Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words 
Minchâh ( מִנְחָה , Strong'S #4503), “meat [cereal] offering; offering; tribute; present; gift; sacrifice; oblation.” The KJV characteristically translates the word as “meat offering,” using it some 40 times in this way in both Leviticus and Numbers alone. The word “meat” in this KJV use really means “food”; the RSV’S rendering, “cereal offering,” generally is much more accurate.
Minchâh is found some 200 times in the Old Testament. Minchâh is found in all periods of Hebrew, although in modern Hebrew, while it is commonly used in the sense of “gift,” it also is used to refer to “afternoon prayers.” This latter use is an obvious echo of the Old Testament liturgy connected with sacrifices. It appears in other Semitic languages such as Arabic and Phoenician, and seems to be used in ancient Ugaritic in the sense of “tribute/gift.”
Minchâh occurs for the first time in the Old Testament in Gen. 4:3: “… Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the Lord.” This use reflects the most common connotation of minchâh as a “vegetable or cereal offering.” Minchâh is used many times in the Old Testament to designate a “gift” or “present” which is given by one person to another. For example, when Jacob was on his way back home after twenty years, his long-standing guilt and fear of Esau prompted him to send a rather large “present” (bribe) of goats, camels, and other animals (Gen. 32:13-15). Similarly, Jacob directed his sons to “carry down the man a present” (Gen. 43:11) to appease the Egyptian ruler that later turned out to be his lost son Joseph. Those who came to hear Solomon’s great wisdom all brought to him an appropriate “present” (1 Kings 10:25), doing so on a yearly basis.
Frequently minchâh is used in the sense of “tribute” paid to a king or overlord. The delivering of the “tribute” of the people of Israel to the king of Moab by their judgedeliverer became the occasion for the deliverance of Israel from Moabite control as Ehud assassinated Eglon by a rather sly maneuver (Judg. 3:15- 23). Years later when David conquered the Moabites, they “became servants to David and brought gifts [tribute]” (2 Sam. 8:2). Hosea proclaimed to Israel that its pagan bull-god would “be carried unto Assyria for a present [tribute]” (Hos. 10:6). Other passages where minchâh has the meaning of “tribute” are: Ps. 72:10; 1 Kings 4:21; 2 Kings 17:3-4. Minchâh is often used to refer to any “offering” or “gift” made to God, whether it was a “vegetable offering” or a “blood sacrifice.” The story of Cain and Abel vividly illustrates this general usage: “… Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the Lord. And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the Lord had respect unto Abel and to his offering: But unto Cain and to his offering he had not respect” (Gen. 4:3- 5). The animal sacrifices which were misappropriated by the wicked sons of Eli were simply designated as “the offering of the Lord” (1 Sam. 2:17). In each case “offering” is the translation of minchâh. A common use of minchâh , especially in later Old Testament texts, is to designate “meat [grain/cereal] offerings.” Sometimes it referred to the “meat [cereal] offering” of first fruits, “green ears of corn, dried by the fire.…” (Lev. 2:14). Such offerings included oil and frankincense which were burned with the grain. Similarly, the “meat [grain] offering” could be in the form of finely ground flour upon which oil and frankincense had been poured also. Sometimes the oil was mixed with the “meat [cereal] offering” (Lev. 14:10, 21; 23:13; Num. 7:13), again in the form of fine flour. The priest would take a handful of this fine flour, burn it as a memorial portion, and the remainder would belong to the priest (Lev. 2:9-10). The “meat [cereal] offering” frequently was in the form of fine flour which was mixed with oil and then formed into cakes and baked, either in a pan or on a griddle (Lev. 2:4-5). Other descriptions of this type of baked “meat [cereal] offering” are found in Num. 6:15 and Lev. 7:9. These baked “meat [cereal] offerings” were always to be made without leaven, but were to be mixed with salt and oil (Lev. 2:11, 13).
The minchâh was prescribed as a “meat offering” of flour kneaded with oil to be given along with the whole burnt offering. A libation of wine was to be given as well. This particular rule applied especially to the Feast of Weeks or Pentecost (Lev. 23:18), to the daily “continual offering” (Exod. 29:38-42), and to all the whole burnt offerings or general sacrifices (Num. 15:1-16). The “meat [cereal] offering” was to be burned, while the wine seems to have been poured out at the foot of the altar like blood of the sacrificial animal. The regular daily morning and evening sacrifices included the minchâh and were specifically referred to as “meat [cereal] offering of the morning” (Exod. 29:41; cf. Num. 28:8) and as “the evening meat [cereal] offering” (2 Kings 16:15; cf. Ezra 9:4-5 and Ps. 141:2, “evening sacrifice”).
Minchâh provides an interesting symbolism for the prophet when he refers to the restoration of the Jews: “And they shall bring all your brethren for an offering unto the Lord out of all nations upon horses, and in chariots … to my holy mountain Jerusalem, saith the Lord, as the children of Israel bring an offering in a clean vessel into the house of the Lord” (Isa. 66:20). In his vision of the universal worship of God, even in Gentile lands, Malachi saw the minchâh given as “a pure offering” to God by believers everywhere (Mal. 1:11).
Terûmâh ( תְּרֻמָה , Strong'S #8641), “heave offering; offering; oblation.” This word is found in the literature of ancient Ugarit in the term, “bread of offering,” as well as in all periods of Hebrew. In modern Hebrew it is often used in the sense of “contribution,” quite like the use found in Ezek. 45:13, 16, where it refers to a contribution to be given to the prince. Terûmâh— is found approximately 70 times in the Old Testament, being used for the first time in the Old Testament text in Exod. 25:2: “Speak unto the children of Israel, that they bring me an offering: of every man that giveth it willingly with the heart ye shall take my offering.”
In more than a third of its occurrences in the text, the KJV translates terûmâh as “heave offering,” all of these instances being found in Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers (where the majority are found), and Deuteronomy. This translation apparently is derived from the fact that the word is based on the common Semitic root, “to be high, exalted.” The inference seems to be that such “offerings” were raised high by the priest in some sort of motion as it was placed on the altar. This is clearly illustrated in Num. 15:20: “Ye shall offer up a cake of the first of your dough for a heave offering: as ye do the heave offering of the threshing floor, so shall ye heave it.” From texts like this, it appears that terûmâh was used in the early period to refer to “contributions” or “gifts” which consisted of the produce of the ground, reflecting the agricultural character of early Israel. See Deut. 12:6, 11, 17 for other examples.
Terûmâh often is used to designate those gifts or contributions to God, but which were set apart specifically for the priests: “And every offering of all the holy things of the children of Israel, which they bring unto the priest, shall be his” (Num. 5:9). Such “offerings” were to go to the priests because of a special covenant God had made: “All the holy offerings which the people of Israel present to the Lord I give to you [Aaron], and to your sons and daughters with you, as a perpetual due; it is a covenant of salt for ever before the Lord for you and for your offspring with you” (Num. 18:19, RSV). Such offerings, or contributions, sometimes were of grain or grain products: “Besides the cakes, he shall offer for his offering leavened bread with the sacrifice of thanksgiving of his peace offerings. And of it he shall offer one out of the whole oblation for a heave offering unto the Lord, and it shall be the priest’s that sprinkleth the blood of the peace offerings” (Lev. 7:13-14). Part of the animal sacrifices was also designated as a terûmâh for the priests: “And the right shoulder shall ye give unto the priest for a heave offering of the sacrifices of your peace offerings” (Lev. 7:32; cf. Lev. 10:14-15; Num. 6:20). Such contributions to the priests obviously were given to provide the needed foodstuffs for the priests and their families since their tribe, Levi, was given no land on which to raise their own food.
While all the priests had to be from the tribe of Levi, inheriting their office through their fathers, not all Levites could function as priests. For one thing, there were too many of them. Also, some were needed to work in the tabernacle, and later the temple, as maintenance and cleanup people, something that is readily understandable when one thinks of all that was involved in the sacrificial system. The Levites actually lived in various parts of Israel, and they were the welfare responsibility of the Israelites among whom they lived. They, like the widow, the orphan, and the resident alien, were to be given the tithe of all farm produce every third year (Deut. 14:28-29). The Levites, then, were to tithe the tithe they received, giving their own tithe from what they received from the people to the Lord. Part of that tithe was to be a terûmâh or “heave offering” to the priests, the descendants of Aaron (see Num. 18:25-32).
In order to provide for the materials necessary for the construction of the wilderness tabernacle, Moses was instructed to receive an “offering” or terûmâh. The “offering” was to consist of all kinds of precious metals and stones, as well as the usual building materials such as wood and skins (Exod. 25:3-9). When Moses announced this to the people of Israel, he said: “Take ye from among you an offering unto the Lord; whosoever is of a willing heart, let him bring it, an offering of the Lord …” (Exod. 35:5), following this with a list of the needed materials (Exod. 35:6-8). The implication here is twofold: the terûmâh is really the Lord’s, and it is best given freely, willingly, from a generous heart. In the Second Temple Period, following the Exile, the silver and gold and the vessels for the temple are called “the offering for the house of our God” (Ezra 8:25), also signifying a contribution.
The terûmâh sometimes was an “offering” which had the meaning of a tax, an obligatory assessment which was made against every Israelite male who was twenty years old or older, to be paid for the support of the tabernacle and later, the temple (Exod. 30:11-16). This tax was levied on all males without any allowance for their financial situation: “The rich shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less than half a shekel, when they give an offering unto the Lord, to make an atonement for your souls” (Exod. 30:15). This tax actually had its basis in the census or count of the male population, the tax then being required as a ransom or atonement from the wrath of God because such a census was taken (2 Sam. 24:1). The practical aspect of it was that it provided needed financial support for the sanctuary. Another example of terûmâh in the sense of taxes may be seen in Prov. 29:4: “The king by judgment establisheth the land; but he that receiveth gifts overthroweth it.” Solomon’s heavy taxation which led to the split of the kingdom may be a case in point (1 Kings 12).
A very different use of terûmâh is found in Ezek. 45:1; 48:9, 20-21, where it refers to an “oblation” which was that portion of land on which the post-exilic temple was to be built, as well as accommodations for the priests and Levites. This tract of land is referred to as “the holy oblation” (Ezek. 48:20; RSV, “holy portion”), since it belongs to God just as much as the terûmâh which was given to Him as a sacrifice.
Qorbân ( קֻרְבָּן , Strong'S #7133), “offering; oblation; sacrifice.” Qorbân is found in various Semitic languages and is derived from the verb “to come/ bring near.” It is found in ancient Akkadian in the sense of “a present,” while a form of the verb is found in Ugaritic to refer to the offering of a sacrifice. Found throughout the history of Hebrew, in late or modern Hebrew it is used in the sense of “offering” and “consecration.” In the Septuagint, it is often rendered as “gift.”
While the root, “to come/bring near,” is found literally hundreds of times in the Old Testament, the derived noun qorbân occurs only about 80 times. All but two of the occurrences in the Old Testament are found in the books of Numbers and Leviticus. The two exceptions are in Ezekiel (20:28; 40:43), a book which has a great concern for ritual. The word occurs for the first time in Lev. 1:2.
Qorbân may be translated as “that which one brings near to God or the altar.” It is not surprising, then, that the word is used as a general term for all sacrifices, whether animal or vegetable. The very first reference to “sacrifice” in Leviticus is to the qorbân as a burnt “offering”: “If any man of you bring an offering unto the Lord, ye shall bring your offering of the cattle, even of the herd, and of the flock. If his offering be a burnt sacrifice …” (Lev. 1:2-3; cf. Lev. 1:10; 3:2, 6; 4:23). The first reference to qorbân as a “meat [cereal] offering” is in Lev. 2:1: “And when any will offer a meat offering unto the Lord, his offering shall be of fine flour.…”
What is perhaps the best concentration of examples of the use of qorbân is Numbers 7. In this one chapter, the word is used some 28 times, referring to all kinds of animal and meat [cereal] offerings, but with special attention to the various silver and gold vessels which were offered to the sanctuary. For example, Eliab’s “offering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was a hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, … both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering; One golden spoon of ten shekels, full of incense; One young bullock, one ram, one lamb of the first year, for a burnt offering” (Num. 7:25-27).
In the two uses found in Ezekiel, both are in the general sense of “offering.” In Ezek. 20:28 the word refers to the pagan “provocation of their offering” which apostate Israel gave to other gods, while in Ezek. 40:43, qorbân refers to regular animal sacrifices.
Qûrbân ( קֻרְבָּן , Strong'S #7133), “wood offering.” Qûrbân is closely related to qorbân , and it is found in Neh. 10:34; 13:31. Here it refers to the “wood offering” which was to be provided for the burning of the sacrifices in the Second Temple. Lots were to be cast among the people, priests, and Levites to determine who would bring in the “wood offering” or fuel at the scheduled times throughout the year.
‛Ôlâh —( עוֹלָה , Strong'S #5930), “whole burnt offering.” This word has cognates in late and biblical Aramaic. It occurs about 280 times in biblical Hebrew and at all periods.
In its first biblical occurrence ‛ôlâh identifies a kind of “offering” presented to God: “And Noah builded an altar unto the Lord; and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar” (Gen. 8:20). Its second nuance appears in Lev. 1:4, where it represents the “thing being offered”:“And he shall put his hand upon the head of the burnt offering; and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him.”
This kind of “offering” could be made with a bull (Lev. 1:3-5), a sheep, a goat (Lev. 1:10), or a bird (Lev. 1:14). The offerer laid his hands on the sacrificial victim, symbolically transferring his sin and guilt to it. After he slew the animal (on the north side of the altar), the priest took its blood, which was presented before the Lord prior to being sprinkled around the altar. A bird was simply given to the priest, but he wrung its neck and allowed its blood to drain beside the altar (Lev. 1:15). This sacrifice effected an atonement, a covering for sin necessary before the essence of the sacrifice could be presented to God. Next, the “offering” was divided into sections. They were carefully purified (except those parts which could not be purified) and arranged on the altar (Lev. 1:6-9, 12-13). The entire sacrifice was then consumed by the fire and its essence sent up to God as a placating (pleasing) odor. The animal skin was given to the priest as his portion (Lev. 7:8).
The word ‛ôlâh was listed first in Old Testament administrative prescriptions and descriptions as the most frequent offering. Every day required the presentation of a male lamb morning and evening—the continual “whole burnt offering” (Exod. 29:38-42). Each month was consecrated by a “whole burnt offering,” of two young bulls, one ram, and seven male lambs (Num. 28:11-14). The same sacrifice was mandated, for each day of the Passover-Unleavened Bread feast (Num. 28:19-24), and the Feast of Weeks (Num. 28:26-29). Other stated feasts required “burnt offerings” as well. The various purification rites mandated both “burnt” and sin “offerings.”
The central significance of ‛ôlâh as the “whole burnt offering” was the total surrender of the heart and life of the offerer to God. Sin offerings could accompany them when the offerer was especially concerned with a covering or expiation for sin (2 Chron. 29:27). When peace offerings accompanied “burnt offerings,” the offerer’s concern focused on fellowship with God (2 Chron. 29:31-35). Before the Mosaic legislation, it appears, the “whole burnt offering” served the full range of meanings expressed in all the various Mosaic sacrifices.
'Ishshâh ( אִשֶּׁה , Strong'S #801), “fire offering.” Sixty-two of the 64 appearances of this word occur in the sacramental prescriptions of Exodus-Deuteronomy. The other two occurrences (Josh. 13:14; 1 Sam. 2:28) bear the same meaning and sacramental context. All legitimate sacrifices had to be presented before God at His altar, and all of them involved burning to some degree. Thus they may all be called fire offerings. The word 'ishshâh first occurs in Exod. 29:18: “And thou shalt burn the whole ram upon the altar: it is a burnt offering unto the Lord: it is a sweet savor, an offering made by fire unto the Lord.”
'Âshâm ( אָשָׁם , Strong'S #817), “guilt offering; offense; guilt; gift of restitution; gift of atonement.” The noun 'âshâm occurs 46 times in biblical Hebrew; 33 of its occurrences are in the Pentateuch. The most frequent meaning of the word is “guilt offering”: “And he shall bring his trespass [guilt] offering unto the Lord for his sin which he hath sinned …” (Lev. 5:6). This specialized kind of sin offering (Lev. 5:7) was to be offered when someone had been denied what was due to him. The valued amount defrauded was to be repaid plus 20 percent (Lev. 5:16; 6:5). Ritual infractions and periods of leprosy and defilement took from God a commodity or service rightfully belonging to Him and required repayment plus restitution. Every violation of property rights required paying full reparation and the restitution price ( אֲבַטִּיחַ , Strong'S #20), percent) to the one violated as well as presenting the guilt offering to God as the Lord of all (i.e., as a feudal lord over all). If the offended party was dead, reparation and restitution were made to God (i.e.given to the priests; Num. 5:5-10). Usually the “guilt offering” consisted of a ram (Lev. 5:15) or a male lamb. The offerer presented the victim, laying his hands on it. The priest sprinkled its blood around the altar, burned the choice parts on the altar, and received the rest as food (Lev. 7:2-7). When a cleansed leper made this offering, blood from the sacrifice was applied to the man’s right ear, right thumb, and right big toe (Lev. 14:14).
In some passages, 'ăbaṭṭı̂yach is used of an offense against God and the guilt incurred by it: “And Abimelech said, What is this thou hast done unto us? One of the people might lightly have lain with thy wife, and thou shouldest have brought guiltiness upon us” (Gen. 26:10—the first occurrence). There is an added sense here that the party offended would punish the perpetrator of the crime.
In two verses (Num. 5:7-8), 'ăbaṭṭı̂yach represents the repayment made to one who has been wronged: “Then they shall confess their sin which they have done: and he shall recompense his trespass with the principal thereof, and add unto it the fifth part thereof, and give it unto him against whom he hath trespassed.” In the Hebrew the word is the value of the initial thing taken from the injured party, which value is to be returned to him, i.e., the reparation or restitution itself. This basic idea is extended so that the word comes to mean a gift made to God to remove guilt (1 Sam. 6:3), or atone for sin (Isa. 53:10) other than the specified offerings to be presented at the altar. (OLIVE) Oil
Shemen ( שֶׁמֶן , Strong'S #8081), "(olive) oil; olive; perfume; olivewood.” Cognates of this word appear in Ugaritic, Akkadian, Phoenician, Syriac, Arabic, and Aramaic. This word appears about 190 times and in all periods of biblical Hebrew.
Shemen means olive “oil”: “And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it” (Gen. 28:18). Olive “oil” was also used to anoint a future office bearer (Exod. 25:6; 2 Kings 9:6); one’s head as a sign of mourning (2 Sam. 14:2); one’s head as a sign of rejoicing (Ps. 23:5); and one’s ear lobe, thumb, and toe as a ritual cleansing (Lev. 14:17). Shemen is used as a preservative on shield-leather (2 Sam. 1:21) and in baking (Exod. 29:2) and as a medication (Ezek. 16:9). This “oil” is burned for light (Exod. 25:6). Its many uses made olive oil a valuable trade item (Ezek. 27:17).
In many contexts shemen perhaps means the “olive” itself: “… But ye, gather ye wine, and summer fruits, and oil, and put them in your vessels …” (Jer. 40:10). Once the word appears to mean lavish dishes, or dishes mixed with much oil: “And in this mountain shall the Lord of hosts make unto all people a feast of fat things [NASB, “lavish banquet”]” (Isa. 25:6).
Shemen is “a kind of perfume,” or olive oil mixed with certain odors to make a perfume, in passages such as Song of Sol. 1:3: “Because of the savor of thy good ointments [NASB, “oils”] thy name is as ointment poured forth.…”
Shemen sometimes modifies “wood”: “In the inner sanctuary he made two cherubim of olivewood, each ten cubits high” (1 Kings 6:23, RSV).
A related noun mishman appears 4 times. It means “stout or vigorous ones” (Isa. 10:16) and “fertile spots” (Dan. 11:24).
The verb saman which appears 5 times, has cognates in Aramaic, Syriac, and Arabic. The word means “to grow or be fat” (Neh. 9:25; Jer. 5:28).
The adjective shaman , which occurs 10 times, in Ugaritic cognates means: “fat” (Ezek. 34:16); “rich” in the sense of fattening (Gen. 49:20— the first occurrence); “fertile” (Num. 13:20); “robust or muscular” (Judg. 3:29); and “large” (Hab. 1:16).
People's Dictionary of the Bible 
Offering, Genesis 4:3, Oblation, Leviticus 2:7. The offerings in Jewish worship were either bloody or bloodless, or animal and vegetable. Of animals only tame ones were used, as oxen, goats, and sheep, and the dove. Leviticus 5:11, etc. From the vegetable kingdom, wine, flour, etc., were set apart. Human sacrifices or offerings were especially forbidden. Leviticus 18:21; Leviticus 20:2. The first offerings of which record is made are those of Cain and Abel. Genesis 4:3-8. The second offering is that of Noah, Genesis 8:20, after the flood. The various offerings were the burnt-offerings, meat-offerings, peace-offerings, and the sin and trespass-offerings. The burnt-offering was to be a male without blemish, of the herd and of the flock, offered voluntarily at the door of the tabernacle, the hand of the offerer being upon the head of the victim. Leviticus 1:2-4. The design of the burnt-offering was an atonement for sin. Leviticus 1:4; comp. Hebrews 10:1-3; Hebrews 10:11. It was presented every day, Exodus 29:38-42, on the Sabbath, Numbers 28:9-10, and on the great day of atonement, Leviticus 16:3, and the three great festivals. Numbers 28:11-31; Numbers 29:1-40. The meat-offering, R.V., "meal-offering," consisted of flour, or cakes, prepared with oil and frankincense. Leviticus 2:1; Leviticus 6:14-23. It was to be free from leaven and honey, but was to have salt. Leviticus 2:11; Leviticus 2:13. With this was connected the drink-offering, which was never used separately, but was an appendage of wine to some sacrifices. Exodus 29:41. A meal-offering was presented every day with the burnt-offering. Exodus 29:40-41. The first-fruits, offered at Pentecost, Leviticus 23:17-20, and at the Passover, Leviticus 23:10-14, were called wave-offerings; those offered in harvest-time, Numbers 15:20-21, heave-offerings. Peace-offerings were eucharistic in their nature, and were offered in thanksgiving or at a special dedication of something to the Lord. Leviticus 3:1-17; Leviticus 7:11-21. The animal as well as the vegetable kingdom contributed to this class of offerings. The sin and trespass-offerings were expiatory. They included an offering for the sins of ignorance. Leviticus 4:2. There are sins that are "debts" to God, more numerous, it may be, than our transgressions. The prayer the Lord taught regards sins as "debts." Matthew 6:12. Our thanksgivings now are to be offered through Christ, and the Hebrews were required to present sacrifices with their thanksgivings. Leviticus 7:15. Sin-offerings were presented by the high priest for personal offences, for national sins, and on the great day of atonement, when he confessed the sins of the whole nation with his hand on the scapegoat's head, and the goat was driven off into the wilderness. Leviticus 16:1-34, etc. These offerings all had a typical significance, and prefigured the atonement of Jesus Christ, on whom was laid the iniquity of us all, and "his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree." 1 Peter 2:24.
Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types 
All the offerings described in the Scriptures are connected directly or indirectly with Christ Jesus Most of them are pictures of the work of the Saviour in one form or another. In Ephesians 5:2 we read that Christ is our offering and our sacrifice. The offering is that which we give to GOD because we love Him, honor Him and trust Him. The sacrifice is that which is given to GOD in exchange for redemption, forgiveness and His other gifts.
The Passover lamb was a sacrifice, not an offering. The offerings and that which they represent are given as follows:
Wave Offering Exodus 29:24 (c) This is typical of presenting before GOD all the beauties and the virtues of the Lord Jesus Christ as the One in whom we trust and in whom we delight in lieu of anything in ourselves.
Leviticus 23:17,20 (c) You will notice that these loaves are baked with leaven, for they represent the person of the offerer. There is always sin in us. We are never sinless. Therefore, the offering that represents us contains leaven which is always an evil substance. There was no leaven in any of the other offerings which represent the Lord Jesus
Burnt Offering Leviticus 1:3 (c) This represents the offering of the entire person of the Lord JESUS to be accepted instead of our entire person. We receive the blessings of His perfection and GOD accepts His perfection in the place of our imperfection.
Drink Offering Genesis 35:14 (c) This type represents the utter consecration of the believer who pours out all his life for the service of his Lord.
Meat Offering Leviticus 2:1 (c) This is a picture of the beautiful, smooth life of the Lord Jesus Christ offered to GOD instead of the horrible, rough life that we have lived. (We are saved by His life Romans 5:10). This is the same as the "meal" offering.
Peace Offering Leviticus 3:1 (c) By this is illustrated the way in which our Lord JESUS by the sacrifice of Himself made peace for us by the Blood of His Cross. ( Colossians 1:20).
Ignorance Offering Leviticus 4:2 (c) Here is revealed the sweetness of GOD's care in that the sacrifice of CHRIST is efficacious for the sins which are committed unknowingly and therefore are not confessed.
Trespass Offering Leviticus 5:6 (c) This offering is for the actual sins which are committed day by day and must be met by the sacrifice of our blessed Lord. "Christ died for our sins" ( 1 Corinthians 15:3). This relates to our conduct rather than to our character.
Sin Offering Leviticus 5:17 (c) This type represents the suffering of the Lord JESUS for sinners. This relates to our character rather than to our conduct.
Heave Offering Numbers 18:24 (c) This is a type of that which is offered to the Lord of our gifts, talents, activities, etc., which shows Him that we love Him and are happy to give to Him.
All the above types are summed up as pictures and types of our Lord JESUS in Ephesians 5:2, where we read that He "hath given Himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet smelling savour."
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary 
In the Hebrew, an offering, minchah, is distinguished from a sacrifice, zebah, as being bloodless. In our version, however, the word offering is often used for a sacrifice, as in the case of peace offerings, sin offerings, etc. Of the proper offerings, that is, the unbloody offerings, some accompanied the sacrifices, as flour, wine, salt; others were not connected with any sacrifices. Like the sacrifices, some, as the first fruits and tenths, were obligatory; other were voluntary offerings of devotion. Various sorts of offerings are enumerated in the books of Moses. Among these are,
1. Fine flour, or meal;
2. Cakes baked in an oven;
3. Cakes baked on a plate or shallow pan;
4. Cakes cooked in deep vessel by frying in oil, (English version, "frying pan," though some understand here a gridiron or a plate with holes;)
5. First fruits of the new corn, either in the simple state or prepared by parching or roasting in the ear, or out of the ear. The cakes were kneaded with olive oil, or fried in a pan, or only dipped in oil after they were baked. The bread offered for the altar was without leaven; for leaven was never offered on the altar, nor with the sacrifices, Leviticus 2:11-12 . But they might make presents of common bread to the priests and ministers of the temple. Honey was never offered with the sacrifices, but it might be presented alone, as first fruits, Leviticus 2:11-12 . Those who offered living victims were not excused from giving meal, wine, and salt, together with the greater sacrifices. Those who offered only oblations of bread or of meal offered also oil, incense, salt, and wine, which were in a manner their seasoning. The priest in waiting received the offerings from the hand of him who brought them, laid a part on the altar, and reserved the rest for his own subsistence as a minister of the Lord. Nothing was wholly burned up but the incense, of which the priest retained none. See Leviticus 2:2,13 Numbers 15:4-5 .
In some cases the law required only offerings of corn or bread, as when they offered the first fruits of harvest, whether offered solemnly by the nation, or as the devotion of private persons. The unbloody offerings signified, in general, not so much expiation, which was the peculiar meaning of the sacrifices, as the consecration of the offerer, and all that he had to Jehovah. Only in the case of the poor man, who could not afford the expense of sacrificing an animal, was an unbloody offering accepted in its stead, Leviticus 5:11 . See Sacrifices
King James Dictionary 
OF'FERING, ppr. Presenting proposing sacrificing bidding presenting to the eye or mind.
OF'FERING, n. That which is presented in divine service an animal or a portion of bread or corn, or of gold and silver, or other valuable articles, presented to God as an atonement for sin, or as a return of thanks for his favors, or for other religious purpose a sacrifice an oblation. In the Mosaic economy, there were burnt-offerings, sin-offerings, peace-offerings, trespass-offerings, thank-offerings, wave-offerings, and wood-offerings. Pagan nations also present offerings to their deities. Christ by the offering of himself has superseded the use of all other offerings, having made atonement for all men.
When thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed - Isaiah 53 .
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary 
Or Oblation denotes whatever is sacrificed or consumed in the worship of God. For an account of the various offerings under the law, the reader is referred to the book of Leviticus.
See also Sacrifice
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary 
Easton's Bible Dictionary 
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible 
OFFERING . See Sacrifice and Offering.
Webster's Dictionary 
(p. pr. & vb. n.) of Goffer
Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary 
No text for this entry.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament 
Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature 
(the general name for which in Hebrew is קָרְבָן , Korban ' , although several other words are so rendered) is anything presented to God as a means of conciliating his favor; which being in the Jewish, as well as in all other religions, considered as the one thing needful, has always constituted an essential part of public worship and private piety. In the treatment of this topic we bring together. the ancient information with whatever light modern research has thrown upon it.
Offerings have been divided into three kinds: 1. Impletratoria, denoting those which are designed to procure some favor or benefit; 2. Eucharistica, those which are expressive of gratitude for bounties or mercies received; 3. Piacularia, those which are meant to. atone for sins and propitiate the Deity. Porphyry also gives three reasons for making offerings to the gods (Abstinentia, 2:24) — in order to do them honor, to acknowledge a favor, or to procure a supply for human needs. Among the Hebrews we find a complex and multiform system of offerings extending through the entire circle of divine worship, and prescribing the minutest details. A leading distinction separates their offerings into unbloody ( מַנְחָה , Minchah, Προσφορά , Δῶρον ) and Bloody ( זֶבח , Zebach, Θυσία ) . Used in its widest sense, the term offering, or oblation, indicates in the Hebrew ritual a very great number of things — as the firstlings of the flock, first-fruits, tithes, incense, the shewbread, the wood for burning in the Temple ( Nehemiah 10:34).
The objects offered were salt, meal, baked and roasted grain, olive-oil, clean animals, such as oxen, goats, doves, but not fish. The animals were required to be spotless ( Leviticus 22:20; Malachi 1:8), and, with the exception of the doves, not under eight days old ( Leviticus 22:27), younger animals being tasteless and innutritious. The smaller beasts, such as sheep, goats, and calves, were commonly one year old ( Exodus 29:38; Leviticus 9:3; Leviticus 12:6; Leviticus 14:10; Numbers 15:27; Numbers 28:9 sq.). Oxen were offered at three years of age; in Judges ( Judges 6:25) one is offered which is seven years old. As to sex, an option was sometimes left to the offerer, especially in peace and sin offerings ( Leviticus 3:1; Leviticus 3:6; Leviticus 12:5-6); at other times males were required, as in burnt sacrifices, for, contrary to classical usage, the male was considered the more perfect. In burnt-offerings and in thank-offerings the kind of animal was left to the choice of the worshipper ( Leviticus 1:3), but in trespass and sin offerings it was regulated by law ( Leviticus 4:5). If the desire of the worshipper was to express his gratitude, he offered a peace or thank offering; if to obtain forgiveness, he offered a trespass or sin offering. Burnt-offerings were of a general kind ( Numbers 15:3; Deuteronomy 12:6; Jeremiah 17:26). Hecatombs or large numbers of cattle were sacrificed on special occasions. In 1 Kings 8:5; 1 Kings 8:63, Solomon is said to have "sacrificed sheep and oxen that could not be told or numbered for multitude," "two and twenty thousand oxen, and a hundred and twenty thousand sheep" (see also 2 Chronicles 29:32 sq.; 2 Chronicles 30:24; 2 Chronicles 35:7 sq.; comp. Herod. 7:43; Xenoph. Hellen. 6:4; Sueton. Calig. 14). Offerings were also either public or private, prescribed or free-will. Sometimes they were presented by an individual, sometimes by a family; once, or at regular and periodic intervals ( 1 Samuel 1:24; Job 1:5 2 Maccabees 3:32). Foreigners were permitted to make offerings on the national altar ( Numbers 15:14; 2 Maccabees 3:35; 2 Maccabees 13:23; Philo, Legat. p. 1014: Joseph. Apion, 2:5). Offerings were made by Jews fir heathen princes ( 1 Maccabees 7:33; Joseph. Ant. 12:2, 5). In the case of bloody- offerings, the possessor, after he had sanctified himself ( 1 Samuel 16:5), brought the victim, in case of.thank-offerings, with its horns gilded and with garlands, etc. (Joseph. Ant. 13:8, 2), to the altar ( Leviticus 3:1; Leviticus 12:4; Leviticus 14:17), where, laying his hand on the head of the animal ( Leviticus 1:4; Leviticus 3:2; Leviticus 4:4), he thus, in a clear and pointed way, devoted it to God. Having so done, he proceeded to slay the victim himself ( Leviticus 3:2; Leviticus 4:4); which act might be, and in later times was done by the priests ( 2 Chronicles 29:24), and probably by the Levites. (Hottinger, De Functionibus Sacerdot. Circa Iictinmam, Marb. 1706). The blood was taken, and, according to the kind of offering, sprinkled upon the altar, or brought into the Temple and there shed upon the ark of the covenant and smeared upon the horns of the altar of incense, and then the remainder poured forth at the foot of the altar of burnt-offerings. Having slain the animal, the offerer struck off its head ( Leviticus 1:6), which, when not burned ( Leviticus 4:11), belonged either to the priest ( Leviticus 7:8) or to the offerer (comp. Mishna, Zebach, 12:2). The victim was then cut into pieces ( Leviticus 1:6; Leviticus 8:20), which were either all, or only the best and most tasty, set on fire on the altar by the priests or the offerer, or must be burned without the precincts of the holy city. The treatment of doves may be seen in Leviticus 1:14 sq.; v. 8 (see Hottinger, De Sacrificiis Avium, Marb. 1706). In some sacrifices heaving ( תרומה ) and waving ( תבוכה ) were usual either before or after the slaying.
The annual expense of offerings, including those made by individuals as well as the nation, must have been considerable. It may, however, be said that the country produced on all sides in great abundance most of the required' objects, and that there were numerous forests whence. wood for use in sacrifice was procured. At later periods of the nation foreign princes, desirous of conciliating the good-will of the Jews, made large contributions both of natural objects and of money towards the support of the ceremonial of public worship ( Ezra 6:9; 1 Maccabees 10:39, 2 Maccabees 3:3; 2 Maccabees 9:16; Joseph. Ant. 12:3, 3). The place where offerings were exclusively to be presented was the outer court of the national sanctuary, at first the Tabernacle, afterwards the Temple. Every offering made elsewhere was forbidden under penalty of death ( Leviticus 17:4 sq.; Deuteronomy 12:5 sq.; comp. 1 Kings 12:27). The precise spot is laid down in Leviticus 1:3; Leviticus 3:2, "At the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the Lord." According to the Mishna ( Zebach, ch. 5), offerings were to be slain partly on the north side of the altar, and, if they were inconsiderable, at any part of the outer court. The object of these regulations was to prevent any secret idolatrous rites from taking place under the mask of the national ritual; and a common place of worship must have tended considerably to preserve the unity of the people, whose constant disagreements required precautions of a special kind ( 1 Kings 12:27). The oneness, however, of the place of sacrifice was not strictly preserved in the troubled period of the Judges, nor indeed till the time of David ( 1 Kings 3:2-3). Offerings were made in other places besides the door of the Tabernacle ( 1 Samuel 7:17; Judges 2:5). High places, which had long been used by the Canaanites, retained a certain sanctity, and were honored with offerings ( Judges 6:26; Judges 13:19). Even the loyal Samuel followed this practice (1 Samuel), and David tolerated it ( 1 Kings 3:2). After Solomon these offerings on high places still continued. In the kingdom of Israel, cut off as its subjects were from the holy city, the national temple was neglected.
Offerings being regarded as an expression of gratitude and piety, and required as a necessary part of ordinary private life, were diligently and abundantly presented, failure in this point being held as a sign of irreligion ( Psalms 66:15; Psalms 110:3; Jeremiah 38:11; Matthew 8:4; Acts 21:26; Isaiah 43:23). Offerings were sworn by, as being something in themselves holy, from the purpose to which they were consecrated ( Matthew 23:18). In the glowing pictures of religious happiness and national prosperity which the poets drew, there is found an ideal perfection of this essential element of Israelitish worship ( Isaiah 19:21; Isaiah 56:7; Isaiah 60:7; Zechariah 14:21; Jeremiah 17:26; Jeremiah 33:18); and deprivation of this privilege was among the calamities of the period of exile ( Hosea 3:4).
Under the load and the multiplicity of these outward oblations, however, the Hebrews forgot the substance, lost the thought in the symbol, the thing signified in the sign; and, failing in those devotional sentiments and that practical obedience which offerings were intended to prefigure and cultivate, sank into the practice of mere dead works. Thereupon the prophets began to utter their admonitory lessons, to which the world is indebted for so many graphic descriptions of the real nature of religion and the only true worship of Almighty God ( Isaiah 1:11; Jeremiah 6:20; Jeremiah 7:21 sq.; Hosea 6:6; Amos 5:22; Micah 6:6 sq.; comp. Psalms 40:6; Psalms 51:17 sq.; Proverbs 21:3). Thus the failures of one Church prepared the way for the higher privileges of another, and the law proved a schoolmaster to bring us to Christ ( Matthew 5:23; Galatians 3:24). Even before the advent of our Lord pious and reflecting men, like the Essenes, discovered the lamentable abuses of the national ritual, and were led to abstain altogether from the customary forms of a mere outward worship (Joseph. Ant. 18:1, 5).
The 50th Psalm must have had great influence in preparing the minds of thinking men for a pure and spiritual form of worship, the rather because some of its principles strike at the very root of all offerings of a mere outward kind: thus, "I will take no bullock out of thy house, nor he-goats out of thy folds; for every beast of the forest is mine, and the cattle upon a thousand hills. If I were hungry I would not tell thee; for the world is mine, and the fullness thereof. Will I eat the flesh of bulls or drink the blood of goats? Offer unto God thanksgiving." Indeed, the conception and composition of such a noble piece show what great progress the best-cultivated minds had made from the rudimental notions of primitive times; and may serve of themselves to prove that with all the abuses which had ensued, the Mosaic ritual and institutions were admirably fitted to carry forward the education of the mind of the people. Thus was the Hebrew nation, and through them the world, led on so as to be in some measure prepared for receiving the Gospel of the Lord Jesus, in which all outward offerings are done away, the one great offering being made, and all those who are members of the Church are required, to offer themselves, body, soul, and spirit, a holy offering to the Lord (Hebrews 10; Romans 12). "By him therefore let us offer the sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit' of our lips, giving thanks to his name. But to do good and to communicate forget not; for with such sacrifices God is well pleased" ( Hebrews 13:15-16; Matthew 9:13; Matthew 12:7; Romans 15:16; Philippians 2:17; 2 Timothy 4:6). (See Mosaism).
Lightfoot's work, De Ministerio Templi, is especially to be recommended on this subject. See also — Outram, De Sacrif.; Reland, Ant. Sacr. 3:1; Bauer,-Gottesdiensil. Verjass. 1:80 sq.; Rosenm Ü ller, Excurs. I ad Leviticus The Jewish doctrines on offerings may be found in the treatises Zebachim, Menachoth, and Temura, a selection from which, as well as from the Rabbins, is given in that useful little works Othon. Lex. Talnud. p. 621 sq.; see Ugolin. Thesaur. tom. 19. For a general view of the subject, (See Sacrifice); and for its different kinds, (See Burnt-Offering); (See Consecration-Offering); (See Daily-Offering); (See Drink-Offering); (See Heave-Offering); (See Jealousy- Offering); (See Meat-Offering); (See Oblation); (See Propitiatory-Offering); (See Purification-Offering); (See Sin-Offering); (See Wave-Offering).
OFFERING denotes whatever is sacrificed or consumed in the worship of God. In the Christian community there appears to have existed, from the earliest times, a practice of making voluntary offerings for purposes not directly connected with public worship. (See Oblation); (See Offertory).
Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature 
Offering is anything presented to God as a means of conciliating His favor: which being in the Jewish, as well as in all other religions, considered as the one thing needful, offerings accordingly have always constituted an essential part of public worship and private piety.
Offerings have been divided into three kinds: those which are designed to procure some favor or benefit; those which are expressive of gratitude for bounties or mercies received; those which are meant to atone for sins and to propitiate the Deity. Among the Hebrews we find a complex and multiform system of offerings extending through the entire circle of divine worship, and prescribing the minutest details. A leading distinction separates their offerings into unbloody and bloody. Used in its widest sense the term offering, or oblation, indicates in the Hebrew ritual a very great number of things—as the firstlings of the flock, first-fruits, tithes, incense, the shew-bread, the wood for burning in the temple. The objects offered were salt, meal, baked and roasted grain, olive-oil, clean animals, such as oxen, goats, doves, but not fish. The animals were required to be spotless, and, with the exception of the doves, not under eight days old, younger animals being tasteless and innutritious. The smaller beasts, such as sheep, goats, and calves, were commonly one year old. Oxen were offered at three years of age; in Judges one is offered which is seven years old. As to sex, an option was sometimes left to the offerer, as in peace and sin offerings; at other times males were required, as in burnt sacrifices, for, contrary to classical usage, the male was considered the more perfect. In burnt offerings and in thank offerings the kind of animal was left to the choice of the worshipper, but in trespass and sin offerings it was regulated by law. If the desire of the worshipper was to express his gratitude, he offered a peace or thank offering: if to obtain forgiveness, he offered a trespass or sin offering. Burnt-offerings were of a general kind. Hecatombs or large numbers of cattle were sacrificed on special occasions (see; ). Offerings were also either public or private, prescribed or free-will. Sometimes they were presented by an individual, sometimes by a family; once, or at regular and periodic intervals. Foreigners were permitted to make offerings on the national altar. Offerings were made by Jews for heathen princes. In the case of bloody offerings the possessor, after he had sanctified himself, brought the victim, in case of thank-offerings, with his horns gilded and with garlands, etc. to the altar, where, laying his hand on the head of the animal, he thus, in a clear and pointed way, devoted it to God. Having so done, he proceeded to slay the victim himself; which act might be and in later times was, done by the priests, and probably by the Levites. The blood was taken, and according to the kind of offering, sprinkled upon the altar, or brought into the temple and there shed upon the ark of the covenant and smeared upon the horns of the altar of incense, and then the remainder poured forth at the foot of the altar of burnt-offerings. Having slain the animal, the offerer struck off its head, which, when not burnt, belonged either to the priest or to the offerer. The victim was then cut into pieces, which were either all, or only the best and most tasty, set on fire on the altar by the priests or the offerer, or must be burnt without the precincts of the holy city. The treatment of doves may be seen in , sq.; 5:8. In some sacrifices heaving and waving were usual either before or after the slaying.
The place where offerings were exclusively to be presented was the outer court of the national sanctuary, at first the Tabernacle, afterwards the Temple. Every offering made elsewhere was forbidden under penalty of death. The precise spot is laid down in; , 'at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the Lord.' The object, of these regulations was to prevent any secret idolatrous rites from taking place under the mask of the national ritual; and a common place of worship must have tended considerably to preserve the unity of the people, whose constant disagreements required precautions of a special kind . The oneness, however, of the place of sacrifice was not strictly preserved in the troubled period of the Judges, nor indeed till the time of David . Offerings were made in other places besides the door of the Tabernacle . High places, which had long been used by the Canaanites, retained a certain sanctity, and were honored with offerings . Even the loyal Samuel followed this practice (;; ), and David endured it . After Solomon these offerings on high places still continued. In the kingdom of Israel, cut off as its subjects were from the holy city, the national temple was neglected.
Under the load and the multiplicity of these outward oblations, however, the Hebrews forgot the substance, lost the thought in the symbol, the thing signified in the sign; and, failing in those devotional sentiments and that practical obedience which offerings were intended to prefigure and cultivate, sank into the practice of mere dead works. Hereupon began the prophets to utter their admonitory lessons, to which the world is indebted for so many graphic descriptions of the real nature of religion and the only true worship of Almighty God (;; , sq.;;; , sq.; comp.; , sq.; ).
- ↑ Offering from Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words
- ↑ Offering from People's Dictionary of the Bible
- ↑ Offering from Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types
- ↑ Offering from American Tract Society Bible Dictionary
- ↑ Offering from King James Dictionary
- ↑ Offering from Charles Buck Theological Dictionary
- ↑ Offering from Bridgeway Bible Dictionary
- ↑ Offering from Easton's Bible Dictionary
- ↑ Offering from Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible
- ↑ Offering from Webster's Dictionary
- ↑ Offering from Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary
- ↑ Offering from Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament
- ↑ Offering from Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature
- ↑ Offering from Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature