and Herodotus (1, 95), that about this time, i.e. in the latter half of the 8th century B.C., there was a change of dynasty in Assyria, the old family, which had ruled for 520 (526) years, being superseded by another not long before the accession of Sennacherib. The authority of these two writers, combined with the monumental indications, justifies us in concluding that the founder of the lower dynasty or empire, the first monarch of the new kingdom, was the Tiglath-pileser of Scripture, whose date must certainly be About this time, and whose monuments show him to have been a self-raised sovereign. The exact date of the change cannot be positively fixed; but it is Probably marked by the era of Nabonassar in Babylon, which synchronizes with B.C. 747. According to this view, Tiglath-pileser reigned certainly from B.C. 747 to 730, and possibly a few years longer, being succeeded by Shalmaneser at least as early as 725. In the Assyrian Chronological Canon, of which there are four copies in the British Museum, all more or less fragmentary, the reign of Tiglath-pileser seems to be reckoned at either sixteen or seventeen years (see Atheneum, No. 1812, p. 84). Rawlinson's latest computation places his accession in 744 (ibid. Aug. 23, 1863). (See Shalmaneser).

The circumstances under which Tiglath-pileser obtained the crown have not come down to us from any good authority; but there is a tradition on the subject which seems to deserve mention. Alexander Polyhistor, the friend of Sylla, who had access to the writings of Berosus, related that the first Assyrian dynasty continued from Ninus, its founder, to a certain belief (Pul), and that he was succeeded by Beletaras, a man of low rank, a mere vine-dresser ( Φυτουργός ) , who had the charge of the gardens attached to the royal palace. Beletaras, he said, having acquired the sovereignty in an extraordinary way, fixed it in his own family, in which it continued to the time of the destruction of Nineveh ( Fr. Hist. Gr. 3, 210). It can scarcely be doubted that Beletaras here is intended to represent Tiglath-pileser, Beltar being, in fact, another mode of expressing the native Pal-Tsira or Palli-Tsir (Oppert), which the Hebrews represented by Pileser. Whether there is any truth in the tradition may, perhaps, be doubted. It bears too near a resemblance to the Oriental stories of Cyrus, Gyges, Amasis, and others, to have in itself much claim to our acceptance. On the other hand, as above mentioned, it harmonizes with the remarkable fact-unparalleled in the rest of the Assyrian records that Tiglath-pileser is absolutely silent on the subject of his ancestry, neither mentioning his father's name nor making any allusion whatever to his birth, descent, or parentage.

Tiglath-pileser's wars do not generally appear to have been of much importance. In Armenia he reduced the rebel princes, and afterwards conquered the city of Arpad after a year's resistance. In Babylonia he took Sippara (Sepharvaim) and several places of less note in the northern portion of the country; but he does not seem to have penetrated far, or to have come into contact with Nabonassar, who reigned from B.C. 747 to 733 at Babylon. In Media and Upper Mesopotamia he obtained certain successes, but made no permanent conquests. It was on his western frontier only that his victories advanced the limits of the empire. Among the conquered cities appear to be reckoned Megiddo (Magidu) and Dor (Duru), both connected with Manasseh (Manatsuah). Before he left Syria, Tiglathpileser received submission, not only from Ahaz, but from the kings of the neighboring countries. He records his taking tribute from a king of Judah called Yahu-khazi-a name which might represent Jehoahaz; but, as shown by the chronology, it probably stands for Ahaz, whose name may have been changed by his Assyrian suzerain, as happened afterwards to Eliakim and Zedekiah ( 2 Kings 23:34;  2 Kings 24:17). The destruction of Damascus, the absorption of Syria, and the extension of Assyrian influence over Judaea are the chief events of Tiglath-pileser's reign, which seems to have had fewer external triumphs than those of most Assyrian monarchs. Probably his usurpation was not endured quite patiently, and domestic, troubles or dangers acted as a check upon his expeditions against foreign countries. No palace or great building can be ascribed to this king. His slabs, which are tolerably numerous, show that he must have built or adorned a residence at Calah (? Nimrid), where they were found; but, as they were not discovered in situ, we cannot say anything of the edifice to which they originally belonged. They bear marks of wanton defacement; and it is plain that the later kings purposely injured them; for, not only is the writing often erased, but the slabs have been torn down, broken, and used as building materials by Esar-haddon in the great palace which he erected at Calah, the southern capital. The dynasty of Sargon was hostile to the first two princes of the Lower Kingdom, and the result of their hostility is that we have far less monumental knowledge of Shalmaneser and Tiglath-pileser than of various kings of the Upper Empire. (See Nineveh).

See Rawlinson, Ancient Monarchies, 2, 127-132; Smith, Assyria from the Monuments, p. 77 sq. (Am. ed.); Journ. Sac. Lit. April, 1854, p. 253. (See Kingdom Of Israel).

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [7]

tig - lath - pi - - zẽr , - pı̄ - - zẽr פּכאסר תּגלת , tighlath pil'eṣer , as the name is read in 2 Kings, פּלנסר תּלּגת , tilleghath pilneṣer , in 2 Chronicles; Septuagint Ἀλγαθφελλασάρ , Algathphellasár  ; Assyrian, Tukulti - abal - ı́ - šarra ): King of Assyria in the days of Menahem, Pekahiah, and Pekah, kings of Israel, and of Uzziah, Jotham and Ahaz, kings of Judah. The king of Assyria, whom the historian of 2 Kings knows as exacting tribute from Menahem, is Pul (  2 Kings 15:19 f). In the days of Pekah who had usurped the throne of Menahem's son and successor, Pekahiah, the king of Assyria is known as Tiglath-pileser, who invaded Naphtali and carried the inhabitants captive to Assyria (  2 Kings 15:29 ). This invasion is described by the Chronicler ( 1 Chronicles 5:25 f) rather differently, to the effect that "the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, and the spirit of Tilgath-pilneser king of Assyria, and he carried them away, even the Reubenites and the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, and brought them unto Halah, and Habor, and Hara, and to the river of Gozan, unto this day." Still later we find Pekah forming a coalition with Rezin, king of Damascus, into which they tried to force Ahaz, even going the length of besieging him in Jerusalem (  2 Kings 16:5 ). The siege was unsuccessful. Ahaz called in the aid of Tiglath-pileser, sacrificing his independence to get rid of the invaders ( 2 Kings 16:7 ,  2 Kings 16:8 ). He offered the Assyrian the silver and gold that were found in the house of the Lord and in the royal treasury; and Tiglath-pileser, in return, invaded the territories of Damascus and Israel in the rear, compelling the allied forces to withdraw from Judah, while he captured Damascus, and carried the people away to Kir and slew Rezin ( 2 Kings 16:9 ). It was on the occasion of his visit to Damascus to do homage to his suzerain Tiglath-pileser, that Ahaz fancied the idolatrous altar, a pattern of which he sent to Urijah, the priest, that he might erect an altar to take the place of the brazen altar which was before the Lord in the temple at Jerusalem. It is a significant comment which is made by the Chronicler ( 2 Chronicles 28:21 ) upon the abject submission of Ahaz to the Assyrian king: "It helped him not."

From the inscriptions we learn particulars which afford striking corroboration of the Biblical narrative and clear up some of the difficulties involved. It is now practically certain that Pul, who is mentioned as taking tribute from Menahem, is identical with Tiglath-pileser (Schrader, Cot , I, 230,231). In all probability Pul, or Pulu, was a usurper, who as king of Assyria assumed the name of one of his predecessors, Tiglath-pileser I, and reigned as Tiglath-pileser III. This king of Assyria, who reigned, as we learn from his annals, from 745 Bc to 727 BC, was one of the greatest of Assyrian monarchs. See Assyria . From the fact that no fewer than five Hebrew kings are mentioned in his annals, the greatest interest attaches to his history as it has come down to us. These kings are Uzziah or Azariah, and Jehoahaz, that is Ahaz, of Judah; and Menahem, Pekah and Hushes of Israel. Along with them are mentioned their contemporaries Rezin of Damascus, Hiram of Tyre, and two queens of Arabia otherwise unknown, Zabibi and Samsi. When he died in 727 BC, he was succeeded by Shalmaneser IV, who had occasion to suspect the loyalty of his vassal Hoshea, king of Israel, and besieged him in Samaria.


Schrader, Cot , I, 229-57; McCurdy, Hpm , sections 279-341.

Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [8]

Tig´lath-Pile´ser, the Assyrian king who subjected the kingdom of Israel in B.C. 747 [[[Assyria; Israel]]]