Name

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Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [1]

A — 1: Ὄνομα (Strong'S #3686 — Noun Neuter — onoma — on'-om-ah )

is used (I) in general of the "name" by which a person or thing is called, e.g.,  Mark 3:16,17 , "(He) surnamed," lit., "(He added) the name;"  Mark 14:32 , lit., "(of which) the name (was);"  Luke 1:63;  John 18:10; sometimes translated "named," e.g.,  Luke 1:5 , "named (Zacharias)," lit., "by name;" in the same verse, "named (Elizabeth)," lit., "the name of her," an elliptical phrase, with "was" understood;  Acts 8:9 , RV, "by name,"  Acts 10:1; the "name" is put for the reality in  Revelation 3:1; in  Philippians 2:9 , the "Name" represents "the title and dignity" of the Lord, as in  Ephesians 1:21;  Hebrews 1:4;

 Matthew 6:9 Luke 1:49 John 12:28 17:6,26 Romans 15:9 1—Timothy 6:1 Hebrews 13:15 Revelation 13:6 Matthew 10:22 19:29 John 1:12 2:23 3:18 Acts 26:9 Romans 1:5 James 2:7 1—John 3:23 3—John 1:7 Revelation 2:13 3:8 Matthew 18:5  Matthew 24:5  John 14:26 16:23  Mark 16:17 Luke 10:17 Acts 3:6 4:10 16:18 James 5:14 Acts 4:12 8:16 9:27,28 Matthew 18:20 Acts 8:16 9:2  John 14:13 15:16 Ephesians 5:20 Colossians 3:17 1—Peter 4:14  Matthew 19:29 Matthew 10:22 24:9 Mark 13:13 Luke 21:17 John 15:21 1—John 2:12 Revelation 2:3  1—Peter 4:16 Acts 1:15 Revelation 3:4 11:13 Mark 9:41 1—Peter 4:16

B — 1: Ὀνομάζω (Strong'S #3687 — Verb — onomazo — on-om-ad'-zo )

denotes (a) "to name," "mention," or "address by name,"  Acts 19:13 , RV, "to name" (AV, "to call"); in the Passive Voice,  Romans 15:20;  Ephesians 1:21;  5:3; to make mention of the "Name" of the Lord in praise and worship,  2—Timothy 2:19; (b) "to name, call, give a name to,"  Luke 6:13,14; Passive Voice,  1—Corinthians 5:11 , RV, "is named" (AV, "is called");  Ephesians 3:15 (some mss. have the verb in this sense in   Mark 3:14;  1—Corinthians 5:1 ). See Call , Note (1).

B — 2: Ἐπονομάζω (Strong'S #2028 — Verb — eponomazo — ep-on-om-ad'-zo )

"to call by a name, surname" (epi, "on," and No. 1), is used in  Romans 2:17 , Passive Voice, RV, "bearest the name of" (AV, "art called"). See Call , Note (1).

B — 3: Προσαγορεύω (Strong'S #4316 — Verb — prosagoreuo — pros-ag-or-yoo'-o )

primarily denotes "to address, greet, salute;" hence, "to call by name,"  Hebrews 5:10 , RV, "named (of God a High Priest)" (AV, "called"), expressing the formal ascription of the title to Him whose it is; "called" does not adequately express the significance. Some suggest the meaning "addressed," but this is doubtful. The reference is to  Psalm 110:4 , a prophecy confirmed at the Ascension. In the Sept.,  Deuteronomy 23:6 .

B — 4: Καλέω (Strong'S #2564 — Verb — kaleo — kal-eh'-o )

"to call," is translated "named" in  Acts 7:58 , RV (AV, "whose name was"). See Call , No. 1 (b).

 Luke 19:2 Luke 2:21 Matthew 9:9 Mark 15:7Call

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [2]

A name was given to the male child at the time of its circumcision, but it is probable, previous to the introduction of that rite, that the name was given immediately after its birth. Among the orientals the appellations given as names are always significant. In the Old Testament, we find that the child was named in many instances from the circumstances of its birth, or from some peculiarities in the history of the family to which it belonged,  Genesis 16:11;  Genesis 19:37;  Genesis 25:25-26;  Exodus 2:10;  Exodus 18:3-4 . Frequently the name was a compound one, one part being the name of the Deity, and among idolatrous nations the name of an idol. The following instances may be mentioned among others, and may stand as specimens of the whole, namely, שמואל , Samuel, "hear God;" אדניה , Adonijah, "God is lord;" יהוצדק , Josedech, "God is just;" אתבעל , Ethbaal, a Canaanitish name, the latter part of the compound being the name of the idol deity, Baal; בלשאצר , Belshazzar, "Bel," a Babylonish deity, "is ruler and king." Sometimes the name had a prophetic meaning,  Genesis 17:15;  Isaiah 7:14;  Isaiah 8:3;  Hosea 1:4;  Hosea 1:6;  Hosea 1:9;  Matthew 1:21;  Luke 1:13;  Luke 1:60;  Luke 1:63 . In the later times names were selected from those of the progenitors of a family; hence in the New Testament hardly any other than ancient names occur,  Matthew 1:12;  Luke 1:61;  Luke 3:23 , &c. The inhabitants of the east very frequently change their names, and sometimes do it for very slight reasons. This accounts for the fact of so many persons having two names in Scripture,  Ruth 1:20-21;  1 Samuel 14:49;  1 Samuel 31:2;  1 Chronicles 10:2;  Judges 6:32;  Judges 7:1;  2 Samuel 23:8 . Kings and princes very often changed the names of those who held offices under them, particularly when they first attracted their notice, and were taken into their employ, and when subsequently they were elevated to some new station, and crowned with additional honours,  Genesis 41:45;  Genesis 17:5;  Genesis 32:28;  Genesis 35:10;  2 Kings 23:34-35;  2 Kings 24:17;  Daniel 1:6;  John 1:42;  Mark 3:17 . Hence a name, a new name, occurs tropically, as a token or proof of distinction and honour in the following among other passages, Php_2:9;  Hebrews 1:4;  Revelation 2:17 . Sometimes the names of the dead were changed; for instance that of Abel, הבל , a word which signifies breath, or something transitory as a breath, given to him after his death, in allusion to the shortness of his life,  Genesis 2:8 . Sometimes proper names are translated into other languages, losing their original form, while they preserve their signification. This appears to have been the case with the proper names, which occur in the first eleven chapters of Genesis, and which were translated into the Hebrew from a language still more ancient. The orientals in some instances, in order to distinguish themselves from others of the same name, added to their own name the name of their father, grandfather, and even great grandfather. The name of God often signifies God himself; sometimes his attributes collectively; sometimes his power and authority. Of the Messiah it is said, "And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, King of kings, and Lord of lords,"  Revelation 19:16 . In illustration of this it may be remarked, that it appears to have been an ancient custom among several nations, to adorn the images of their deities, princes, victors at their public games, and other eminent persons, with inscriptions expressive of their names, character, titles, or some circumstance which might contribute to their honour. There are several such images yet extant, with an inscription written either on the garment, or one of the thighs. Herodotus mentions two figures of Sesostris, king of Egypt, cut upon rocks in Ionia, after his conquest of that country, with the following inscription across the breast, extending from one shoulder to the other; "I conquered this country by the force of my arms." Gruter has published a naked statue made of marble, and supposed to represent the genius either of some Roman emperor, or of Antinous, who was deified by Hadrian, with an inscription on the inside of the right thigh, written perpendicularly in Roman letters, and containing the names of three persons. Near the statue, on the same side of it, stands an oval shield with the names of two other persons written round the rim in letters of the same form. In the appendix to Dempster's "Etruria Regalis," is a female image of brass, clothed in a loose tunic down to the feet, with a shorter garment over it, on the right side of which is a perpendicular inscription in Etrurian characters, extending partly on the lower garment. This figure, from the diadem on the head, and other circumstances which accompany it, Philip Bonarota, the editor of that work, supposes to have been designed for some Etrurian deity. Montfaucon has given us a male image of the same metal, dressed in a tunic, and over that another vestment something like a Roman toga, reaching to the middle of the legs, on the bottom of which is an Etrurian inscription written horizontally. There are likewise in both those writers two male figures crowned with laurel, which Montfaucon calls combatants, as the laurel was an emblem of victory. But Bonarota takes one of them for an image of Apollo, which has a chain round the neck, a garment wrapped over the right arm, and a bracelet on the left, with half boots on the legs; the rest of the body being naked has an Etrurian inscription written downward in two lines on the inside of the left thigh. The other figure has the lower part of the body clothed in a loose vestment, with an inscription upon it over the right thigh, perpendicularly written in Roman letters, which Bonarota has thus expressed in a more distinct manner than they appear in Montfaucon: Pomponio Virio I

To these may be added from Montfaucon, a marble statue of a naked combatant, with a fillet about his head in token of victory. It is drawn in two views, one exhibiting the back and the other the fore part of the body, the latter of which has in Greek letters, ΚΑΦΙΣΟΔΟΡΟΣ for ΚΑΦΙΣΟΔΩΡΟΣ , perpendicularly inscribed on the outside of the left thigh; and the former the name ΑΙΣΧΛΑΜΙΟΥ in the like characters and situation on the right thigh; these together make one inscription, signifying Caphisodorus filius Aeschamii. [Caphisodorus the son of Aeschlamius.]

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary [3]

To the Israelites of Bible times, the name of a person had much more significance than it does in most countries today. This applies to the giving of names and the usage of names.

Names given for a purpose

Many factors influenced Israelite parents in their choice of names for their children. In some cases the name was connected with happenings at the child’s birth ( Genesis 10:25;  Genesis 25:24-26). In other cases parents gave names that expressed their joys or sorrows at the time of the birth ( Genesis 29:32-35;  Genesis 35:16-18), or expressed their hopes for their own or the child’s future ( Genesis 30:24). God at times directed parents to give names that were a prophecy of coming events ( Isaiah 8:3-4;  Isaiah 8:18;  Hosea 1:4;  Hosea 1:6;  Hosea 1:9).

People in positions of power could give new names to those within their authority as indications of blessing or appointment to places of honour ( Genesis 17:5;  Genesis 17:15; cf.  Philippians 2:9). In some cases a new name may have been given to indicate a new character ( Genesis 32:28).

Where there was such a connection between name and character, the request to know a person’s name was a request to know the character indicated by the name ( Genesis 32:29;  Exodus 3:13;  Judges 13:17). Sometimes people remembered a new revelation of God’s character by calling him by a special name that summarized the revelation in a few words ( Genesis 22:14;  Exodus 3:14;  Exodus 17:15;  Judges 6:24). To know a person’s name (in this sense) was to know the person ( Exodus 33:12;  Psalms 9:10;  Psalms 79:6).

The name meant the person

Since the name represented the person, Israelites considered it important to have descendants to carry on the family name ( Numbers 27:4;  Deuteronomy 25:5-6; see Inheritance ). It was a matter of great shame for the family name to be blotted out ( Joshua 7:9;  2 Samuel 14:7;  Proverbs 10:7). To honour a person’s name meant to honour the person; to dishonour a person’s name meant to dishonour the person ( Exodus 20:7;  Leviticus 18:21;  1 Kings 1:47;  Isaiah 29:23;  Matthew 6:9;  Romans 2:24;  1 Timothy 6:1).

When an Israelite was called by the name of another person, it meant to be associated so closely as to belong to that person ( Deuteronomy 28:9-10;  Isaiah 4:1;  Jeremiah 14:9;  Jeremiah 15:16;  Jeremiah 25:29;  Matthew 28:19;  1 Corinthians 1:13-15). In the same way, to speak or act in the name of another person meant to speak or act as if one were that person ( Deuteronomy 18:20;  1 Samuel 25:5;  Matthew 18:20;  John 16:23-24;  Acts 3:6;  Acts 3:16;  Acts 9:27-29;  Colossians 3:17).

According to this common biblical usage, to make known a person’s name meant to make known the person’s character and activity ( Psalms 22:22;  Psalms 99:3;  John 17:6;  Acts 9:15). Anyone who did something for the sake of a person’s name acted as the person’s representative and therefore was concerned with upholding the person’s good character ( Psalms 109:21;  Acts 9:16). To call upon a person’s name had the same significance as actually calling upon the person ( 1 Kings 18:24;  Psalms 99:6;  Acts 2:21). Therefore, those who called upon the name of the Lord could be assured that the Lord himself would save them ( Psalms 54:1;  Acts 4:12;  Romans 10:13).

Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [4]

By the name is meant in Scripture, the person of any one. Thus we read in  Revelation 3:4 "Thou hast a few names in Sardis"—the meaning is, thou hast a few persons there. So it is said, "they that know thy name will put their trust in thee." ( Psalms 9:10) —The sense is, that the right knowledge of the Lord can only induce a right dependance upon him: and in this sense, what a blessedness is there in the name of JEHOVAH! Hence Moses, towards the close of his ministry, admonisheth Israel to this proper apprehension concerning JEHOVAH. "That thou mayest fear (said Moses) this glorious and fearful name, THE Lord Thy God" ( Deuteronomy 28:58) And what an infinite fulness is contained in this glorious and fearful name! Observe, not only The Lord, that is JEHOVAH in his threefold character of person, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, but Thy God, that is, God in covenant; so that in this view of the name of JEHOVAH, is included both his essence, nature, attributes, perfections, counsel, will, and purpose. All his gracious revelations in the person of his dear Son, his grace, love, wisdom, mercy, and the whole constellation of glories manifested in Christ and by Christ; and so running through the whole kingdoms of nature, and providence, and grace, and glory; so much, and infinitely more, is included in this one view of the glorious and fearful name of The Lord Thy God.

And this may serve to explain, in some measure, the awfulness of taking this glorious and fearful name in vain—a sin but little considered, but yet most tremendously heinous. The Jews were so tenacious of it, that they never made use of it in their ordinary discourse, even when intending to speak with reverence; but always substituted some other expression, to intimate their meaning without using the very name. See Jehovah under this particular.

And we find the Lord himself helping his people, as it were, in this sacred regard which they desired to have to his honour, by commanding them to avoid all temptations to it, in prohibiting their use of the names of the dunghill gods around them; knowing that the familiar use of the one, might insensibly lead to the use of the other. "And in all things that I have said unto you, (saith the Lord) be circumspect: and make no mention of the name of other gods, neither let it be heard out of thy mouth." ( Exodus 23:13) And hence we find, in after-ages of the church, the Lord again interposing with his grace on this occasion, and saying: "And it shall be at that day, saith the Lord, that thou shalt call me Ishi, and shalt call me no more Baali; for I will take away the names of Baalim out of her mouth." ( Hosea 2:16-17) The Israelites were not only in danger from using the same name of Baali, which signifies Lord, as their idolatrous neighbours did, when speaking of their gods, but they had been upon numberless occasions infected also with their idolatry. Hence the Lord graciously promised, in this sweet and condescending Scripture, to remove the temptation to this sin, by taking the names of Baal and Baalim out of their mouths. As if the Lord had said, by being called Ishi, my man, the Lord would came home nearer to their affections.

I must not dismiss this view of the glorious and fearful name of JEHOVAH, of which we are so repeatedly told, in the word of God, the Lord is jealous, without first begging the reader to remark with me the very tender intimations the Lord gives of this name, in the person, work, and righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ. Hence the church sings, "Because of the savour of thy good ointments, thy name is as ointment poured forth." ( Song of Song of Solomon 1:3) And when a poor sinner, sensible of the loathsomeness of his own person, hath found Jesus, and what is contained for all the purposes of salvation in the person and glory of Christ, then is the name of Jesus more fragrant than all the costly perfume of the sanctuary. The soul then enters into tile enjoyment of all those names of Jesus which the prophet hath described him by, in one full constellation: "His name (saith he) shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, the Mighty God, the Everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace!" ( Isaiah 9:6)

Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types [5]

 Micah 1:8 (b) The prophet thus describes the utter desolation of Israel. By this unclothed illustration, Israel was to know of that which was to happen to them. (See v11).

 Habakkuk 3:9 (a) GOD's words of judgment were clearly revealed without camouflage or deception.

 2 Corinthians 5:3 (a) Since we cannot take any garments with us when we die, we must have His robe of righteousness, or else we would be in the presence of GOD without a garment. We cannot come into GOD's presence unclothed. GOD has provided a robe of righteousness, and a garment of salvation. It may be also that the Lord is referring in this passage to the changed bodies which we shall have in the resurrection. It will be identical with the present bodies which we own, but will be incorruptible, and will be free from all pain, suffering and deterioration. (See also  Revelation 3:18).

 Hebrews 4:13 (b) The Lord is telling us again the same truth that He gave us in  Genesis 3:7. He tells us very clearly that nothing can be hidden from GOD. He can see through any covering, any false religion, any false teachings, any excuses that the sinner may use to cover his sins, iniquities, trespasses and transgressions.

 Revelation 3:17 (a) GOD is telling these people that their real condition is seen and known by Him. Nothing about them or their lives is hidden from His eyes.

 Revelation 16:15 (a) GOD sees these people as having no covering at all, unless it is the robe of righteousness which He gives to those who trust in Him, and belong to Him.

 Revelation 17:16 (a) The false church is to be stripped of all her pretense and false claims, and will be seen in all her wickedness. All her evils will be exposed.

 2 Samuel 7:9 (a) This represents a great and good reputation. It means the same in most of the passages in which it is mentioned, as in  Isaiah 55:13, and  Jeremiah 13:11.

 Proverbs 22:1 (a) The good reputation of a man is of more value than earthly possessions. (See  Ecclesiastes 7:1;  Isaiah 56:5;  Isaiah 63:12;  Jeremiah 32:20;  Zephaniah 3:20).

 John 1:12 (a) We are not told in this passage which name the Lord is referring to. The Lord Jesus has somewhere around two hundred names in the Bible. Each name indicates an office which He bears, and a service which He renders. The Lord is using a common principle in this passage, for if we are sick we seek for one whose name is physician. If the teeth need attention, we seek for a dentist. If the car needs fixing we seek for a mechanic. The name indicates the work which the person can do, and is really a title. Probably in the passage we are considering the name referred to is "Saviour." As we pass along the streets of life and realize that We need to be saved from our sins, and from the penalty of them, We find this wonderful Man whose Name is Saviour, and we at once commit our cause and our case to Him. He does the saving, and therefore we prove that we believe in His Name when we take advantage of that name or title and trust our all to Him.

 Romans 10:13 (a) Again in this passage we do not find mentioned what name we call upon. It may be that it is the name "Lord." Certainly we are saved when Jesus Christ becomes our Lord. His lordship is put first, ahead of His other many names. Those who appeal to Him in this way find He is ready and willing to save.

King James Dictionary [6]

NAME, n.

1. That by which a thing is called the sound or combination of sounds used to express an idea, or any material substance, quality or act an appellation attached to a thing by customary use, by which it may be vocally distinguished from other things. A name may be attached to an individual only, and is then proper or appropriate, as John, Thomas, London, Paris or it may be attached to a species, genus, or class of things, as sheep, goat, horse, tree, animal, which are called common names, specific or generic. 2. The letters or characters written or engraved, expressing the sounds by which a person or thing is known and distinguished. 3. A person.

They list with women each degenerate name.

4. Reputation character that which is commonly said of a person as a good name a bad name. 5. Renown fame honor celebrity eminence praise distinction.

What men of name resort to him?

6. Remembrance memory.

The Lord shall blot out his name from under heaven.  Deuteronomy 29 .

7. Appearance only sound only not reality as a friend in name.  Revelation 3 . 8. Authority behalf part as in the name of the people. When a man speaks or acts in the name of another, he does it by their authority or in their behalf, as their representative. 9. Assumed character of another.

Had forged a treason in my patrons name.

10. In Scripture, the name of God signifies his titles, his attributes, his will or purpose,, his honor and glory, his word, his grace, his wisdom, power and goodness, his worship or service, or God himself. 11. Issue posterity that preserves the name.  Deuteronomy 25 . 12. In grammar, a noun.

To call names, to apply opprobrious names to call by reproachful appellations.

To take the name of God in vain, to swear falsely or profanely,, or to use the name of God with levity or contempt.  Exodus 20 .

To know by name, to honor by a particular friendship or familiarity.  Exodus 33 .

Christian name, the name a person receives by baptism, as distinguished from surname.

NAME, to call, to name, to invoke.

1. To set or give to any person or thing a sound or combination of sounds by which it may be known and distinguished to call to give an appellation to.

She named the child Ichabod.  1 Samuel 4 .

Thus was the building left Ridiculous, and the work confusion named.

2. To mention by name to utter or pronounce the sound or sounds by which a person or thing is known and distinguished.

Neither use thyself to the naming of the Holy One.

3. To nominate to designate for any purpose by name.

Thou shalt anoint to me him whom I name to thee.  1 Samuel 16 .

4. To entitle.

To the name of Christ, to make profession of faith in him.  2 Timothy 4 .

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [7]

In the Bible expressing the nature or relation for the most part. According as man has departed more and more from the primitive truth, the connection between names and things has become more arbitrary. In Genesis on the contrary the names are nearly all significant. Adam's naming the animals implies at once his power of speech, distinguishing him above them, and his knowledge of their characteristics as enabling him to suit the name to the nature. God, in calling His people into new and close relationship with Himself, gives them a new name. Abram becomes Abraham; Sarai, Sarah; Jacob, Israel. (See Abram ; Jacob; Israel ) So the name was given the child at the time of circumcision, because then he enters into a new covenant relationship to God ( Luke 1:59;  Luke 2:21). So spiritually in the highest sense God's giving a new name implies His giving a new nature;  Revelation 2:17;  Revelation 3:12, Christ will give some new revelation ("new name") of Himself hereafter to His saints, which they alone are capable of receiving, when He and they with Him shall take the kingdom.

Christians receive their new name at baptism, indicating their new relation. They are "baptized into ( Eis Onoma ) the name of (the revealed nature,  2 Peter 1:4, into living union with) the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit" in their manifested relations and offices toward us ( Matthew 28:19). In  Isaiah 65:15, "ye shall leave your name for a curse unto My chosen, for the Lord shall call His servants by another name": instead of a "curse," as the name of Jew had been, the elect Jews shall have a new name, God's delight, "Hephzibah," and married to Him, "Beulah," instead of "forsaken" and "widow" ( Isaiah 62:2-4). The "name" of Jehovah is His revealed character toward us.  Exodus 34:5-7; "Jehovah proclaimed the name of Jehovah ... Jehovah Εlohim , merciful and gracious," etc. So Messiah, Jesus, Immanuel, the Word, indicate His manifested relations to us in redemption ( Revelation 19:13); also  Isaiah 9:6, "His name shall be called Wonderful," etc. ( 1 Timothy 6:1;  John 17:6;  John 17:26;  Psalms 22:22). Also His gracious and glorious attributes revealed in creation and providence ( Psalms 8:1;  Psalms 20:1;  Psalms 20:7). Authority ( Acts 4:7). Profession of Christianity ( Revelation 2:13). Manifested glory ( Philippians 2:9). (See God ; JEHOVAH.)

Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words [8]

Shêm ( שֵׁם , Strong'S #8034), “name; reputation; memory; renown.” Cognates of this word appear in Akkadian, Ugaritic, Phoenician, Aramaic, and Arabic. This word appears about 864 times and in all periods of biblical Hebrew. It is not always true that an individual’s “name” reveals his essence. Names using foreign loan words and ancient words were probably often not understood. Of course, names such as “dog” (Caleb) and “bee” (Deborah) were not indicative of the persons who bore them. Perhaps some names indicated a single decisive characteristic of their bearer. In other cases, a “name” recalls an event or mood which the parent(s) experienced at or shortly before the child’s birth and/or naming. Other names make a statement about an individual. This sense of a name as an identification appears in Gen. 2:19 (an early occurrence of this word): “… And whatsoever Adam called every living creaturethat was the name thereof.” On the other handthe names by which God revealed Himself ( ’Adonay, ‘El, ‘Elohim ) do reflect something of His person and work.

Shêm can be a synonym for “reputation” or “fame”: “Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name; lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth” (Gen. 11:4). To “give a name for one” is to make him famous: “And what one nation in the earth is like thy people, even like Israel, whom God went to redeem for a people to himself, and to make a name, and to do for you great things and terrible, for thy land …” (2 Sam. 7:23). If a name goes forth for one, his “reputation” of fame is made known: “And thy renown went forth among the heathen for thy beauty …” (Ezek. 16:14). Fame may include power: “And he lifted up his spear against three hundred, and slew them, and had the name among three” (2 Sam. 23:18). This sense, “men of reputation,” appears in Gen. 6:4: “… mighty men which were of old, men of renown.”

This word is sometimes a synonym for “memory” or “reputation” (that which remains): “… And so they shall quench my coal which is left, and shall not leave to my husband neither name nor remainder upon the earth” (2 Sam. 14:7). In this respect “name” may include property, or an inheritance: “Why should the name of our father be done away from among his family, because he hath no son? Give unto us therefore a possession among the brethren of our father” (Num. 27:4).

Shêm can connote “renown” and “continuance” (in those remaining after one): “And they rose up before Moses, with certain of the children of Israel, two hundred and fifty princes of the assembly, famous in the congregation, men of renown” (Num. 16:2). This significance is in the phrase “to raise up his name after him”: “What day thou buyest the field of the hand of Naomi, thou must buy it also of Ruth the Moabitess, the wife of the dead, to raise up the name of the dead upon his inheritance” (cf. Deut. 9:14; 25:6; Ruth 4:5).

Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology [9]

In contemporary Western culture a name rarely possesses significance beyond that of a highly sentimental, perhaps aesthetically conditioned response on the part of proud, doting parents to the intoxicating joy of a new arrival. Not so in the Bible. There a human name typically reflects character and mission anticipated in life, which may turn out for either good or ill. It may embody the spiritual vision of parents for their child's future. In other instances, it is prophetic of future outcomes or events. On the negative side, it may typify a life come to ruin.

The name "Samuel, " for example, may be translated "asked of God" ( 1 Samuel 1:20 — or possibly, "Name of El" ). When accompanied by the like-sounding Hebrew term sha'al [   1 Samuel 1:27-28 ).

Isaiah's son's name, Shear-Yashub [   Isaiah 7:3-4;  10:21-22 ). This was also the local setting for the well-known prophecy that "A virgin shall be with child and will give birth to a son, and will call him Immanu El [   Isaiah 7:14 ). The name of Isaiah's second son, Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz [   Isaiah 8:1-3 ). Whether the Immanuel prophecy had any local fulfillment in relation to this second son is a debated subject (cf.  Isaiah 8:8-10 ). That it has ultimate messianic significance in connection with Jesus of Nazareth is clear from  Matthew 1:22-23 .

On the negative side, Ichabod [   1 Samuel 4:21 ), recalls a gripping personal tragedy for the high priestly family at a time of national trauma for the entire people of God. The name Nabal [   1 Samuel 25:25 ).

Finally, the name Adam [   Genesis 3:9 ), becomes universalized in Jesus, the second Adam, through whom his redemptive pursuit of the entire race is consummated ( Hebrews 1:1-2; cf.  Romans 5:12-19;  1 Corinthians 15:21-22,45-50 ). That salvific mission is also revealed in the name Yeshua [   Matthew 1:21 ).

Leonard S. Wallmark

See also Name Of God; Name And Titles Of Jesus Christ

People's Dictionary of the Bible [10]

Name.  Genesis 2:19. This sometimes has a peculiar signification, as in  Proverbs 18:10, where the term denotes God himself. See, also,  Psalms 20:1;  Psalms 20:5;  Psalms 20:7. In the New Testament it usually means the character, faith, or doctrine of Christ.  Acts 5:41;  Acts 8:12;  Acts 9:15;  Acts 26:9. The names of God are expressive of some element of his character—are the symbol of some revealed attribute of his nature. We name him only because we know him, and we know him only because he has made himself known. Names among the Jews usually had a meaning and a relation of some peculiar circumstances in the character, birth, or destiny of the person.  Exodus 2:10;  Exodus 18:3-4;  Matthew 1:21. The same person often had two names. Names were changed, and are still, in Eastern countries, for slight reasons. A change of office or station often occasioned a change of name. "And upon his thigh a name written."  Revelation 19:16. This alludes to an ancient custom among Eastern nations of adorning the images of their gods and the persons of princes and heroes with inscriptions expressive of their character, titles, etc. They were made on the garment, or on one of the thighs, and several ancient statues have been discovered, with inscriptions of one or two lines, written sometimes horizontally and sometimes perpendicularly, both on the inside and outside of the thigh, and sometimes upon both thighs. Men surname themselves by the name of Israel, when, having been before Gentiles and sinners, they join themselves to Jesus and his church.  Isaiah 44:5.

Webster's Dictionary [11]

(1): ( n.) To designate by name or specifically for any purpose; to nominate; to specify; to appoint; as, to name a day for the wedding.

(2): ( n.) To mention by name; to utter or publish the name of; to refer to by distinctive title; to mention.

(3): ( n.) To designate (a member) by name, as the Speaker does by way of reprimand.

(4): ( n.) To give a distinctive name or appellation to; to entitle; to denominate; to style; to call.

(5): ( n.) A descriptive or qualifying appellation given to a person or thing, on account of a character or acts.

(6): ( n.) A person, an individual.

(7): ( n.) Those of a certain name; a race; a family.

(8): ( n.) Reputed character; reputation, good or bad; estimation; fame; especially, illustrious character or fame; honorable estimation; distinction.

(9): ( n.) The title by which any person or thing is known or designated; a distinctive specific appellation, whether of an individual or a class.

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [12]

‘The Aryan-speaking peoples “believed at one time not only that the name was a part of the man, but that it was that part of him which is termed the soul, the breath of life.” ’

Copyright Statement These files are public domain.Text Courtesy of Biblesupport.Com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography Information Hastings, James. Entry for 'Name'. Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/hdn/n/name.html. 1906-1918.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [13]

nām ( שׁם , shēm  ; ὄνομα , ónoma  ; Latin nomen (2 Esd 4:1); verbs ὀνομάζω , onomázo  ; Latin nomino (2 Esd 5:26)): A "name" is that by which a person, place or thing is marked and known. In Scripture, names were generally descriptive of the person, of his position, of some circumstance affecting him, hope entertained concerning him, etc., so that "the name" often came to stand for the person. In   Acts 1:15;  Revelation 3:4 , ónoma stands for "persons"; compare  Numbers 26:53 ,  Numbers 26:55 .

I. Old Testament Word and Use

1. General

The word for "name" in the Old Testament is shēm (also the name of one of the sons of Noah). The etymology is uncertain, although it may be from shāmāh (obs.), "To set a mark"; shum is the Aramaic form. For the name as descriptive of the person see Names . Besides designating persons, the name also stands for fame, renown, reputation, character gained or expressed, etc. ( Genesis 6:4;  2 Samuel 7:9 ,  2 Samuel 7:23 , etc.); it might be an "evil name"  Deuteronomy 22:14 ,  Deuteronomy 22:19; the "name" is also equivalent to a "people" or "nation" (which might be "blotted out," i.e. destroyed ( Deuteronomy 7:24 , etc.)); to speak or write "in the name" signified authority ( Exodus 5:23;  1 Kings 21:8 , etc.); to "call one's name" over a place or people indicated possession or ownership ( 2 Samuel 12:28;  Amos 9:12 , etc.); to act "in the name" was to represent  Deuteronomy 25:6; to be called or known "by name" indicated special individual notice  Exodus 31:2;  Isaiah 43:1;  Isaiah 45:3-4 .  Genesis 2:19-20 even displays a conception of identity between the name and the thing.

"To name" is sometimes 'āmar , "to say"   1 Samuel 16:3; dābhar , "to speak"  Genesis 23:16; nāḳabh , "to mark out"  Numbers 1:17; ḳārā' , "to call"  Genesis 48:16;  Isaiah 61:6 .

2. The Divine Name

Of special interest is the usage with respect to the name of God. (For the various Divine names and their significance see God , Names Of .) He revealed Himself to Israel through Moses by a new name (which was at the same time that of the God of their fathers) - Jehovah (which see) ( Yahweh ) - the nature of which should be shown by His manifestations on their behalf   Exodus 3:13-16;  Exodus 15:2-3 . The "name of God was therefore not a mere word , but the whole of" the Divine manifestation, the character of God as revealed in His relations to His people and in His dealings with them ( Exodus 9:16;  Joshua 7:9;  Joshua 9:9 , etc.). The "name of Yahweh " was proclaimed to Moses on Mt. Sinai, " Yah , Yahweh , a God merciful and gracious, slow to anger, and abundant in lovingkindness and truth," etc.  Exodus 34:6; the name Yahweh (so revealed) was  Exodus 3:15 His "memorial Name" (so, often, in the American Standard Revised Version; see Memorial ).

His sole Deity was such an important element in His name that   Deuteronomy 6:4 was termed the "Shema" (from shema‛ , "hear," the first word in  Deuteronomy 6:4 ), the first article of Israelitish faith, taught to all the children, written on the phylacteries, and still recited as the first act in public and private worship "twice a day by every adult male Jew." Where Yahweh is said to record His name, or to put His name in a place (or person), some special Divine manifestation is implied, making the place or person sacred to Him   Exodus 20:24;  1 Kings 8:16 . His "name" was in the angel of His Presence  Exodus 23:21; what He does is "for his great name's sake," in fidelity to and vindication of His revealed character and covenant relationship  2 Chronicles 6:32;  Psalm 25:11; the great things He should do would be "for a name"  Isaiah 55:13; He would give His people a new name, "an everlasting name"  Isaiah 56:5; to be "called by" the name of Yahweh is "to be his people"  2 Chronicles 7:14;  Isaiah 43:7; it implies "protection," etc.  Isaiah 63:19;  Jeremiah 14:8-9; to "call upon" the name of Yahweh was "to worship him" as God ( Genesis 21:33;  Genesis 26:25 , etc.); "To confess" His name, to "acknowledge him"  1 Kings 8:33 ,  1 Kings 8:35; to love, trust, act in, etc., "The name," was to love, trust, etc., Yahweh Himself  Psalm 5:11;  Psalm 7:17 .

Very frequently, especially in the Psalms and prophecies of Isaiah and Jeremiah, "the name" of God stands for "God himself"; to "forget his name" was "to depart from him"  Jeremiah 23:27; "to minister, prophesy, or speak" in His name signified Divine appointment, inspiration, authority ( Jeremiah 11:21;  Jeremiah 14:14-15 , etc.); we have "swearing by" or "in" the name of Yahweh  Deuteronomy 6:13; to take His name "in vain" was to swear falsely  Exodus 20:7;  Leviticus 19:12; we have "blessing" in His name  Deuteronomy 10:8; "cursing"  2 Kings 2:24 . In  Leviticus 24:11 , we have the case of one who "blasphemed the Name, and cursed," the penalty for which was death by stoning ( Leviticus 24:13-16 ). In later Jewish usage (compare Wisd 14:21) the sacred name Yahweh was not pronounced in reading the Scriptures, 'Ădhōnāy ("my Lord") being substituted for it (the vowels belonging to 'Ădhōnāy were written with the consonants of the Divine name), hence, the frequent term "the Lord" in the King James Version, for which the American Standard Revised Version substitutes " Yahweh ."

II. New Testament Word and Use

1. Character and Work of the Person

In the New Testament ónoma has frequently also the significance of denoting the "character," or "work" of the person, e.g.   Matthew 1:21 , "Thou shalt call his name Jesus; for it is he that shall save ," etc. ( Luke 1:31;  Luke 2:21;  Luke 1:63 , "His name is John"; compare the new names given to Simon, James and John; Saul's new name of "Paul"). The "name" of God has the same relation to the character of God as in the Old Testament (  Matthew 6:9; "Father, glorify thy name,"  John 12:28 ); it is manifested by Christ ( John 17:26; compare  John 17:3 ); the name of Jesus, as manifesting God, takes the place of the name of Yahweh in the Old Testament (compare  James 2:7 with   Jeremiah 14:9 , and see below); to Him is given "the name which is above every name; that in the name of Jesus every knee should bow ... and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father,"  Philippians 2:9-10 (compare   Isaiah 45:23 ); "It is not the name Jesus , but the name of Jesus" (Lightfoot), i.e. the name ("Lord,") received by Jesus; we have with reference to Jesus simply "the Name" (  Acts 5:41 , "worthy to suffer dishonor for the Name";  James 5:14 (probable text, Westcott and Hort, The New Testament in Greek), "in the Name";   3 John 1:7 , "for the sake of the Name"); the "name of Christ" is equivalent to "Christ himself"  Matthew 10:22;  Matthew 19:29; it is the same thing as "his manifestation"  John 20:31; therefore "to believe on his name" is to believe in Him as manifested in His life and work  John 1:12;  John 2:23; "in the name of God" means sent by God, as representing Him, with Divine authority  Matthew 21:9;  Matthew 23:39; in like manner, we have "prophesying" or "preaching" in the name of Jesus   Acts 4:18;  Acts 5:28 .

The "name of Jesus" represented His "authority" and "power," e.g. working miracles in His name ( Matthew 7:22;  Mark 9:39;  Acts 4:7 , 'by what name (or "power") have ye done this? '), and it is contrasted with casting out evil spirits by some other name or power  Acts 16:18;  Acts 19:17 . The gospel, of salvation was to be preached "in his name," by His authority and as making it effectual  Luke 24:47; sinners were justified "through his name"  Acts 10:43;  1 Corinthians 6:11; sins were forgiven "for his name's sake"  1 John 2:12; men "called upon the name" of Jesus, as they had done on that of Yahweh ( Acts 9:14 ,  Acts 9:21 (compare   Acts 7:59 );  Romans 10:13-14 ).

"To name the name" of Christ was to belong to Him  2 Timothy 2:19; the calling of His name on the Gentiles signified their acceptance as God's people ( Acts 15:17 (quoted from   Amos 9:12 ); compare  Romans 1:5 ); to "hold fast his name" is to be true to Him as made known  Revelation 2:13;  Revelation 3:8; to be "gathered together in his name," to "do all' ' things in his name," is as "acknowledging him"  Matthew 18:20;  Colossians 3:17; "to baptize in" or "into the name" of Jesus Christ ( Acts 2:38;  Acts 22:16 , "calling on his name," contrasted with baptizing into one's own name in  1 Corinthians 13:1-13 , eis) is "to call over them his name" (in the rite), as claiming them for Christ and as their acknowledgment of Him or of faith in Him - becoming His disciples; similarly, to baptize "into ( eis ) the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit," represents "dedication to" God as He has been revealed in Christ.

"In the name of" means "as representing" (or as being), e.g. "in the name of a prophet," of "a righteous man," or of "a disciple"  Matthew 10:41-42; to receive a little child "in Christ's name," i.e. as belonging to Him, is to receive Himself ( Matthew 18:5;  Mark 9:37;  Mark 9:41 to disciples, the Revised Version (British and American) "because ye are Christ's," margin "Greek: in name that ye are (Christ's)";   Luke 9:48; compare  Matthew 18:20;  Mark 13:6 , "Many shall come in my name";  Luke 21:8 ).

2. In Relation to Prayer

The significance of the name of Jesus in relation to prayer deserves special notice. To pray in the name of Jesus, to ask anything in His name, according to His promises, "Whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, that will I do" ( John 14:13; compare  John 14:14;  John 15:16;  John 16:23 ); "Hitherto have ye asked nothing in my name: ask ... that your joy may be made full"  John 16:24 , is not merely to add to our prayers (as is so often unthinkingly done): "we ask all in the name of Jesus," or "through Jesus Christ our Lord," etc., but to pray or ask as His representatives on earth, in His mission and stead, in His spirit and with His aim; it implies union with Christ and abiding in Him, He in us and we in Him. The meaning of the phrase is, "as being one with me even as I am revealed to you." Its two correlatives are "in me" ( John 6:56;  John 14:20;  John 15:4 ff;   John 16:33; compare  1 John 5:20 ), and the Pauline "in Christ" (Westcott, The Gospel according to St. John ).

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [14]

(Heb. shem, שֵׁם ; Gr. Ὄνομα ). On the names of persons in Oriental countries, and especially in ancient Israel, the following particulars may be noticed. (See Hauptmann, De Hebrceor. Ὀνοματοθεσίᾷ [Gera, 1757]; Schwarz, De Nomin. V.T. Propriis [Gott. 1743].)

(1.) A name among the Hebrews was given to the male child at the time of its circumcision, but it is probable that previous to the introduction of that rite the name was given immediately after its birth. All Oriental proper names have a special significance, which is more or less obvious, and generally may be ascertained. This meaning is often alluded to or explained in the Old Testament ( Genesis 27:36;  1 Samuel 25:25;  Ruth 1:20). But some have attempted to show that the explanations given in the Pentateuch of the names of the patriarchs, etc., are not historically correct, on the ground that they are mutually inconsistent, or that they violate the analogies of the language; and refer them to a desire on the part of the writer to interweave the name significantly with the narrative (see Ewald, Isr. Gesch. 1:429). Those of modern nations, e.g. the English and Germahs, have also their meaning, but it is more difficult to discover, as these languages do not preserve the roots in so pure a form as Oriental tongues. In early times they were conferred (by the mother, as  Genesis 4:1;  Genesis 4:25;  Genesis 19:37 sq.;  Genesis 29:32 sq.;  Genesis 30:18;  Genesis 30:20 sq.;  Genesis 35:18;  1 Samuel 1:20;  1 Samuel 4:21; comp.  Isaiah 7:14; Odys. 18:6; Eurip. Phaniss. 57; yet also by the father,  Genesis 16:15;  Genesis 17:19;  Genesis 21:3;  Exodus 2:22;  Hosea 1:4 sq.; see Tournefort, Voyage, 2:434) sometimes in reference to remarkable circumstances preceding or attending the child's birth, to peculiarities of its bodily constitution, to a wish connected with its future, or as an expression of endearment; sometimes borrowed from religion, and in this case applied both as a pious remembrancer and an omen of good. Sometimes the name had a prophetic meaning ( Isaiah 7:14;  Isaiah 8:3;  Hosea 1:4;  Hosea 1:6;  Hosea 1:9;  Matthew 1:21;  Luke 1:13;  Luke 1:60;  Luke 1:63). In these classes belong many compounded in Hebrew with יָהוּ יוֹ אֶל (comp. Hengstenberg, Pent. 1:267 sq.), just as the Assyrian, Aramaean, and Phoenician names with Nebo (Nebu), Bel, Baal; the German Gottlieb, Gotthold, Ehregott, Christlieb, etc.; and the Tyrian names, ῎Ασταρτος , Δελαιάσταρτος , in Josephus, Apion, 1:18 (on which see Hamaker, Miscell. Phoenic. page 213; Fromann, De cultu deorum ex Ὀνοματοθεσίᾷ Illustra. [Altdorf, 1745]). For examples of the first class, see  Genesis 25:25 sq.;  Genesis 29:32 sq.;  Genesis 30:6 sq.;  Genesis 35:18;  Genesis 41:51;  1 Samuel 2:20;  1 Samuel 4:21; comp. Rosenmiller, Morgenl. 1:139, 173; Seetzen, in Zach's Correspondenz, 19:214; Gesen. Com. In Jes. 1:303; Bohlen, Genes. page 292. Such names take various forms among the Shemitic nations, following in each language the name it applies to God; e.g. Hannibal ( חִנַּיבִעִל ) and John ( יוֹחָנָן ); Abibal ( אָבַיבִעִל ) and Abijah ( אֲבַיָּה ); Ezrubaal ( עֶזְרוּבִעִל ) and Azriel ( עִזְרַיאֵל ). See Ludolf. Histor. Aeth. 4:3. 4. The terms of endearment are appropriated especially to girls, and are often taken from the names of valued animals and plants ( רָחֵל , Rachel, A Sheep; תָּמָר , Tamar, Palm-Tree; צַבְיָה , Zibia, Roe; צפֹּרָה , Zipporah, Sparrow; קְצַיעָה , Keziah, Cassia). Comp. Hartmann, Pentat. 276 sq. On the transfer of names from animals to children, see Bochart, Hieroz. 1:2, 43; Simonis Onomast. pages 16, 390 sq. At a later period, when a sufficient number of words had become proper names by usage, a suitable choice was made among them, or the child took the father's name ( Tobit 1:9;  Luke 1:59; Josephus, Ant. 14:1, 3; War, 5:13, 2; Euseb. H.E. 1:13, 5), or yet oftener the grandfather's ( 1 Samuel 22:9;  1 Samuel 23:6;  1 Samuel 30:7;  2 Samuel 8:17. See Eisner, Observ. 1:176 sq.; Simonis Ononast. V.T. page 17; comp. Eustath. Ad Iliad. 581, 4). This was the case alo with the Phoenicians (see Gesen. Monum. Phan. page 100), and is still with the Egyptians (Descript. De L'Eqypte, 23:59 sq.), Frieslanders, and Danes. Sometimes that of a highly-esteemed kinsman was taken (comp.  Luke 1:61; Lightfoot, Hor. Hebr. ad loc.; Rosenmiiller, Morgenl. 5:158). In the Roman period we meet with many persons who were named by prefixing Bar, בִּר , son, after the Aramaean custom, to the names of their fathers; as in the N.T. Bartholomew, Bartimeus, Barjesus, Barabbas. Many of these were originally only surnames, as in  Matthew 16:17, but by custom the personal name was entirely dropped (as in Arab. e.g. Ibn- Sina). But some Orientals, at the birth of a son, put off their own names, and thenceforth bear that of the child, with the prefix Abu,,father, e.g. Abu-Nausel; comp. Arvieux, Nachr. 2:292. According to Gesenius (Isaiah 1:278), a person in earlier times was sometimes accosted or described as the son of this or that man, in order to disparage him, either because the father was obscure, or because the personal merit of the son would thus be questioned. But, besides, there are many Hebrew proper names which cannot be classed among appellatives; the roots of which, however, have been preserved. These have received proper attention in modern Lexicons. (See Gesenius, Geschichte Hebr. Sprache. On the formation of Hebrew proper names, see Ewald, Ausfuhrl. Lehrb. de Hebr. Spr. page 491 sq.). It must further be observed that

(a) among the later Jews many old names were commonly shortened or otherwise modified in form; e.g. Lazarus for Eleazar. This shortening of names in the N.T. has been examined by Winer (Gram. N.T. page 113 sq.: comp. besides J.C. Mylius, Diss. De Varietat. V.T. page 12; Simonis Onomast. V.T. page 12). Aramaean names, also, had crept in among those of true Hebrew origin as, Martha, Tabitha, Cephas.

(b) After the age of the Seleucide, Greek names came into circulation; as Lysinachus,  2 Maccabees 4:29; Antipater,  1 Maccabees 12:16; Bereniae, Herod (among these must be reckoned Andrew, see Joseph. Ant. 12:2, 2; although Olshausen [Bibl. Comment. 1:321] would refer it to the Hebrew נָדִר , To Dedicate); especially those Hebrew names which had been translated in the Greek versions; as Dositheus, Δωσίθεος ,  2 Maccabees 12:19; or Theodotos, Θεόδοτος ,  2 Maccabees 14:19;  3 Maccabees 1:4; comp. the Hebrew גִּבְדַּיאֵל יוֹזָבָד זְבִדְיָה ; Nicodemus or Nicolaus, Νικόδημος , Νικόλαος , comp.

בַּלָעָם ; Menelaus, Μενέλαος , comp. אוֹנַיָּה , Josephus, Ant. 12:5, 1. Instead of these, a Greek name of somewhat similar form and meaning was sometimes used; as ῎Αλκιμος (comp. אֶלְיָקַים ), Ι᾿Άσων , etc. Ιησοῦς , Jesus, is also a Hebrew name, approaching a Greek form. (See Jesus). (On Ο᾿Νίας , Σίμων , Hyrcanus, see Simonis Onomast. N.T. page 152.) The custom thus introduced was confirmed by increasing intercourse with the Greeks, and even some Latin names crept into Judaea. The names Philip, Ptolemy, Alexander, etc., were not rare (comp. especially Joseph. Ant. 14:10, 22). Jews took Latin names on various occasions; some, for instance, on emancipation from Ronman slavery. Among Egyptian Jews, Greek names were in use still earlier (comp. Philo, 2:528).

(c) Here we find in part the reason why, ini later times, some of the Jews bore two names at once; e.g. Johannes Marcus, Jesus Justus ( Colossians 4:11). Other occasions were these: Bar was prefixed to the name of the father for a surname, as Joseph Barsabas; or it was acquired on some special occasion, as Simon Cephas or Peter, Joses Barnabas, Ι᾿Ωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς ( 1 Maccabees 2:5), Simon Canaanites (comp. also Josephus, War, 5:11, 5), or given to distinguish persons of the same name in one family or neighborhood; a distinction usually made in the Talmud by adding the name of the father, or of a trade or profession; elsewhere by that of one's residence or birthplace, as Mary Magdalene, Judas Iscariot. A complete catalogue of all the proper names used by Jews is given by Hiller, Onomast. Sacrum (Tubing. 1706); J. Simon, Onomast. V.T. (Hal. 1741), in connection with his Onomast. N.T. et libr. V.T. apocrapha (ibid. 1762); comp. B. Michaelis, Observatt. philol. de nomin. prop. Hebr. (Hal. 1729), and his Diss. nomina qucedam propr. V. et N.T. ex virilib. in mulietria, etc., versa suo restituens sexui (Hal. 1754); Potts, Sylloge, 7:26 sq. There is a useful catalogue of Phoenician and Carthaginian proper names in Gesenius, Monumenta Phen. page 395 sq.

(2.) The name was naturally given for the most part by the parents, but sometimes a number of their kinsmen and friends would agree in bestowing one; as in  Ruth 4:17;  Luke 1:59. Not seldom in the course of life this was changed for a new name which was full of significance among those who gave it; or was at first added to the original name, and gradually took its place. The latter happened with Cephas (Peter) and Barnabas. But princes often changed their names on their accession to the throne, as the popes do now ( 2 Kings 23:34;  2 Kings 24:17); comp. Joseph. Ant. 16:9, 4; Justin, 10:3; Ctes. Pers. 56; Ludolf, Histor. Aethiop.; Paulsen, Regier. D. Morgenl. page 78. This was done even in the case of private persons on entering upon public duties of importance. See  Numbers 13:16; comp.  John 1:42;  Acts 4:36. This is still customary with monks on taking the vows of cloister life. To this head must be referred also the incident in  2 Samuel 12:25, where the prophet Nathan, on assuming the charge of Solomon's education, gave him the name Jedediah. So in reference to important epochs in life ( Genesis 32:28; comp.  Genesis 17:5;  Genesis 17:15;  Judges 6:32). The appellation Boanerges, which Jesus gave to James and John ( Matthew 3:17), seems not to have been a permanent name, but simply the expression of an opinion as to their talents and disposition. In  Genesis 41:45;  Daniel 1:7;  Daniel 5:12, the change of name takes place, not so much in reference to the change of circumstances or occupation as because Joseph and Daniel were in lands where their fbrmer Hebrew names were not understood or not readily pronounced. On the change of Saul's name to Paul, (See Paul). Comp. Harmar, Observ. 3:368; J.H. Stuss, De Mutatione Nomtin. Sacra Et Profana (Goth. 1735), 3:4; Hackett, Illust. Script. page 83; Thomson, Land And Book, 1:179; Noldeke, Hebr. U. Arab. Eigennamen, in the Zeitschr. f. deutsch. morgenl. Gesellschaft, 1861, page 806. (See Proper Names).

References