From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [1]

Among the Jews, under the Mosaic law, a variety of offerings of different kinds were appointed, which are accurately and fully described in the beginning of the book of Leviticus.

Burnt-offerings, or holocausts, sacrifices in which the victims were wholly consumed, were expiatory, and more ancient than any others, and were, for that reason, held in special honour. It was in consideration of these circumstances that Moses gave precepts in regard to this kind of sacrifices first,  Leviticus 1:3 . Holocausts might be offered by means of the Hebrew priests, when brought by the Heathen, or those who had originated from another nation; such persons being unable to offer sin or trespass- offerings, since this sort of sacrifices had particular reference to some neglect or violation of the Mosaic law, by whose authority they did not acknowledge themselves bound. Holocausts were expiatory, and we accordingly find that they were offered sometimes for the whole people; for instance, the morning and the evening sacrifices; and sometimes by an individual for himself alone, either from the free impulse of his feelings, or in fulfilment of a vow,  Psalms 51:19;  Psalms 66:13-14 . They were required to be offered under certain combinations of circumstances pointed out in the Mosaic laws; namely, by a Nazarite, who had been unexpectedly rendered unclean, or who had completed the days of his separation,  Numbers 6:11-16; by those who had been healed of leprosy; and by women after child-birth,  Leviticus 12:6;  Leviticus 12:8 . The victims immolated at a holocaust were bullocks of three years old, goats and lambs of a year old, turtle doves, and young pigeons. Not only the parts which were expressly destined for the altar, but also the other parts of the victims, were burned. A libation of wine was poured out upon the altar. It was the practice among the Gentile nations, (an allusion to which occurs in Php_2:17 , and  2 Timothy 4:6 ,) to pour the wine out between the horns of the victims which they immolated to their idols. The priest partially wrung or cut off the heads of the turtle doves and young pigeons, sprinkled the blood on the side of the altar, plucked out the feathers and the crop, and cast them to the east of the altar into the place for the reception of ashes, and placed the remainder, after having cleft or broken the wings, upon the fire,  Leviticus 1:3-17 .

Drink-offerings. With a bullock, half a hin of wine, with three-tenth deals of flour, and half a hin of oil. With a ram, one-third of a hin of wine, with two-tenth deals of flour, and one-third of a hin oil. With a lamb or a kid of the goats, one quarter of a hin of wine, one-tenth deal of flour, and one quarter of a hin of oil. With a sheaf of the first-fruits, one quarter of a hin of wine, one-tenth deal of flour, with oil.

Meat-offerings. These, like the drink-offerings were appendages to the sacrifices. They were of thin cakes or wafers. In some instances they were offered alone.

Heave-offerings. So called from the sacrifice being lifted up toward heaven, in token of its being devoted to Jehovah.

Peace-offerings. Bullocks, heifers, goats, rams, and sheep, were the only animals sacrificed on these occasions,  Leviticus 3:1-17;  Leviticus 7:23-27 . These sacrifices, which were offered as an indication of gratitude, were accompanied with unleavened cakes, covered with oil, by pouring it upon them; with thin cakes or wafers, likewise unleavened, and besmeared with oil; also with another kind of cakes, made of fine meal, and kneaded with oil. The priest, who sprinkled the blood, presented one of each of these kinds of cakes as an offering,  Leviticus 7:11-14;  Leviticus 7:28-35 . The remainder of the animal substance and of the cakes was convened by the person who made the offering into an entertainment, to which widows, orphans, the poor, slaves, and Levites, were invited. What was not eaten on the day of the offering might be reserved till the succeeding; but that which remained till the third was to be burned: a regulation which was made in order to prevent the omission or putting off of the season of this benevolence and joy,  Leviticus 7:15-21;  Deuteronomy 12:18 . This feast could be celebrated beyond the limits of the tabernacle, or temple, but not beyond the city.

Sin-offerings were for expiation of particular sins, or legal imperfections, called therefore sin-offerings: the first sort were for sins of ignorance or surprise, either from the high priest, or body of the community, from the rulers, or any one of the common people. The other sort of sin-offerings were for voluntary sins; but as to the more capital violations of the moral law, as murder, adultery, or the worship of idols, no expiatory sacrifice was admitted.

Trespass-offerings were not required of the people as a body. They were to be offered by individuals, who, through ignorance, mistake, or want of reflection, had neglected some of the ceremonial precepts of Moses, or some of those natural laws, which had been introduced into his code, and sanctioned with the penalty of death; and who were subsequently conscious of their error. The person who, being sworn as a witness, concealed the truth by keeping silent; the man who, having become contaminated without knowing it, had omitted purification, but had afterward become acquainted with the fact; the person who had rashly sworn to do a thing, and had not done it; all these delinquents offered a lamb or kid, or, in case of poverty, two doves or young pigeons, the one for a trespass, the other for a sin-offering. In case the person was unusually poor, he was required to offer merely the tenth part of an ephah of fine meal, without oil or frankincense,  Leviticus 3:1-16 . Whoever appropriated to himself any thing consecrated, or any thing that was promised, or found, or stolen, or deposited in his possession for keeping; whoever swore falsely, or omitted to restore the goods that belonged to another, or injured him in any other way, presented for his trespass a ram, which had been submitted to the estimation of the priest, and not only made restitution, but allowed an additional amount of a fifth part by way of indemnification. He who had committed fornication with a betrothed handmaid, previously to her being redeemed from servitude, offered a ram for the trespass,  Leviticus 19:20-22 . Nazarites, who had been unexpectedly rendered unclean, presented a lamb of a year old,  Numbers 6:11 . Finally, lepers, when restored to health, and purified, sacrificed a ram,  Leviticus 14:10-14 . The ceremonies were the same as in the sin-offerings.

Wave-offering. It was so called, because it was waved up and down, and toward the east, west, north, and south, to signify, that he to whom it was offered was Lord of the universe, the God who fills all space, and to whom all things of right belong. See Sacrifices .

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [2]


In the technical sense, implying a formal ceremonial act, three Gr. words are represented by ‘offer,’ ‘offering,’ in the Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885: (1) προσφίρω, to bring to or near , the general term for the act of worshipper or priest,  Matthew 5:23-24;  Matthew 8:4 (=  Mark 1:44,  Luke 5:14),  John 16:2; (2) ἀνάθημα, a votive offering set up in a temple ( Luke 21:5); (3) δίδωμι, to give ( Luke 2:24, cf.  Luke 21:4).

The attitude of Jesus to the ceremonial law is, in part, indicated in these references. Speaking to Jews He uses language appropriate to their condition, and illustrates the truth He would teach from their everyday life. He assumes that they will bring their gifts to the altar, and so far ‘He respects the practice,’ but He adds the all-important truth that the reconciliation of man to man must come before the altar-offering. Forgiveness of injuries ( Matthew 5:23 f.), filial piety ( Matthew 15:5 f.), and mercy ( Matthew 9:13,  Matthew 12:7) condition all acceptable service of God. In this Jesus takes His stand with the Hebrew prophets, and fulfils their moral law. The command to the leper, now cleansed, ‘show thyself to the priest, and offer the gift that Moses commanded,’  Matthew 8:4 (=  Mark 1:44,  Luke 5:14), ought not to be pressed beyond this. The leper was ostracized, and the priest alone could remove the ban, and grant a certificate of health (Leviticus 14). Freewill offerings, over and above the requirements of the Law, were provided for in the Temple treasury ( Mark 12:41,  Luke 21:4). Of the 13 trumpet-shaped boxes of the treasury 4 were for voluntary gifts. (See Edersheim, The Temple , p. 26; and for the general subject, see Giving; cf., further, artt. Law and Sacrifice).

W. H. Dyson.

Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [3]

The old church formed in the wilderness abounded in offerings of various kinds, both and religious. The general term for offerings was Corban. (See Corban.) But the temple service offerings were all denominated Mincha. Those offerings of Mincha consisted of flour made into cakes, all unleavened, probably to prefigure Christ. (See  1 Corinthians 5:7-8) And besides the burnt offerings, and peace offerings, and sin offerings, under the law, were many, and scrupulously regarded by the Jews, being so strictly enjoined by the Lord. How blessed is it for us to observe under every one of them direct references to the person and offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all, whereby "he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified!" Without him the whole was an unmeaning service; but considered as typical of Jesus, how infinitely important doth that all-sufficient sacrifice of Christ on the cross appear, when we behold it introduced with such vast solemnity and expense through so many ages to the coming of Christ.

Smith's Bible Dictionary [4]

Offerings. See Sacrifice .

Holman Bible Dictionary [5]

Sacrifice And Offering

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [6]

(See Offering).

I. Waving Before Jehovah ( הֵנַי לַפְנֵי יְהוֹה or תְּנוּפָה ) occurs as a special ceremony by the priests in the Jewish ritual not only in connection with meat-offerings ( Exodus 29:24 [ Leviticus 8:27];  Numbers 5:25), in the case of the first-fruits and the first-born ( Leviticus 23:11 sq.), but also of bloody offerings, whether (especially in thank- offerings) of single pieces only, as the breast or right shoulder or fore-leg ( Exodus 29:26 sq.;  Leviticus 7:30;  Leviticus 7:34;  Leviticus 9:21;  Leviticus 10:14;  Numbers 6:20), or of the whole animal (a lamb,  Leviticus 19:12;  Leviticus 19:24;  Leviticus 23:23), which was waved before Jehovah in token of presentation; and this principle extended even to the persons of the Levites as an initiatory rite to their office ( Numbers 8:11;  Numbers 8:15). The waving in case of meat-offerings or pieces of animals was performed upon (with) the hands ( Exodus 29:24;  Leviticus 8:27; according to the rabbins, it was held upon the hands of the offerers, beneath which were placed those of the priest [Tosi4phta, Menach. 7:17], so as to fiulfil the requirement of  Exodus 29:24;  Numbers 6:19-20; while whole animals were waved by the hands of the priest alone [Mishna, Menach. 5:6]); each having previously been laid upon the altar; in the case of whole animals this was done before slaughtering them ( Leviticus 14:12; Leviticus cf., 24 sq.). It consisted, according to the rabbins (Mishna, Meienach. 5:6), like the Porricere of the Romans (Macrob. Sat. 3:2), also the obmovere or commovere (Cato, Res Rust. 134) in certain respects (Zorn, Biblioth. Antiq. 1:74), of a forward and backward motion upward of the articles; while living objects were simply moved to and fro. Whether the motion was ever to the right and left is uncertain, although the import of the word הֵנַי (see  Isaiah 30:28; Deuteronomy 20:25) would justify such an opinion, which, moreover, would be highly significant. The act, at all events, indicates a festive surrender to Jehovah as a personal service like the peace-offering; beyond this all is speculation (Bahr, Symbol. 2:376 sq.; see Reland, Antiq. Sacr. page 276). See Wave- Offering

II. Heaving ( הֵרַים or תְּרוּמָה ) is associated with the tossing ( Exodus 29:27), as the heave-shoulder ( הִתְּרוּמָה שׁוֹק ) occurs almor, with the wave-breast ( Exodus 29:27;  Leviticus 7:30;  Leviticus 7:32;  Leviticus 7:34), and what is called ( Exodus 38:24) wave-gold is also called heave-gold ( Numbers 31:52). Indeed, the Jews scarcely distinguish between the two ( תְּרוּמֶה and תְּנוּפָה ) as ritualistic acts, but explain each as an upward and downward motion (Mishna, Menach. 5:6), a sort of Elevatio. Both would thus stand as generally expressive of supreme consecration to God as the universal Owner and Giver (see Gesenius, Thesaur. page 866; Bahr, Symbolik, 2:355 sq.; 377). Some moderns incorrectly regard the two acts as identical (Jahn, Archaol. 3:38), or take "heaving" ( הֵרַים ) in the vague sense of Offerre or Auferre (like Gesenius, Thesaur. page 1277), and connect הוּרִם ,  Exodus 29:27, with מֵאֵיל הִמַּלּאַים , contrary to the accents and the parallelism; but see Kurtz, Mos. Opfer, page 146 sq. (See Heave-Offering).