From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words [1]

A. Verb.

Mâ‛al ( מָעַל , Strong'S #4603), “to trespass, act unfaithfully.” This verb is not very common in Hebrew, biblical or rabbinic. It occurs 35 times in the Hebrew Old Testament, particularly in late Hebrew. Translations may give a separate translation of the verb and the noun mâ‛al , but most combine them into one phrase in which the verb takes the meaning of “to act” or “to commit”—e.g., Josh. 7:1: “But the children of Israel committed [ mâ‛al ] a trespass [ mâ‛al ] in the accursed thing …” (KJV); “But the Israelites acted unfaithfully” (NIV). Some versions give the sense more freely: “But the people of Israel broke faith” (RSV); “But the Israelites defied the ban” (NEB).

The first occurrence of the verb (together with the noun) is found in Lev. 5:15: “If a soul commit a trespass, and sin through ignorance.…” The sense of the verb is similar to the verb “to sin.” In fact, in the next chapter the verb for “to sin” and mâ‛al are used together: “If a soul sin, and commit a trespass against the Lord, and lie unto his neighbor …” (Lev. 6:2). The combining of these two usages in Leviticus is significant. First, it shows that the verb may be a synonym for “to sin.” Mâ‛al has basically this meaning in Lev. 5:15, since the sin is here out of ignorance instead of a deliberate act of treachery. Second, the meaning of mâ‛al is further expressed by a verb indicating the intent of being unfaithful to one’s neighbor for personal profit (“commit a trespass against the Lord, and lie unto his neighbor …”).

The offense is against God, even when one acts unfaithfully against one’s neighbor. In 2 Chron. 29:6 we read: “For our fathers have trespassed, and done that which was evil in the eyes of the Lord our God, and have forsaken him …”; and Daniel prayed: “… Because of their trespass that they have trespassed against thee” (Dan. 9:7; cf. NIV, “… because of our unfaithfulness to you”).

In view of the additional significance of “treachery,” many versions translate the verb “to act unfaithfully” or “to act treacherously” instead of “to transgress” or “to commit a trespass.” Both the verb and the noun have strongly negative overtones, which the translator must convey in English. When God spoke to Ezekiel: “Son of man, when the land sinneth against me by trespassing grievously, then will I stretch out mine hand upon it, and … cut off man and beast from it” (Ezek. 14:13), He communicated also His displeasure with Israel’s rebellious, treacherous attitude. This is communicated in other versions: “Son of man, if a country sins against me by being unfaithful …” (NIV); “Son of man, if a country sins against Me by committing unfaithfulness …” (NASB).

The verb mâ‛al generally expresses man’s unfaithfulness to God (Lev. 26:40; Deut. 32:51; 2 Chron. 12:2; Ezra 10:2; Ezek. 14:13). The word further signifies man’s unfaithfulness to his fellow man; particularly it is illustrative of unfaithfulness in marriage: “If any man’s wife go aside, and commit a trespass against him, And a man lie with her carnally …” (Num. 5:12-13). In this sense also must Lev. 6:2 be understood: “If anyone sins and is unfaithful to the Lord by deceiving his neighbor about something entrusted to him …” (NIV)

In the Septuagint we find these translations: athetein (“to nullify; reject; commit an offense”); asunthetein —(“to be faithless”); and aphistaveiv (“to mislead; withdraw”). Modern versions set forth more explicitly the overt nature of the sin than the KJV (“trespass; transgress”): Rsv, Nasb, Niv “act or be unfaithful; Rsv, Nasb “to break faith.”

B. Noun.

Ma‛al ( מַעַל , Strong'S #4604), “trespass; unfaithful, treacherous act.” This noun is used 29 times in biblical Hebrew. In addition to the primary sense of “trespass,” given in KJV, there may be an indication of the motivation through which the sin was committed. Most of the usages support the idea of “faithlessness, treachery.” It is an act committed by a person who knows better but who, for selfish motives, acts in bad faith. The story of Achan bears out the attitude of treachery (Josh. 7:1). Joshua challenged Israel not to follow the example of Achan: “Did not Achan the son of Zerah commit [ ma‛al ] a trespass [ ma‛al ] in the accursed thing, and wrath fell on all the congregation of Israel?” (Josh. 22:20).

In 2 Chron. 29:19 the “faithlessness” was committed against God: “Moreover all the vessels which king Ahaz in his reign did cast away in his transgression.…” Ma‛al also appears in Ezra 9:2: “… Yea, the hand of the princes and rulers hath been chief in this trespass.”

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [2]

A — 1: Παράπτωμα (Strong'S #3900 — Noun Neuter — paraptoma — par-ap'-to-mah )

primarily "a false step, a blunder" (akin to parapipto, "to fall away,"  Hebrews 6:6 ), lit., "a fall beside," used ethically, denotes "a trespass," a deviation, from uprightness and truth,  Matthew 6:14,15 (twice); 18:35, in some mss.;   Mark 11:25,26; in Romans the RV substitutes "trespass" and "trespasses" for AV, "offense" and "offenses,"  Romans 4:25 , "for (i.e., because of) our trespasses;"  Romans 5:15 (twice), where the trespass is that of Adam (in contrast to the free gift of righteousness, ver. 17, a contrast in the nature and the effects);   Romans 5:16 , where "of many trespasses" expresses a contrast of quantity; the condemnation resulted from one "trespass," the free gift is "of (ek, expressing the origin, and throwing stress upon God's justifying grace in Christ) many trespasses;"  Romans 5:17 , introducing contrast between legal effects and those of Divine grace;  Romans 5:18 , where the RV, "through one trepass," is contrasted with "one act of righteousness;" this is important, the difference is not between one man's "trespass" and Christ's righteousness (as AV), but between two acts, that of Adam's "trespass" and the vicarious death of Christ;  Romans 5:20 [(cp. Transgression, B No. 1 (d)]; in   2—Corinthians 5:19 , AV and RV, "trespasses;" in  Ephesians 1:7 , RV, "trespasses" (AV, "sins"); in  Ephesians 2:1 , RV, "(dead through your) trespasses," AV, "(dead in) trespasses;"  Ephesians 2:5 , RV, "(dead through our) trespasses," AV, "(dead in) sins;" so  Colossians 2:13 (1st part); in the 2nd part, AV and RV, "trespasses."

 Galatians 6:1 Galatians 5:19 James 5:16 Romans 11:11,12Fall

B — 1: Ἁμαρτάνω (Strong'S #264 — Verb — hamartano — ham-ar-tan'-o )

"to sin," is translated "to trespass," in the AV of  Matthew 18:15;  Luke 17:3,4 (RV, "to sin").


King James Dictionary [3]

Tres'Pass, L trans, beyond, and passer, to pass.

1. Literally, to pass beyond hence primarily, to pass over the boundary line of another's land to enter unlawfully upon the land of another. A man may trespass by walking over the ground of another, and the law gives a remedy for damages sustained. 2. To commit any offense or to do any act that injures or annoys another to violate any rule of rectitude to the injury of another.

If any man shall trespass against his neighbor, and an oath be laid upon him--  1 Kings 8 . See  Luke 17 . 3 . and 4.

3. In a moral sense, to transgress voluntarily any divine law or command to violate any known rule of duty.

In the time of his disease did he trespass yet more.  2 Chronicles 28

We have trespassed against our God.  Ezra 10 .

4. To intrude to go too far to put to inconvenience by demand or importunity as, to trespass upon the time or patience of another.

TRES'PASS, n. In law, violation of another's rights, not amounting to treason, felony, or misprision of either. Thus to enter another's close, is a trespass to attack his person is a trespass. When violence accompanies the act, it is called a trespass 6et armis.

1. Any injury or offense done to another.

If ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses.  Matthew 6

2. Any voluntary transgression of the moral law any violation of a known rule of duty sin.  Colossians 2

You hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins.  Ephesians 2

Webster's Dictionary [4]

(1): ( v.) Any voluntary transgression of the moral law; any violation of a known rule of duty; sin.

(2): ( v. i.) To commit any offense, or to do any act that injures or annoys another; to violate any rule of rectitude, to the injury of another; hence, in a moral sense, to transgress voluntarily any divine law or command; to violate any known rule of duty; to sin; - often followed by against.

(3): ( v.) Any injury or offence done to another.

(4): ( v.) An action for injuries accompanied with force.

(5): ( v. i.) To go too far; to put any one to inconvenience by demand or importunity; to intrude; as, to trespass upon the time or patience of another.

(6): ( v. i.) To commit a trespass; esp., to enter unlawfully upon the land of another.

(7): ( v.) An unlawful act committed with force and violence (vi et armis) on the person, property, or relative rights of another.

(8): ( v. i.) To pass beyond a limit or boundary; hence, to depart; to go.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [5]

An injury done to another, with more or less culpability. The Mosaic law required a trespasser not only to make satisfaction to the person injured, but by an offering at the altar to reconcile himself to the divine Governor,  Leviticus 5:1-19;  6:1-7;  Psalm 51:4 . Christ repeatedly declares, that in order to be forgiven of God, we must be forgiving to men,  Matthew 6:14,15 , and that no brother must have aught against us,  Matthew 5:23,24 .

Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology [6]

See Sin

Morrish Bible Dictionary [7]

See SIN.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [8]

tres´pas  : To pass over, to go beyond one's right in place or act; to injure another; to do that which annoys or inconveniences another; any violation of law, civil or moral; it may relate to a person, a community, or the state, or to offenses against God. The Hebrew אשׁם , 'āshām ("sin"), is used very frequently in the Old Testament when the trespass is a violation of law of which God is the author. The Greek word is παράπτωμα , paraptōma .

In the Old Testament an offering was demanded when the offense was against God: a female lamb; in other cases, according to the magnitude of the wrong, a ram or a goat; the offering was to be preceded by a confession by the one committing the trespass. If the trespass was against a human being, the wrong-doer must make it right with the person, and when reconciliation should have been effected, then the offering for sin was to be made. See under Sacrifice In The Old Testament , "Trespass Offering." If a person's property has been injured, then the trespasser shall add a fifth to the value of the property injured and give that to the injured party ( Leviticus 6:5 ). Zaccheus, wanting to make full restitution, went beyond the demands of the Law ( Luke 19:1-9 ).

The New Testament teaching on the subject is, first to be reconciled to the brother and then offer, or worship ( Matthew 5:23 ,  Matthew 5:24 ). In all cases, also, the offended party must forgive if the offender shall say, "I repent" ( Matthew 6:14;  Ephesians 4:32;  Colossians 3:13 ). We have been alienated by our trespasses from God ( Ephesians 2:1 ). It was the Father's good will to reconcile all to Himself through Christ ( Colossians 1:20-22 ). We must be reconciled to God ( 2 Corinthians 5:20 ,  2 Corinthians 5:21 ). This being done, our trespasses shall be forgiven and we shall be justified.

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [9]

( אָשָׁם , Guilt ; Παράπτωμα ) is an offence committed, a hurt, or wrong done to a neighbor; and partakes of the nature of an error or slip rather than of deliberate or gross sin. Under the law, the delinquent who had trespassed was of course bound to make satisfaction; but an offering or oblation was allowed him to reconcile himself to the Divine Governor ( Leviticus 6:15). Our Savior teaches us that whoever does not forgive the trespasses of a fellow-man against himself is not to expect that his Father in heaven will forgive his trespasses ( Matthew 6:14-15).