From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Holman Bible Dictionary [1]

Early Concepts Two words in the Bible—the Hebrew ruah and the Greek pneuma —bear the basic meaning of wind but are often translated as spirit. Some understanding of the development of the latter word clarifies this transfer in meaning and enriches the concept.

Pneuma originally represented an elemental, vital, dynamic wind or breath. It was an effective power, but it belonged wholly to the realm of nature. This force denoted any type of wind and ranged from a soft breeze to a raging storm or fatal vapor. It was the wind in persons and animals as the breath they inhaled and exhaled. It was life, since breath was the sign of life; and it was soul, since the animating force left when breathing ceased.

Metaphorically speaking, pneuma could be extended to mean a kind of breath that blew from the invisible realms; thus, it could designate spirit, a sign of the influence of the gods upon persons, and the source of a relationship between humankind and the divine. In primitive mythology, this cosmic wind possessed a life-creating power, and a god could beget a son by his breath. The divine breath also inspired poets and granted ecstatic speech to prophets.

In all of these reflections, wind remained an impersonal, natural force. When we come to the Judeo-Christian understanding, however, the concept and terms retain their dynamic characteristics, but rise from cosmic power to personal being.

Old Testament In the Old Testament, the primary meaning of the word ruah is wind. There is the slight breeze (  Psalm 78:39 ), the storm wind ( Isaiah 32:2 ), the whirlwind ( 2 Kings 2:11 ), and the scorching wind ( Psalm 11:6 NRSV). Winds from the mountains and sea to the north and west brought rain and storm (  1 Kings 18:43-45; see  Exodus 10:19;  Ezekiel 1:4 ); those coming from the deserts of the south and east could at times be balmy but more often would sear the land and dry up the vegetation ( Genesis 41:6;  Job 37:1-2 ). Coming from different directions, wind was identified with those directions, referring to the four corners or quarters of the earth or of heaven ( Jeremiah 49:36;  Ezekiel 37:9 ).

Theophanies, or manifestations of God, were often associated with the wind. God answered Job out of the whirlwind ( Job 38:1 ), and the four living creatures appeared to Ezekiel in a strong wind from the north ( Job 1:4 ).

Wind was a symbol of transience ( Psalm 78:39 ), fruitless striving ( Ecclesiastes 1:14 NRSV), and desperateness (  Job 6:26 ). More importantly, it was a mighty force which only God could command ( Jeremiah 10:13 ). The wind did God's bidding ( Psalm 104:4 NRSV). So closely is the wind connected with God's will that it is called His breath which He blew on the sea to cover the chariots of Pharaoh (  Exodus 15:10 ), or by which He froze rivers ( Job 37:10 ) and withered grass ( Isaiah 40:7 ).

The wind is also breath in humans as the breath of life ( Genesis 6:17 ). The entry of breath gives life ( Ezekiel 37:5-7 ); and, when it is taken away, the person dies ( Psalm 104:29 ). The breath which brings death when it is withdrawn is identified as God's breath ( Job 34:14-15 ). This same breath of the Almighty is the spirit of wisdom and understanding in a person ( Job 32:8 NRSV). When ruah is used of the will, intellect, and emotions, or related to God, the meaning often expands from the wind to spirit (  Isaiah 40:13 ). Thus  Psalm 51:1 uses ruah three times when referring to the steadfast, willing, and broken spirit of the psalmist and once when speaking of God's Holy Spirit (  Psalm 51:10-12 ,Psalms 51:10-12, 51:17 ). Sometimes opinions differ whether the meaning is best served by translating the word as “wind” (breath) or “spirit” when it is specifically designated the ruah of God. Thus NRSV translates   Genesis 1:2 , “a wind from God,” to meaning that a wind was moving over the primordial waters; other translations speak of God's Spirit hovering there. See Spirit .

New Testament God makes His angels winds ( Hebrews 1:7 NIV), and “with the breath of His mouth” the Lord Jesus will destroy the wicked one (  2 Thessalonians 2:8 NIV).

The extended meaning, after the experience of Pentecost, has become dominant, and pneuma usually refers to a person's inner being (in distinctions from the body) with which the personal Spirit of God communicates and blends as it generates and sanctifies Christians and forms them into the body of Christ ( John 3:5-8;  Romans 8:14-16;  1 Corinthians 12:7-13;  Galatians 5:16-23 ). In each of these extended meanings, we can still detect in their foundation the image of the wind (pneuma) which blows where it wills ( John 3:8 ).

Webster's Dictionary [2]

(1): ( v. t.) To expose to the wind; to winnow; to ventilate.

(2): ( n.) Air or gas generated in the stomach or bowels; flatulence; as, to be troubled with wind.

(3): ( v. t.) To turn completely, or with repeated turns; especially, to turn about something fixed; to cause to form convolutions about anything; to coil; to twine; to twist; to wreathe; as, to wind thread on a spool or into a ball.

(4): ( v. t.) To entwist; to infold; to encircle.

(5): ( v. t.) To have complete control over; to turn and bend at one's pleasure; to vary or alter or will; to regulate; to govern.

(6): ( v. t.) To introduce by insinuation; to insinuate.

(7): ( v. t.) To cover or surround with something coiled about; as, to wind a rope with twine.

(8): ( v. i.) To turn completely or repeatedly; to become coiled about anything; to assume a convolved or spiral form; as, vines wind round a pole.

(9): ( v. i.) To have a circular course or direction; to crook; to bend; to meander; as, to wind in and out among trees.

(10): ( v. i.) To go to the one side or the other; to move this way and that; to double on one's course; as, a hare pursued turns and winds.

(11): ( n.) The act of winding or turning; a turn; a bend; a twist; a winding.

(12): ( n.) Air naturally in motion with any degree of velocity; a current of air.

(13): ( n.) Air artificially put in motion by any force or action; as, the wind of a cannon ball; the wind of a bellows.

(14): ( n.) Breath modulated by the respiratory and vocal organs, or by an instrument.

(15): ( n.) Power of respiration; breath.

(16): ( v. t.) To blow; to sound by blowing; esp., to sound with prolonged and mutually involved notes.

(17): ( n.) Air impregnated with an odor or scent.

(18): ( n.) A direction from which the wind may blow; a point of the compass; especially, one of the cardinal points, which are often called the four winds.

(19): ( n.) A disease of sheep, in which the intestines are distended with air, or rather affected with a violent inflammation. It occurs immediately after shearing.

(20): ( n.) Mere breath or talk; empty effort; idle words.

(21): ( n.) The dotterel.

(22): ( v. t.) To drive hard, or force to violent exertion, as a horse, so as to render scant of wind; to put out of breath.

(23): ( n.) The region of the pit of the stomach, where a blow may paralyze the diaphragm and cause temporary loss of breath or other injury; the mark.

(24): ( v. t.) To perceive or follow by the scent; to scent; to nose; as, the hounds winded the game.

(25): ( v. t.) To rest, as a horse, in order to allow the breath to be recovered; to breathe.

Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types [3]

 Job 7:7 (a) This poor man, in his affliction, felt that his life had no stability nor permanence. His soul was cast about with reasonings, philosophies and conclusions, which gave him no peace.

 Psalm 135:7 (c) We may understand from this that the events that happen in our life which seem to be above and beyond our control, as is the wind, these come out of GOD's heart of love, because we are precious in His sight. He sees that these will be a blessing to us.

 Proverbs 11:29 (b) No doubt the writer referred to the transient character of that which falls to the lot of the evil man. If he stirs up trouble, it will come back on him twice fold.

 Proverbs 25:14 (a) There are those who claim to have great gifts, but when they stand before the audience, they fall flat. The audience is disappointed. The people expected great things from the advertising, but they wasted their time in listening to the speaker.

 Ecclesiastes 11:4 (b) We are advised in this passage to work diligently and earnestly at our work regardless of conditions and situations which seem to be unfavorable.

 Isaiah 26:18 (a) This remarkable illustration certainly fits in many cases. A meeting is advertised largely, the speaker is extolled for his ability, the proper music is arranged, the crowd has arrived, and then the whole meeting falls "flat." Things do not move smoothly, the speaker has no message worth listening to, and there is a general feeling that the meeting was an utter failure. This is the picture in this verse.

 Ezekiel 37:9 (a) In many cases throughout the Scripture, the Greek or Hebrew word for wind really refers to the Holy Spirit of GOD. It is so in this case, as is revealed in verse  Ezekiel 37:14. The picture is quite clear, for the wind is not seen, and usually the Holy Spirit is not seen. The wind cannot be controlled, and neither can the Spirit. The wind is sent by GOD, and so is the Spirit. The wind has resistless power sometimes, and so does the Spirit. The wind is sometimes soft, balmy and delightful, and so is GOD's Spirit. The wind is necessary for cleansing the atmosphere, and the Holy Spirit is necessary for cleaning up our lives. He is "the Spirit of Life." He must be present to give Life Eternal.

 Matthew 7:25 (b) Here the wind is an emblem of the adverse conditions that arise, with various density and force in the human life.

 John 3:8 (a) As has already been described, the wind is a type of the Holy Spirit, in that it and He are invisible, and yet forcible. The wind is sovereign in its actions, uncontrolled by human mandate, and undirected by human minds; so is the Spirit of GOD.

 Ephesians 4:14 (a) This indicates the strange power of evil teachings, which, in their sophistry and clever logic, lead away from the truth of the Scriptures into error, and a false faith.

 Judges 1:12 (b) By this type we understand the many false religions and evil teachings which abound, which easily deceive the ungodly, and carry them off into false religions.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [4]

1: Ἄνεμος (Strong'S #417 — Noun Masculine — anemos — an'-em-os )

besides its literal meaning, is used metaphorically in  Ephesians 4:14 , of variable teaching. In  Matthew 24:31;  Mark 13:27 the four "winds" stand for the four cardinal points of the compass; so in   Revelation 7:1 , "the four winds of the earth" (cp.  Jeremiah 49:36;  Daniel 7:2 ); the contexts indicate that these are connected with the execution of Divine judgments. Deissmann (Bible Studies) and Moulton and Milligan (Vocab.) illustrate the phrase from the papyri.

2: Πνοή (Strong'S #4157 — Noun Feminine — pnoe — pno-ay' )

"a blowing, blast" (akin to pneo, "to blow"), is used of the rushing "wind" at Pentecost,  Acts 2:2 . See Breath.

3: Πνεῦμα (Strong'S #4151 — Noun Neuter — pneuma — pnyoo'-mah )

is translated "wind" in  John 3:8 (RV, marg., "the Spirit breatheth," the probable meaning); in   Hebrews 1:7 the RV has "winds" for AV, "spirits." See Spirit.

 Acts 27:40Blow James 1:6Drive

King James Dictionary [5]

WIND, n. L., G. The primary sense is to move, flow, rush or drive along.

1. Air in motion with any degree of velocity, indefinitely a current of air. When the air moves moderately, we call it a light wind, or a breeze when with more velocity, we call it a fresh breeze, and when with violence, we call it a gale, storm or tempest. The word gale is used by the poets for a moderate breeze, but seamen use it as equivalent to storm. Winds are denominated from the point of compass from which they blow as a north wind an east wind a south wind a west wind a southwest wind, &c. 2. The four winds, the cardinal points of the heavens.

Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe upon these slain.  Ezekiel 37 .

This sense of the word seems to have had its origin with the orientals, as it was the practice of the Hebrews to give to each of the four cardinal points the name of wind.

3. Direction of the wind from other points of the compass than the cardinal, or any point of compass as a compass of eight winds. 4. Breath power of respiration.

If my wind were but long enough to say my prayers, I would repent.

5. Air in motion form any force or action as the wind of a cannon ball the wind of a bellows. 6. Breath modulated by the organs or by an instrument.

Their instruments were various in their kind, some for the bow, and some for breathing wind.

7. Air impregnated with scent.

A pack of dog-fish had him in the wind.

8. Any thing insignificant or light as wind.

Think not with wind or airy threats to awe.

9. Flatulence air generated in the stomach and bowels as, to be troubled with wind. 10. The name given to a disease of sheep, in which the intestines are distended with air, or rather affected with a violent inflammation. It occurs immediately after shearing.

Down the wind, decaying declining in a state of decay as, he went down the wind. Not used.

To take or have the wind, or to get wind, to be divulged to become public. The story got wind, or took wind.

In the winds eye, in seamens language, towards the direct point from which the wind blows.

Between wind and water, denoting that part of a ships side or bottom which is frequently brought above water by the rolling of the ship, or fluctuation of the waters surface.

To carry the wind, in the manege, is when a horse tosses his nose as high as his ears.

Constant or perennial wind, a wind that blows constantly from one point of the compass as the trade wind of the tropics.

Shifting, variable or erratic winds, are such as are changeable, now blowing from one point and now from another, and then ceasing altogether.

Stated or periodical wind, a wind that constantly returns at a certain time, and blows steadily from one point for a certain time. Such are the monsoons in India, and land and sea breezes.

Trade wind, a wind that blows constantly from one point, such as the tropical wind in the Atlantic.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [6]

WIND . The winds in Heb. are designated by the four cardinal points of the compass. ‘South wind,’ e.g ., may be either S., S.W., or S.E.; and so with the others. Cool winds come from the N., moist winds from the western sea, warm winds from the S., and dry winds, often laden with fine sand, from the eastern deserts. Warmth and moisture, therefore, depend much upon the direction of the winds. During the dry season, from May till October, the prevailing winds are from the N. and N.W.; they do much to temper the heat of summer (  Song of Solomon 4:16 ,   Job 37:9 ). In Sept. and Oct., E. and S.E. winds are frequent; blowing from the deserts, their dry heat causes the furniture to crack, and makes life a burden (  Hosea 13:15 ). Later, the winds from the S. prolong the warmth of summer (  Luke 12:55 ); then the W. and S.W. winds bring the rain (  1 Kings 18:44 ,   Luke 12:54 ). East winds earlier in the year often work great destruction on vegetation (  Ezekiel 17:10 ). Under their influence strong plants droop, and flowers quickly wither (  Psalms 103:19 ).

Of the greatest value for all living things is the perpetual interchange of land and sea breezes. At sunrise a gentle air stirs from the sea, crosses the plain, and creeps up the mountains. At sunset the cooling air begins to slip down seaward again, while the upper strata move landward from the sea. The moisture thus carried ashore is precipitated in refreshing dew.

The ‘tempestuous wind’ ( Acts 27:14 ), called Euroclydon or Euraquilo (wh. see), was the E.N.E. wind so prevalent in the eastern Mediterranean, called by sailors to-day ‘the Levanter.’

W. Ewing.

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [7]

WIND ( ἄνεμος; πνεῦμα only in  John 3:8).—‘The four winds’ ( Matthew 24:31,  Mark 13:27) is an expression standing for ‘north, south, east, and west,’ the winds in Palestine coming mainly from these directions. These winds retain their character, varied only in degree, throughout the year. The north wind is cold; the west, from the sea, moist; the south, warm; and the east, from the desert, dry. This last is very pleasant in the winter months; but in spring and autumn, when it is prevalent, it is exceedingly oppressive, a few hours often causing every living thing to droop. The popular belief that the most violent winds are from the east is not confirmed by the writer’s experience of over five years in Galilce. The most memorable storm in that period was from the west. See, further, Sea Of Galilee, p. 591.

W. Ewing.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [8]

The wind, as all else, is used by God to work out His purposes with man.  Exodus 10:13;  Psalm 135:7;  Ezekiel 13:13 . As the unseen wind comes and goes we know not whither, "so is every one that is born of the Spirit."  John 3:8 . Its power is felt, and the result abides. The wind is also used as a symbol of the unseen influence of Satan,  Jude 12; and where permitted he carries out his evil designs by the wind.  Job 1:19 .

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [9]

The Hebrews, like us, acknowledge four principal winds,  Ezekiel 42:16-18 : the east wind, the north wind, the south wind, and the west wind, or that from the Mediterranean sea. See Whirlwind .

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [10]

( רוּחִ , Rzach; Sept. Πνεῦμα , Ἄνεμος ; Vulg. Spiritus, Ventus). This Hebrew word signifies Air In Motion generally, as breath, wind, etc. Both the Septuagint words occur in the following definition of wind by Aristotle (De Mundo, c. 4): "Wind ( Ἄνεμος ) is nothing else but a large quantity of air flowing, which is called Πνεῦμα ." So also Plato has Μεγάλῳ Τινὶ Πνεῦματι for a high wind (Phcedon, § 24, edit. Forster). Josephus also uses Πνεῦμα Βιαῖον for a violent wind (Ant. 14:2, 2), as Lucian also does, Βιαίῳ Πνεάματι (Ver. Hist. I, 1:714). The Vulgate word Spiritus, from Spiro , "to breathe," "blow," is applied in like manner in Latin, as by Virgil (Aeneid, 12:365): "Boreae cum spiritus alto Insonat AEgeo," "When the northern blast roars in the AEgean."

1. The wind as A Natural Phenomenon ( Genesis 3:8;  Job 21:18;  Job 30:15;  Job 30:22;  Job 37:21;  Psalms 1:4;  Psalms 103:16;  Proverbs 30:4;  Ecclesiastes 1:6;  Ecclesiastes 11:4;  Isaiah 7:2;  Isaiah 17:13;  Isaiah 40:7;  Jeremiah 10:13;  Jeremiah 51:16; Amos 14:13). It is poetically ascribed to the immediate agency of God ( Psalms 135:7;  Psalms 147:18; comp.  Baruch 6:61). In the New Test. it occurs in  Matthew 11:7;  Matthew 14:24;  Mark 4:39;  John 3:8;  Acts 27:4;  Ephesians 4:14;  James 1:6;  Revelation 6:13;  Revelation 7:1). Throughout the New Test. the word is Ἄνεμος , except in our Lord's illustration,  John 3:8. In the Apocrypha Ἄνεμος occurs in  Wisdom of Solomon 5:14;  Wisdom of Solomon 13:2, etc.; but Πνεῦμα in  Wisdom of Solomon 17:18;  Sirach 5:9;  Sirach 22:18; Song of the Children, 26:42). We might perhaps attribute the exclusion of the word Πνεῦμα , for " the wind," from the New Test., to its having become almost entirely appropriated to "heavenly things." In  Acts 2:2, we have Πνοή , translated '"wind;" Vulg. Spiritus. It means the same in Homer (Iliad, 5:697), Πνοή for Πνοή Βορέαο , "the breath or blast of Boreas;" comp.  Job 37:10, Sept. In  Genesis 3:8, "the cool of the day," or rather "Wind of the day," indicates the evening, since in the East a refreshing breeze arises some hours before sunset; Vulg. Ad Auram Post Meridiem. Comp.  Song of Solomon 2:17;  Song of Solomon 4:6; where the words "until the day break and the shadows flee away" should be rendered "until the day Breathe or Blow" (i.e., till evening); Heb. שיפוח ; Sept. Διαπνεύσῃ ; Vulg. aspiret. The evening breeze is still called, among the Persians, "the breeze of the day " (Chardin, Voyage, 4:48).

In  Amos 4:13, God is said to "create the wind." Although this idea is very conformable to the Hebrew theory of causation, which does not recognize second causes, but attributes every natural phenomenon immediately to the divine agency, yet the passage may perhaps be directed against the worship of the winds, which was common among ancient nations. Comp.  Wisdom of Solomon 13:2. Herodotus relates the same of the Persians (1:131). The words of our Savior "a reed shaken with the wind" ( Matthew 11:7), are taken by some in the natural, and by others in a metaphorical sense. The former view is adopted by Grotius, Beza, Campbell, Rosenmuller, Schleusner, and Wetstein; and is confirmed, as Rosenmuller observes, by the antithesis of the rich man, whose magnificence all gladly survey. The comparison is adopted to reprove the fickleness of the multitude (comp.  Matthew 11:15, and  Ephesians 4:14).

2. The wind occurs as the Medium Of The Divine Interposition, or Agency ( Genesis 1:2;  Genesis 8:1,  Exodus 15:10;  Numbers 11:31;  1 Kings 18:45;  1 Kings 19:11;  Job 1:19,  Isaiah 11:5;  Jonah 1:4). In the New Test., the wind was supernaturally employed at the day of Pentecost, like the "sound " and "fire" ( Acts 2:3). Indeed, our Lord's illustration ( John 3:8), and the identity of the Hebrew and Greek words signifying breath, wind, and spirit, lead to the inference that the air in motion bears the nearest resemblance of any created object to divine influence, and is therefore the most appropriate medium of it. (See Spirit). To this class of instances we refer  Genesis 1:2, "And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters." Along with Patrick and Rosenmuller, we construe the phrase, "a wind of God," a wind employed as the medium of divine agency. Rosenmuller compares  Psalms 104:30;  Psalms 147:8;  Isaiah 40:7. Dr. Lee refers to  1 Kings 18:12;  2 Kings 2:16, and  Psalms 33:6;  Isaiah 11:4. In the two latter passages, he observes that the word is equivalent to power, etc. The commotions of the elements, etc., through means of which the petulance of Elijah was reproved ( 1 Kings 19:11), are best understood as having occurred in vision (camp.  Daniel 2:35;  Zechariah 5:9).

3. The wind is used Metaphorically in the following instances: "The wings of the wind" denote the most rapid motion ( 2 Samuel 22:11), where the phrase may be a poetical representation also of the incident recorded ( 2 Samuel 5:24;  Psalms 104:3). The onomatopoeia in the two former passages, in Hebrew, is remarkable. Anything light or trifling is called wind ( Job 7:7;  Isaiah 41:29;  Psalms 78:39; comp.  Ephesians 4:14;  Sirach 5:9). Violent yet empty speech is called "a strong wind," or a mere tempest of words ( Job 8:2). "Vain knowledge" is called דִּעִתאּרוּחִ , knowledge of wind ( Job 15:2); "vain words," words of wind ( Job 16:3). Many expressive Phrases are formed with this word. "To inherit the wind," denotes extreme disappointment ( Proverbs 11:29); "to hide the wind," impossibility ( Proverbs 27:16); to "labor for the wind," to labor in vain ( Ecclesiastes 5:16); "to bring forth wind," great patience and pains for no purpose ( Isaiah 26:18; comp.  Hosea 8:7;  Hosea 12:1); "to become wind," to result in nothingness ( Jeremiah 5:13). "The four winds" denote the four quarters of the globe ( Ezekiel 37:9); "to scatter to all winds," to disperse completely ( Ezekiel 5:10;  Ezekiel 12:11;  Ezekiel 17:21); "to cause to come from all winds," to restore completely ( Ezekiel 37:9). "The wind hath bound her upon her wings," means deportation into a far country ( Hosea 4:19); "to sow the wind and reap the whirlwind," unwise labor and a fruitless result ( Hosea 8:7); "to feed on the wind," to pursue delusory schemes ( Hosea 12:1); "to walk in wind," to live and act in vain ( Micah 2:11); "to observe the wind," to be over-cautious ( Ecclesiastes 11:4); to "winnow with every wind," to be credulous, apt to receive impressions (5:9).

Comparisons. Disappointment, after high promise or pretension, is "as wind without rain" ( Proverbs 25:14); the desperate speeches of an afflicted person are compared to wind ( Job 6:26).

Symbolically. Empires are represented as having wings, and "the wind in their wings" denotes the rapidity of their conquests ( Zechariah 5:9). The wind is often used as the symbol or emblem of calamities ( Isaiah 32:2;  Isaiah 41:16;  Isaiah 57:13;  Isaiah 64:6); destruction by the Chaldaean army ( Jeremiah 4:11-12; comp.  Wisdom of Solomon 4:4;  Wisdom of Solomon 5:23;  Wisdom of Solomon 11:20). "The windy storm" ( Psalms 55:8) denotes Absalom and his party. The wind is the frequent emblem of the divine chastisements ( Isaiah 27:8;  Jeremiah 22:22;  Jeremiah 51:1, etc.

Beautiful expressions occur, as in  Isaiah 27:2, "He stayeth his rough wind in the day of the east wind;"' that is, God doth not aggravate the misfortunes of mankind by his chastisements; to "make a weight for the winds " ( Job 28:25).

Mistranslations. In  Psalms 78:39, "He remembered that they were but flesh, a wind that passeth away and cometh not again," should probably be rendered, "a spirit going away and not returning." All the versions make the words relate to the soul of man. Homer has a very similar description of death (Iliad, 9:408). In  Ecclesiastes 1:5-6, the translation is faulty, and the sense further obscured by a wrong division of verses. The passage should be read: "The sun also ariseth and the sun goeth down, and hasteth to his place where he ariseth, going to the south and circulating to the north. The wind is continually whirling about, and the wind returneth upon its whirlings." All the versions give this rendering; our version alone mistakes the meaning. The phrase "brought forth wind," is understood, by Michaelis as an allusion to the female disorder called. empneumatosis, or windy inflation of the womb (Syrutagma, Comment. 2:165). The Syriac translator also understood the passage in this way: "Enixi sumus ut illae quae ventos pariunt."

4. The East Wind ( רוחאּקדים , Ἄνεμος Νότος , Ἄνεμος Καύσων Νότος , Ventus Urens. Spiritus Vehemens, Ventus Auster. קדים , Καύσων , ardor, aestus, ventus urens). Both forms denote the natural phenomenon ( Genesis 41:6;  Genesis 41:23;  Job 38:24;  Psalms 48:7;  Psalms 78:26;  Jonah 4:8). Considerable indefiniteness attends the use of these words. Dr. Shaw remarks that every wind is called by the Orientals קדים , an east wind, which blows from any point of the compass between the east and north, and betwveen the east and south (Travels, page 285). Accordingly, the Sept. often understands this word to mean the south, as in  Exodus 10:13;  Exodus 14:21 (see Bochart, Hierozoicon, II, 1:15). If the east wind happens to blow a few days in Palestine during the months of May, June, July, and August, it occasions great destruction to the vines and harvests on the land, and also to the vessels at sea on the Mediterranean ( Hosea 13:15 :  Jonah 4:8;  Job 14:2;  Job 15:2;  Isaiah 40:7;  Genesis 41:6;  Genesis 41:23;  Ezekiel 17:10;  Ezekiel 19:12;  Ezekiel 27:26;  Psalms 48:7;  Psalms 103:5). In  Jonah 4:8, the phrase occurs, קדים חרישית רוח , a still or sultry east wind. For testimonies to the destructiveness of this wind in Egypt and Arabia, see Niebuhr, Beschrieb. Von Arabien, page 8; Thevenot, Voyages, I, 2:34; Hackett, Illustrations Of Scripture, page 135.

The east wind crosses the sandy wastes of Arabia Desert before reaching Palestine, and was hence termed "the wind of the wilderness" ( Job 1:19;  Jeremiah 13:24). It is remarkably dry and penetrating, and has all the effects of the Sirocco on vegetation ( Ezekiel 17:10;  Ezekiel 19:12;  Hosea 13:15;  Jonah 4:8). It also blows with violence, and is hence supposed to be used generally for any violent wind ( Job 27:21;  Job 38:24;  Psalms 48:7;  Isaiah 27:8;  Ezekiel 27:26). It is probably in this sense that it is used in  Exodus 14:21, though the east, or at all events the north-east, wind would be the one adapted to effect the phenomenon described, viz. the partition of the waters towards the north and south, so that they stood as a wall on the right hand and on the left (Robinson, Researches, 1:57). In this, as in many other passages, the Sept. gives the "south" wind ( Νότος ) as the equivalent for the Greek Kadim. Nor is this wholly incorrect, for in Egypt, where the Sept. was composed, the south wind has the same characteristics that the east has in Palestine. The Greek translators appear to have felt the difficulty of rendering kadim in  Genesis 41:6;  Genesis 41:23;  Genesis 41:27, because the parching effects of the east wind, with which the inhabitants of Palestine are familiar, are not attributable to that wind in Egypt, but either to the south wind, called in that country the khamsin, or to that known as the samum, which comes from the south-east or south-south-east (Lane's Modern Egypt, 1:22, 23). It is certainly possible that in Lower Egypt the east wind may be more parching than elsewhere in that country, but there is no more difficulty in assigning to the term kadim the secondary sense of parching, in this passage, than that of violent in the others before quoted. As such, at all events, the Sept. treated the term both here and in several other passages, where it is rendered kaus6n ( Καύσων , lit. the Burner). In  James 1:11, the A.V. erroneously understands this expression of the burning heat of the sun. In Palestine the east wind prevails from February to June (Raumer, page 79).

It is used metaphorically for pernicious speech, a storm of words ( Job 15:2); calamities, especially by war ( Isaiah 27:8;  Jeremiah 18:17;  Ezekiel 17:10;  Ezekiel 19:12;  Ezekiel 27:26;  Hosea 13:15). In this latter passage the east wind denotes Shalmaneser, king of Assyria; in  Ezekiel 27:26, it denotes the Chaldseans. Tyre is there represented under the beautiful allegory of a ship towed into deep waters, and then destroyed by an east wind. A very similar representation is given by Horace (Carm. 1:14). The east wind denotes divine judgment ( Job 27:21). "To follow the east wind," is to pursue a delusory and fatal course ( Hosea 12:1).

5. West Wind ( רוח ים , Ἄνεμος Ἀπὸ Θαλάσσης , ventus ab occidente). The west and south-west winds reach Palestine loaded with moisture gathered from the Mediterranean (Robinson, 1:429), and are hence expressively termed by the Arabs "the fathers of the rain" (Raumer, page 79). The little cloud "like a man's hand" that rose out of the west, was recognised by Elijah as a presage of the coming downfall ( 1 Kings 18:44), and the same token is adduced by our Lord as' one of the ordinary signs of the weather ( Luke 12:54). Westerly winds prevail in Palestine from November to February. See WEST.

6. North Wind ( רוח צפון ,  Proverbs 25:23, Ἄνεμος Βορέας , ventus Aquilo).The north wind, or, as it was usually called, " the north," was naturally the coldest of the four ( Sirach 43:20), and its presence is hence invoked as favorable to vegetation, in  Song of Solomon 4:16. It is further described in  Proverbs 25:23, as bringing (A.V. "driveth away" in text; "bringeth forth" in marg.) rain; in this case we must understand the north-west wind, which may bring rain, but was certainly not regarded as decidedly rainy. The difficulty connected with this passage has led to the proposal of a wholly different sense for the term taphon, viz. hidden place. The north-west wind prevails from the autumnal equinox to the beginning of November, and the north wind from June to the equinox (Raumer, Palest. page 79). (See North).

7. South Wind ( דרום ,  Job 37:17; תימן ,  Psalms 78:26; Λίψ , Ventus Africus,  Luke 12:55; Νότος [Sirocco],  Acts 27:13). The south wind, which traverses the Arabian peninsula before reaching Palestine, must necessarily be extremely hot ( Job 37:17;  Luke 12:55); but the rarity of the notices leads to the inference that it seldom blew from that quarter ( Psalms 78:26;  Song of Solomon 4:16;  Sirach 43:16); and even when it does blow, it does not carry the samurm into Palestine itself, although Robinson experienced the effects of this scourge not far south of Beersheba (Researches, 1:196). In Egypt the south wind (khamsin) prevails in the spring, a portion of which, in the months of April and May, is termed el-khamsin from that circumstance (Lane, 1:22). (See South).

8. The Four Winds ( ארבע רוחות , Τα Τέσσαρα Πνεύματα , Οἱ Τέσσαρες Ἄνεμοι , quatuor venti). The Hebrews speak only of four winds; and so Josephus (Ant. 8:3, 5). This phrase is equivalent to the four quarters of the world ( Ezekiel 37:9;  2 Esdras 13:5), the several points of the compass, as we should say ( Daniel 8:8). See Tristram, Nat. Hist. Of The Bible, page 33. Phrases. "Striving of the four winds" is great political commotions ( Daniel 7:2; comp.  Jeremiah 4:11-12;  Jeremiah 51:1); to "hold the four winds" is by contrary to secure peace ( Revelation 7:1); "to be divided to the four winds" implies utter dispersion ( Daniel 11:4;  Jeremiah 49:32;  Ezekiel 5:10;  Ezekiel 5:12;  Ezekiel 17:2). So also the phrase Ἐκ Τῶν Τεσσάρων Ἀνέμων ( Matthew 24:31) means from all parts of the world ( Mark 13:27).

9. The Hebrews, like other ancient nations, had but few Nanes Of Winds. Homer mentions only Βορέας , Νότος , Ζέφυρος , and Ευρος . Aul. Gellius, indeed, complains of the infrequency of names of winds in ancient writers (Noct. Att. 2:22). The same indefiniteness appears in Herodotus (see Larcher's notes on, 1:188). In the course of time the Greeks and Romans added eight other winds to the original four, but that appearing too minute a. division, they reduced the additional ones to four, thus making only eight in all. The names of these may be seen in Larcher (Ut Supra), or Pliny (Hist. Nat. 18:34). Further information may be found in Coray's Translation of Hippocrates, De AEribus, Aquis et Locis (Paris, 1800); Discours Preliminaire, and see index. For a comparative table of the English, Latin, and Greek divisions of the winds, and their names, amounting to more than thirty, see Beloe's Herodotus (Polymnnia, notes, 3:293, Lond. 1791).

One Greek name of a wind occurs in  Acts 27:14, Εὐροκλύδων , Euroclydon, a tempestuous wind in the Mediterranean, now called a Levanter. The Alexandrian MS. has Εὐρακύλων ; Vulg. Euroaquilo; Syriac, אורקלידון . The common reading, Εὐροκλύδων , seems derived from Ευρος , Eurus, "east wind," and Κλδύων , a wave," quasi an eastern tempest. Other MSS. read Εὐρυκλύδων , Euryclydon, from Εὐρύς , "broad," and Κλύδων ; a wave," or rough wavy sea; and then the word would mean the wind which peculiarly excites the waves. Shaw defends the common reading, and describes the wind as blowing in all directions from the north-east round by the north to. the south-east (Travels, page 330, 4to; see Bower's conjectures, and Doddridge, in loc.).

The Hebrews had no single terms indicating the rrelative velocity of the air in motion, like our words breeze, gale, etc. Such gradations they expressed by some additional word, as "great," רוחאּגדולה , "a great wind" ( Jonah 1:4), "rough," קשה , etc. Nor have we any single word indicating the destructive effects of the wind, like their verbs סער and שֹער as ואסער ( Zechariah 7:14, etc.), and answering to the Greek word Ἀνεμόφθορος (see Sept. of  Genesis 41:6;  Genesis 41:23). Our Metephorical use of the word Storm comes nearest. The term Zilaphdh ( זַלְעָפָה ), in  Psalms 11:6 (A.V. "horrible"), has been occasionally understood as referring to the Samunzm (Olshausen, In Loc.; Gesen, Thesaur. page 418); but it may equally well be rendered "wrathful," or "avenging" (Hengstenberg, In Loc.). The phrase רוח סערה , "stormy wind," Πνεῦμα Καταιγίδος , spiritus procellae, occurs in  Psalms 107:25;  Psalms 148:8. It is metaphorically used for the divine judgments ( Ezekiel 13:11;  Ezekiel 13:13). The word סערה is usually translated "whirlwind;" it means, however, more properly a storm ( 2 Kings 2:1;  2 Kings 2:11;  Job 38:1;  Job 40:6;  Zechariah 9:14; Sept. Συσσεισμός , Λαῖλαψ , Νέφος ; Vulg. Turbo;  Sirach 43:17; Συστροφὴ Πνεύματος ,  Sirach 48:9; Λαίλαπι Πυρός ;). We have notice in the Bible of the ilocal squalls ( Λαῖλαψ  Mark 4:37;  Luke 8:23), to which the sea of Gennesareth was liable in consequence of its proximity to high ground, and which were sufficiently violent to endanger boats ( Matthew 8:24;  John 6:18).

The Hebrew word is used metaphorically for the divine judgments ( Isaiah 40:24;  Isaiah 41:16); and to describe them as sudden and irresistible ( Jeremiah 23:19;  Jeremiah 25:32;  Jeremiah 30:23). "A whirlwind out of the north " ( Ezekiel 1:4) denotes the invasion from Babylon. Another word, סופה , is also translated "whirlwind," and properly so.

It occurs in  Job 37:9,  Isaiah 21:1. It is used as a simile for complete and sudden destruction ( Proverbs 1:27); and for the most rapid motion, "wheels of warchariots like a whirlwind " ( Isaiah 5:28;  Jeremiah 4:13). Total defeat is often compared to "chaff scattered by a whirlwind" ( Isaiah 17:13). It denotes the rapidity and irresistibleness of the divine judgments ( Isaiah 66:5).

The phrase "to reap the whirlwind" denotes useless labor ( Hosea 8:7); "the day of the whirlwind," destruction by war ( Amos 1:14). "The Lord hath his way in the whirlwind," is probably an allusion to Sinai ( Nahum 1:3). A beautiful comparison occurs in  Proverbs 10:25 : "As the whirlwind passeth, so is the wicked no more: but the righteous is an everlasting foundation." (See Whirlwind).

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [11]

wind ( רוּח , rūaḥ  ; ἄνεμος , ánemos ):

1. Causes:

Unequal distribution of heat in the atmosphere causes currents of air or wind. The heated air rises and the air from around rushes in. The direction from which a current comes determines its name, as west wind coming from the West but blowing toward the East. When two currents of air of different directions meet, a spiral motion sometimes results. See Whirlwind .

2. West Wind:

In Palestine the west wind is the most common. It comes from the sea and carries the moisture which condenses to form clouds, as it is turned upward by the mountains, to the cooler layers of the atmosphere. If the temperature reached is cool enough the cloud condenses and rain falls. Elijah looked toward the West for the "small cloud," and soon "the heavens grew black with clouds and wind" ( 1 Kings 18:44 f). "When ye see a cloud rising in the west, straightway ye say, There cometh a shower; and so it cometh to pass" (  Luke 12:54 ).

3. South Wind:

The south wind is frequent in Palestine. If it is slightly Southwest, it may bring rain, but if it is due South or Southeast, there is no rain. It is a warm wind bringing good weather. "When ye see a south wind blowing, ye say, There will be a scorching heat; and it cometh to pass" ( Luke 12:55 ). In the cooler months it is a gentle, balmy wind, so that the "earth is still by reason of the south wind" ( Job 37:17; compare  Song of Solomon 4:16 ).

4. North Wind:

The north wind is usually a strong, continuous wind blowing down from the northern hills, and while it is cool it always "drives away rain," as correctly stated in  Proverbs 25:23 , the King James Version; yet it is a disagreeable wind, and often causes headache and fever.

5. East Wind:

The east wind or sirocco (from Arabic shark= "east") is the "scorching wind" ( James 1:11 ) from the desert. It is a hot, gusty wind laden with sand and dust and occurs most frequently in May and October. The temperature in a given place often rises 15 or 20 degrees within a few hours, bringing thermometer to the highest readings of the year. It is customary for the people to close up the houses tightly to keep out the dust and heat. The heat and dryness wither all vegetation ( Genesis 41:6 ). Happily the wind seldom lasts for more than three days at a time. It is the destructive "wind of the wilderness" ( Job 1:19;  Jeremiah 4:11;  Jeremiah 13:24 ): "Yahweh caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all the night" ( Exodus 14:21 ) for the children of Israel to pass; the "rough blast in the day of the east wind" ( Isaiah 27:8 ). The strength of the wind makes it dangerous for ships at sea: "With the east wind thou breakest the ships of Tarshish" ( Psalm 48:7 ). Euraquilo or Euroclydon (  Acts 27:14 the King James Version), which caused Paul's shipwreck, was an East-Northeast wind, which was especially dangerous in that region.

6. Practical Use:

The wind is directly of great use to the farmer in Palestine in winnowing the grain after it is threshed by treading out ( Psalm 1:4;  Psalm 35:5;  Isaiah 17:13 ). It was used as a sign of the weather ( Ecclesiastes 11:4 ). It was a necessity for traveling on the sea in ancient times ( Acts 28:13;  James 3:4 ), but too strong a wind caused shipwreck ( Jonah 1:4;  Matthew 8:24;  Luke 8:23 ).

7. Scripture References:

The Scriptural references to wind show many illustrative and figurative uses: (1) Power of God (  1 Kings 19:11;  Job 27:21;  Job 38:24;  Psalm 107:25;  Psalm 135:7;  Psalm 147:18;  Psalm 148:8;  Proverbs 30:4;  Jeremiah 10:13;  Hosea 4:19;  Luke 8:25 ): "He caused the east wind to blow in the heavens; and by his power he guided the south wind" ( Psalm 78:26 ). (2) Scattering and destruction: "A stormy wind shall rend it" ( Ezekiel 13:11; compare  Ezekiel 5:2;  Ezekiel 12:14;  Ezekiel 17:21;  Hosea 4:19;  Hosea 8:7;  Jeremiah 49:36;  Matthew 7:25 ). (3) Uncertainty: "tossed to and fro and carried about with every wind of doctrine" ( Ephesians 4:14; compare  Proverbs 27:16;  Ecclesiastes 1:6;  John 3:8;  James 1:6 ). (4) Various directions: "toward the four winds of heaven" ( Daniel 11:4; compare  Daniel 8:8;  Zechariah 2:6;  Matthew 24:31;  Mark 13:27 ). (5) Brevity: "a wind that passeth away" ( Psalm 78:39; compare  Psalm 1:4;  Psalm 35:5;  Psalm 103:16 ). (6) Nothingness: "Molten images are wind" ( Isaiah 41:29; compare  Jeremiah 5:13 ).

Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [12]

The Hebrew word signifies air in motion generally, as breath, wind, etc. It is used,

for the wind as a natural phenomenon (—'cool'; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; —'spirit'; ; ; ). It is poetically ascribed to the immediate agency of God (; ).

The wind occurs as the medium of the divine interposition, or agency (—'spirit'; 8:1; ; ; ; ; ; ; ). In the New Testament, the wind was supernaturally employed at the day of Pentecost, like the 'sound' and 'fire' () [SPIRIT]. To this class of instances we refer , 'and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.' Along with Patrick and Rosenmüller, we construe the phrase, 'a wind of God,' a wind employed as the medium of divine agency.

The wind is used metaphorically in the following instances: 'The wings of the wind' denote the most rapid motion (). Anything light or trifling is called wind (; ; ; comp. ; ). Violent yet empty speech is called 'a strong wind,' or a mere tempest of words (). 'Vain knowledge' is called knowledge of wind (); 'vain words,' words of wind (). Many expressive phrases are formed with this word. 'To inherit the wind,' denotes extreme disappointment (); 'to hide the wind,' impossibility (); to 'labor for the wind,' to labor in vain (); 'to bring forth wind,' great patience and pains for no purpose (; comp. ; ); 'to become wind,' to result in nothingness (). 'The four winds' denote the four quarters of the globe (); 'to scatter to all winds,' to disperse completely (; ; ); 'to cause to come from all winds,' to restore completely (). 'The wind hath bound her upon her wings,' means deportation into a far country (); 'to sow the wind and reap the whirlwind,' unwise labor and a fruitless result (); 'to feed on the wind,' to pursue delusory schemes (); 'to walk in wind,' to live and act in vain (); 'to observe the wind,' to be over cautious (); to 'winnow with every wind,' to be credulous, apt to receive impressions ().

The east wind. Dr. Shaw remarks, that every wind is called by the Orientals an east wind which blows from any point of the compass between the east and north, and between the east and south (Travels, p. 285). If the east wind happens to blow a few days in Palestine during the months of May, June, July, and August, it occasions great destruction to the vines and harvests on the land, and also to the vessels at sea on the Mediterranean. It is accordingly often used to denote any pernicious wind, as in . It is used metaphorically for pernicious speech, a storm of words (); calamities, especially by war (; ; ; ; ; ). The east wind denotes divine judgment (). Phrases—'To follow the east wind,' is to pursue a delusory and fatal course ().

West wind.

North wind ().

South wind (; ; ); Sirocco ().

The four winds. This phrase is equivalent to the four quarters of the world (; ), the several points of the compass, as we should say (). Phrases—'Striving of the four winds,' is great political commotions (; comp. ; ); to 'hold the four winds,' is by contrary to secure peace (); 'to be divided to the four winds,' implies utter dispersion (; ; ; ; ).

The Hebrews, like other ancient nations, had but few names of winds. One Greek name of a wind occurs in , Euroclydon, a tempestuous wind in the Mediterranean, now called a Levanter. ὖ , Eurus, 'east wind,' and ύ , 'a wave,' quasi an eastern tempest. Other MSS. read ὐ ύ , Euryclydon, from ὐ ύ , 'broad,' and ύ , 'a wave,' or rough wavy sea; and then the word would mean the wind which peculiarly excites the waves. Shaw defends the common reading, and describes the wind as blowing in all directions from the N.E. round by the N. to the S.E. (Travels, p. 330. etc. 4to.; see Bowyer's conjectures, and Doddridge, in loc.). The Hebrews had no single terms indicating the relative velocity of the air in motion, like our words breeze, gale, etc. Such gradations they expressed by some additional word, as 'great,' - , 'a great wind' (), 'rough,' השק‎, etc. Nor have we any single word indicating the destructive effects of the wind, like their verbs רעס‎ and ׂש‎‏רע‎, as םרעסאו‎ (, etc.), and answering to the Greek word ἀ (see Sept. of ; ). Our metaphorical use of the word storm comes nearest. The phrase הרעס‎ חור‎, 'stormy wind,' ῦ ί , spiritus procellæ, occurs in ; . It is metaphorically used for the divine judgments (; ). The word usually translated 'whirlwind' means more properly a storm (; ; ; ; ). The Hebrew word is used metaphorically for the divine judgments (; ); and to describe them as sudden and irresistible (; ; ). Total defeat is often compared to 'chaff scattered by a whirlwind' (). It denotes the rapidity and irresistibleness of the divine judgments (). The phrase 'to reap the whirlwind' denotes useless labor (); 'the day of the whirlwind,' destruction by war (). A beautiful comparison occurs in : 'As the whirlwind passeth, so is the wicked no more: but the righteous is an everlasting foundation.'