From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words [1]

A. Verb.

Qârâ' ( קָרָא , Strong'S #7121), “to call, call out, recite.” This root occurs in Old Aramaic, Canaanite, and Ugaritic, and other Semitic languages (except Ethiopic). The word appears in all periods of biblical Hebrew. Qârâ' may signify the “specification of a name.” Naming a thing is frequently an assertion of sovereignty over it, which is the case in the first use of qârâ': “And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night” (Gen. 1:5). God’s act of creating, “naming,” and numbering includes the stars (Ps. 147:4) and all other things (Isa. 40:26). He allowed Adam to “name” the animals as a concrete demonstration of man’s relative sovereignty over them (Gen. 2:19). Divine sovereignty and election are extended over all generations, for God “called” them all from the beginning (Isa. 41:4; cf. Amos 5:8). “Calling” or “naming” an individual may specify the individual’s primary characteristic (Gen. 27:36); it may consist of a confession or evaluation (Isa. 58:13; 60:14); and it may recognize an eternal truth (Isa. 7:14).

This verb also is used to indicate “calling to a specific task.” In Exod. 2:7, Moses’ sister Miriam asked Pharaoh’s daughter if she should go and “call” (summon) a nurse. Israel was “called” (elected) by God to be His people (Isa. 65:12), as were the Gentiles in the messianic age (Isa. 55:5).

To “call” on God’s name is to summon His aid. This emphasis appears in Gen. 4:26, where men began to “call” on the name of the Lord. Such a “calling” on God’s name occurs against the background of the Fall and the murder of Abel. The “calling” on God’s name is clearly not the beginning of prayer, since communication between God and man existed since the Garden of Eden; nor is it an indication of the beginning of formal worship, since formal worship began at least as early as the offerings of Cain and Abel (Gen. 4:7ff.). The sense of “summoning” God to one’s aid was surely in Abraham’s mind when he “called upon” God’s name (Gen. 12:8). “Calling” in this sense constitutes a prayer prompted by recognized need and directed to One who is able and willing to respond (Ps. 145:18; Isa. 55:6).

Basically, qârâ' means “to call out loudly” in order to get someone’s attention so that contact can be initiated. So Job is told: “Call now, if there be any that will answer thee; and to which of the saints wilt thou turn?” (Job 5:11). Often this verb represents sustained communication, paralleling “to say” ( ‘amar ), as in Gen. 3:9: “And the Lord God called unto Adam, and said unto him.…” Qârâ' can also mean “to call out a warning,” so that direct contact may be avoided: “And the leper in whom the plague is, his clothes shall be rent, and his head bare, and he shall put a covering upon his upper lip, and shall cry, Unclean, unclean” (Lev. 13:45).

Qârâ' may mean “to shout” or “to call out loudly.” Goliath “shouted” toward the ranks of Israel (1 Sam. 17:8) and challenged them to individual combat (duel). Sometimes ancient peoples settled battles through such combatants. Before battling an enemy, Israel was directed to offer them peace: “When thou comest nigh unto a city to fight against it, then proclaim peace unto it [call out to it in terms of peace]” (Deut. 20:10).

Qârâ' may also mean “to proclaim” or “to announce,” as when Israel proclaimed peace to the sons of Benjamin (Judg. 21:13). This sense first occurs in Gen. 41:43, where we are told that Joseph rode in the second chariot; “and they cried before him, Bow the knee.” Haman recommended to King Ahasuerus that he adorn the one to be honored and “proclaim” (“announce”) before him, “Thus shall it be done to the man whom the king delighteth to honor” (Esth. 6:9). This proclamation would tell everyone that the man so announced was honored by the king. The two emphases, “proclamation” and “announce,” occur in Exod. 32:5: “…Aaron made proclamation, and said, Tomorrow is a feast to the Lord.” This instance implies “summoning” an official assemblage of the people. In prophetic literature, qârâ' is a technical term for “declaring” a prophetic message: “For the saying which he cried by the word of the Lord … shall surely come to pass” (1 Kings 13:32). Another major emphasis of qârâ' is “to summon.” When Pharaoh discovered Abram’s deceit concerning Sarai, he “summoned” (“called”) Abram so that he might correct the situation (Gen. 12:18). Often the summons is in the form of a friendly invitation, as when Reuel (or Jethro) told his daughters to “invite him [Moses] to have something to eat” (Exod. 2:20, “that he may eat bread,” KJV). The participial form of qârâ' is used to denote “invited guests”: “As soon as you enter the city you will find him before he goes up to the high place to eat … afterward those who are invited —will eat” (1 Sam. 9:13, NASB). This verb is also used in judicial contexts, to mean being “summoned to court”if a man is accused of not fulfilling his levirate responsibility, “then the elders of his city shall call him, and speak unto him …” (Deut. 25:8). Qârâ' is used of “summoning” someone and/or “mustering” an army: “Why hast thou served us thus, that thou calledst us not, when thou wentest to fight with the Midianites?” (Judg. 8:1).

The meaning “to read” apparently arose from the meaning “to announce” and “to declare,” inasmuch as reading was done out loud so that others could hear. This sense appears in Exod. 24:7. In several prophetic passages, the Septuagint translates qârâ' “to read” rather than “to proclaim” (cf. Jer. 3:12; 7:2, 27; 19:2). Qârâ' means “to read to oneself” only in a few passages.

At least once, the verb qârâ' means “to dictate”: “Then Baruch answered them, He [dictated] all these words unto me … and I wrote them with ink in the book” (Jer. 36:18).

B. Noun.

Miqrâ' ( מִקְרָא , 4744), “public worship service; convocation.” The word implies the product of an official summons to worship “convocation”). In one of its 23 appearances, miqrâ' refers to Sabbaths as “convocation days” (Lev. 23:2).

King James Dictionary [2]

CALL, Heb. To hold or restrain. In a general sense, to drive to strain or force out sound. Hence,

1. To name to denominate or give a name. And God called the light day, and the darkness he called night.  Genesis 1 . 2. To convoke to summon to direct or order to meet to assemble by order or public notice often with together as, the king called his council together the president called together the congress. 3. To request to meet or come.

He sent his servants to call them that were bidden. Math. 22.

4. To invite.

Because I have called and ye refused.  Proverbs 1 .

5. To invite or summon to come or be present to invite, or collect.

Call all your senses to you.

6. To give notice to come by authority to command to come as, call a servant. 7. To proclaim to name, or publish the name.

Nor parish clerk, who calls the psalm so clear.

8. To appoint or designate, as for an office, duty or employment.

See, I have called by name Bezaleel.  Exodus 31 .

Paul called to be an apostle.  Romans 1 .

9. To invite to warn to exhort.  Isaiah 22:12 . 10. To invite or draw into union with Christ to bring to know, believe and obey the gospel.  Revelation 8:28 11. To own and acknowledge.  Hebrews 2:11 . 12. To invoke or appeal to.

I call God for a record.  2 Corinthians 1 .

13. To esteem or account.  Isaiah 47:5 .  Matthew 3:15 .

To call down, to invite, or to bring down.

To call back, to revoke, or retract to recall to summon or bring back.

To call for, to demand, require or claim, as a crime calls for punishment or to cause to grow.  Ezekiel 36 . Also, to speak for to ask to request as, to call for a dinner.

To call in, to collect, as to call in debts or money or to draw from circulation, as to call in clipped coin or to summon together to invite to come together as, to call in neighbors or friends.

To call forth, to bring or summon to action as, to call forth all the faculties of the mind.

To call off, to summon away to divert as, to call off the attention to call off workmen from their employment.

To call up, to bring into view or recollection as, to call u the image of a deceased friend also, to bring into action, or discussion as, to call up a bill before a legislative body.

To call over, to read a list, name by name to recite separate particulars in order, as a roll of names.

To call out, to summon to fight to challenge also, to summon into service as, to call out the militia.

To call to mind, to recollect to revive in memory.


1. To utter a loud sound, or to address by name to utter the name sometimes with to.

The angel of God called to Hagar.  Genesis 21 .

2. To stop, without intention of staying to make a short stop as, to call at the inn. This use Johnson supposes to have originated in the custom of denoting ones presence at the door by a call. It is common, in this phrase, to use at, as to call at the inn or on, as to call on a friend. This application seems to be equivalent to speak, D. Kallen. Let us speak at this place.

To call on, to make a short visit to also, to solicit payment, or make a demand of a debt. In a theological sense, to pray to or worship as, to call on the name of the Lord.  Genesis 4 . To repeat solemnly.

To call out, to utter a loud voice to bawl a popular use of the phrase.

CALL, n.

1. A vocal address, of summons or invitation as, he will not come at a call. 2. Demand requisition public claim as, listen to the calls of justice or humanity. 3. Divine vocation, or summons as the call of Abraham. 4. Invitation request of a public body or society as, a clergyman has a call to settle in the ministry. 5. A summons from heaven impulse.

St. Paul believed he had a call, when he persecuted the Christians.

6. Authority command. 7. A short visit as, to make a call to give one a call that is, a speaking to D. Kallen. To give one a call, is to stop a moment and speak or say a word or to have a short conversation with. 8. Vocation employment. In this sense calling is generally used. 9. A naming a nomination. 10. Among hunters, a lesson blown on the horn, to comfort the hounds. 11. Among seamen, a whistle or pipe, used by the boatswain and his mate, to summon the sailors to their duty. 12. The English name of the mineral called by the Germans tungsten or wolfram. 13. Among fowlers, the noise or cry of a fowl, or a pipe to call birds by imitating their voice. 14. In legislative bodies, the call of the house, is a calling over the names of the members, to discover who is absent or for other purpose a calling of names with a view to obtain answers from the person named.

Webster's Dictionary [3]

(1): (n.) See Assessment, 4.

(2): (v. t.) To summon to the discharge of a particular duty; to designate for an office, or employment, especially of a religious character; - often used of a divine summons; as, to be called to the ministry; sometimes, to invite; as, to call a minister to be the pastor of a church.

(3): (v. t.) To give name to; to name; to address, or speak of, by a specifed name.

(4): (v. t.) To regard or characterize as of a certain kind; to denominate; to designate.

(5): (n.) The cry of a bird; also a noise or cry in imitation of a bird; or a pipe to call birds by imitating their note or cry.

(6): (n.) A whistle or pipe, used by the boatswain and his mate, to summon the sailors to duty.

(7): (n.) The privilege to demand the delivery of stock, grain, or any commodity, at a fixed, price, at or within a certain time agreed on.

(8): (v. i.) To make a demand, requirement, or request.

(9): (n.) A note blown on the horn to encourage the hounds.

(10): (n.) A short visit; as, to make a call on a neighbor; also, the daily coming of a tradesman to solicit orders.

(11): (n.) Vocation; employment.

(12): (n.) A divine vocation or summons.

(13): (n.) A requirement or appeal arising from the circumstances of the case; a moral requirement or appeal.

(14): (n.) An invitation to take charge of or serve a church as its pastor.

(15): (n.) A signal, as on a drum, bugle, trumpet, or pipe, to summon soldiers or sailors to duty.

(16): (n.) The act of calling; - usually with the voice, but often otherwise, as by signs, the sound of some instrument, or by writing; a summons; an entreaty; an invitation; as, a call for help; the bugle's call.

(17): (v. i.) To make a brief visit; also, to stop at some place designated, as for orders.

(18): (v. t.) To invoke; to appeal to.

(19): (n.) A reference to, or statement of, an object, course, distance, or other matter of description in a survey or grant requiring or calling for a corresponding object, etc., on the land.

(20): (v. t.) To command or request to come or be present; to summon; as, to call a servant.

(21): (v. t.) To invite or command to meet; to convoke; - often with together; as, the President called Congress together; to appoint and summon; as, to call a meeting of the Board of Aldermen.

(22): (v. i.) To speak in loud voice; to cry out; to address by name; - sometimes with to.

(23): (v. t.) To rouse from sleep; to awaken.

(24): (v. t.) To state, or estimate, approximately or loosely; to characterize without strict regard to fact; as, they call the distance ten miles; he called it a full day's work.

(25): (v. t.) To show or disclose the class, character, or nationality of.

(26): (v. t.) To utter in a loud or distinct voice; - often with off; as, to call, or call off, the items of an account; to call the roll of a military company.

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary [4]

In biblical usage, the word ‘call’ has a similarly wide range of meanings as it has in everyday usage. This wide range of meanings applies even when the Bible speaks of God’s call to individual people, though certain usages stand out as being of greater theological significance.

God may call people in the sense simply of commanding them or inviting them; yet rebellious people often ignore his call ( Isaiah 65:12;  Jeremiah 7:13;  Matthew 9:13;  Matthew 22:3-6;  Matthew 22:14). More specifically, he may call people in the sense of choosing them or directing them according to specific purposes he has for them ( Isaiah 43:1;  Isaiah 46:11;  Hosea 11:1;  Matthew 4:21;  Acts 16:10;  Hebrews 11:8). In an even higher sense, he calls people by giving them his salvation and making them his own ( Romans 1:6;  Romans 8:30;  1 Corinthians 1:24).

Christians are those who have responded to the call of God that they heard through the gospel. Their existence as God’s people is the work of the sovereign God who, in his grace and mercy, has called them and saved them ( 1 Corinthians 1:2;  1 Corinthians 1:26;  Colossians 3:15;  2 Thessalonians 2:14;  2 Timothy 1:9). This aspect of the call of God is sometimes referred to as election ( Romans 9:11; see Election ).

God’s calling involves more than merely saving his people from the penalty of sin. He has called them to enjoy freedom ( Galatians 5:1;  Galatians 5:13), to practise holiness ( 1 Thessalonians 4:7;  1 Peter 1:15), to be changed into Christ’s likeness ( Romans 8:29-30), to share in Christ’s kingdom ( 1 Thessalonians 2:12) and to proclaim Christ’s message ( 1 Peter 2:9). He has also called them to share Christ’s glory; though if they are to experience this fully, they must also share Christ’s suffering ( 1 Peter 2:21;  1 Peter 5:10).

Easton's Bible Dictionary [5]

  • God calls with respect to men when he designates them to some special office ( Exodus 31:2;  Isaiah 22:20;  Acts 13:2 ), and when he invites them to accept his offered grace ( Matthew 9:13;  11:28;  22:4 ).

    In the message of the gospel his call is addressed to all men, to Jews and Gentiles alike ( Matthew 28:19;  Mark 16:15;  Romans 9:24,25 ). But this universal call is not inseparably connected with salvation, although it leaves all to whom it comes inexcusable if they reject it ( John 3:14-19;  Matthew 22:14 ).

    An effectual call is something more than the outward message of the Word of God to men. It is internal, and is the result of the enlightening and sanctifying influence of the Holy Spirit ( John 16:14;  Acts 26 ::  18;  John 6:44 ), effectually drawing men to Christ, and disposing and enabling them to receive the truth ( John 6:45;  Acts 16:14;  Ephesians 1:17 ).

    Copyright Statement These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., DD Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain.

    Bibliography Information Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Call'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. 1897.

  • Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [6]

    to name a person or thing,  Acts 11:26;  Romans 7:3 .

    2. To cry to another for help; and hence, to pray. The first passage in the Old Testament in which we meet with this phrase, is   Genesis 4:26 , where we read, "Then began men to call on the name of the Lord," or Jehovah; the meaning of which seems to be, that they then first began to worship him in public assemblies. In both the Old and New Testament, to call upon the name of the Lord, imports invoking the true God in prayer, with a confession that he is Jehovah, that is, with an acknowledgment of his essential and incommunicable attributes. In this view the phrase is applied to the worship of Christ.

    Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [7]

    (usually קָרָא , Kara', Καλέω , both which words evidently contain the same root as their Engl. equivalent) signifies (besides its use in giving a name),

    I. To cry to another for help, and hence to pray. he first passage in which we meet with this phrase is in  Genesis 4:26, "Then began men to call upon the name of the Lord" ( אָז הוּחִל לִקְרא בִּשֵׁם יְהוָֹה , Sept. and Vulg. understand the first word as a pronoun referring to Enos, Ο῏Υτος Ἤλπισεν Ἐπικαλεῖσθαι Τὸ Ὄνομα Τοῦ Θεοῦ , iste coepit invocare nomen Domini), a phrase that has been understood by some as meaning thatJehovah's worshippers were then called By His Name, but erroneously (comp.  Genesis 12:8;  Psalms 79:6;  Psalms 105:1;  Isaiah 64:6; Jeremiah 10:25;  Zephaniah 3:9). In both the Old and New Test., to call upon the name of the Lord imports invoking the true God in prayer, with a confession that He is Jehovah; that is, with an acknowledgment of his essential and incommunicable attributes. In this view the phrase is applied to the worship of Christ ( Acts 2:21;  Acts 7:59;  Acts 9:14;  Romans 10:12;  1 Corinthians 1:2). (See Worship).

    '''Ii.''' Divine Call

    (1.) The word "call" is used in Scripture with various significations, as applied to the Almighty with respect to men.

    1. In its ordinary sense of "to name," to "designate" (of which examples are not necessary), and also in the sense of "to be," e.g. "He shall be called the Son of God" ( Luke 1:35); "His name shall be called Wonderful" ( Isaiah 9:6); that is, he shall be the Son of God, he shall be wonderful, and shall be thus acknowledged.

    2. In the designation of individuals to some special office or function, e.g. the call of Bezaleel ( Exodus 31:2); the calling of the judges, prophets, etc. (e.g.  Isaiah 22:20;  Acts 13:2).

    3. In the designation of nations to certain functionsiprivileges, or punishments ( Lamentations 2:22;  Isaiah 5:6), especially of Israel to be God's chosen people ( Deuteronomy 7:6-8;  Isaiah 41:9;  Isaiah 42:6;  Isaiah 43:1;  Isaiah 48:12-15;  Isaiah 51:2;  Hosea 11:1).

    4. To denote the invitation to sinners to accept the grace of God in the gift of His Son ( Matthew 9:13;  Matthew 11:28;  Matthew 22:4;  Luke 14:16-17).

    5. To denote the extent of the divine invitation, to Gentiles as well as Jews, showing the universality of the call ( Romans 9:24-25). 6. To denote a condition in life ( 1 Corinthians 7:20, etc.).

    (2.) Two questions arise as to the divine Call to men,

    (1.) Why do not all who receive it embrace it? and

    (2) Why have not All mankind even yet had the invitation? In view of these questions, the old Lutheran divines speak of the Vocatio Ordinaria Directa (the ordinary direct call) as being,

    1. Seria, i.e. really meant as a call on God's part, as he desires and intends the salvation of all?. This is opposed to the Calvinistic view, which maintains that only such as are predestined to salvation are really called.

    2. Ejficax, or better Suffciens, i.e. always adequate to the conversion, not only of those who heed the call, but of those who disregard it; and therefore,

    3. Resistibilis, resistible, and not compulsory (Quenstedt, Thed Did. in); and also,

    4. Universalis, universal. God called all the human race

    (1.) in the promise of Christ to bruise the serpent's head ( Genesis 3:15), given to the race through our first parents;

    (2.) in Noah, the preacher of righteousness, a call to all His descendants( Genesis 9:9;  2 Peter 2:5);

    (3.) in the Gospel commission ( Matthew 28:19;  Mark 16:15;comp.  Romans 10:18;  Colossians 1:6;  Acts 17:30).

    The commission extended to "all the world," and its execution is declared to have been accomplished in  Acts 17:30;  Romans 10:18; Colossians 1:6;  Colossians 1:23. The question whether even America was reached by the first preaching of Christianity is treated by Moebius'in his essay entitled An Ab Apostolis Evangelium Etiam Americanisfuerit Annunciatum. And where the Ἀποστολή did not go, the Ἐπιστολή did. As to the failure of men to receive and obey the divine call, it is not God's fault, but their own. He "calls," but they "will" not. In general, it may be assumed that wherever the Church of God is set up, men receive the divine call, and their responsibility is proportional to the degree of light which shines upon them ( Matthew 11:20-24;  Matthew 23:37;  Luke 12:47-48). The same Principle applies to the case of heathen. Here also lies the dunt of the Church to send missions to the heathen.

    (3.) The Calvinistic doctrine of Effectual Calling is Atlieu set forth in the Westminster Confession:

    " 1. All those whom God hath predestinated unto life, had those only, he is pleased, in his appointed and accepted time, effectually to call, by his Word and Spirit, out of that state of sin and death in which they are by nature, to grace and salvation by Jesus Christ; enlightening their minds spiritually and savingly to understand the things of God; taking away their heart of stone, and giving unto them a heart of flesh; renewing their wills, and by his Almighty Power Determining Them To That Which Is Good; and efectually drawing them to Jesus Christ, yet some as the same most freely, being made willing by his grace.

    " 2. This effectual call is of God's free and special grace alone, not from any thing at all foreseen in man, who is altogether passive therein, until, being quickened and renewed by the Holy Spirit, he is thereby enabled to answer this call, and to embrace the grace offered and conveyed init.

    " 3. Elect infants, dying in infancy, are regenerated and saved by Christ through the Spirit, who worketh when, and where, and how hepleaseth. So also are all other elect persons, who are incapable of being outwardly called by the ministry of the Word.

    " 4. Others not elected, although they may be called by the ministry of the Word, and may have some Common Operations of the Spirit, yet they never truly come unto Christ, and therefore cannot be saved; Much Less Can Men Not Professing The Christian Religion Be Saved In Any other manner whatsoever, be they ever so diligent to frame their lives according to the light of nature, and the law of that religion they do profess; and to assert and maintain that they may is very pernicious, and to be detested."

    The scriptural arguments for and against the doctrine are thus stated byWatson:

    1. According to the Calvinistic view, "in the golden chain of spiritual blessings which the apostle enumerates in  Romans 8:30, originating in the divine predestination, and terminating in the bestowment of eternal glory on the heirs of salvation, that of calling forms an important link. Moreover, whom he did predestinate, them he also called; and whom he called, them he also glorified.' Hence we readi of the called according to his purpose,'  Romans 8:28. There is indeed a universal call of the Gospel to all men; for wherever it comes it is the voice of God to those who hear it, calling them to repent and believe the divine testimony unto the salvation of their souls; and it leaves them inexcusable in rejecting it ( John 3:14-19); but this universal call is not inseparably connected with salvation; for it is in reference to it that Christ says, Many are called, but few are chosen' ( Matthew 22:14). But the Scripture also speaks of a calling which is effectual, and which consequently is more than the outward ministry of the Word; yea, more than some of its partial and temporary effects upon many who hear it, for it is always ascribed to God's makinghis word effectual through the enlightening and sanctifying influences of his Holy Spirit. Thus it is said, Paul may plant, and Apollos water, but God giveth the increase' ( 1 Corinthians 3:6, I). Again, He is said to have opened the heart of Lydia, that she attended to the doctrine of Paul' ( Acts 16:14). No man can come unto Christ, except the Father draw him' ( John 6:44). Hence faith is said to be the gift of God ( Ephesians 2:8;  Philippians 1:29). The Spirit takes of the things of Christ and shows them to men ( John 16:14), and thus opens their eyes, turning them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God ( Acts 26:18). And so God saves his people, not by works of righteousness which they have done, but according to his mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewing of the;Holy Spirit ( Titus 3:5). Thus they are saved, and called with a holy calling, not according to their works, but according to the divine purpose and grace which was given them in Christ Jesus before the world began ( 2 Timothy 1:9).

    " 2. To this it is replied that this whole statement respecting a believer's calling is without any support from the Scriptures. To call' signifies to invite to the blessings of the Gospel, to offer salvation through Christ, either by God himself, or, under his appointment, by his servants; and in the parable of the marriage of the king's son ( Matthew 22:1-14), which appears to have given rise, in many instances, to the use of this term in the epistles, we have three descriptions of called' or invited persons.

    (1.) The disobedient, who would not come in at the call, but made light of it.,

    (2.) The class of persons represented by the man who, when the king came in to see his guests, had not on the wedding garment, and with respect to whom our Lord makes the general remark, For many are called, but few are chosen;' so that the persons thus represented by this individual culprit were not only called,' but actually came into the company.

    (3.) The approved guests those who were both called and chosen. As far as the simple calling or invitation is concerned, all stood upon equal ground all were invited; and it depended upon their choice and conduct whether they embraced the invitation and were admitted as guests. We have nothing here to countenance the notion of what is termed effectual calling.' This implies an irresistible influence exerted upon all the approved guests, but withheld from the disobedient, who could not, therefore, be otherwise than disobedient, or, at most, could only come in without that wedding garment, which it was never put into their power to take out of the king's wardrobe, and the want of which would necessarily exclude them, if not from the Church on earth, yet from the Church in heaven. The doctrine of Christ's parables is in entire contradiction to this notion of irresistible influence; for they who refused and they who complied but partially with the calling are represented, not merely as being left without the benefit of the feast, but as incurring additional guilt and condemnation for refusing the invitation. It is to this offer of salvation by the Gospel, this invitation to spiritual and eternal benefits, that St. Peter appears to refer when he says, For the Promise is unto you and to your children, and to all that are afar off, even as many as the Lord our God shall Call ( Acts 2:39); a passage which declares the promise' to be as extensive as the calling,' in other words, as the offer or invitation. To this also St. Paul refers ( Romans 1:5-6), By whom we have received grace and apostleship, for obedience to the faith among all nations, for his name;' that is, to publish his Gospel, in order to bring all nations to the obedience of faith; among whom ye Ire also the Called of Jesus Christ;' you at Rome have heard the Gospel, and have been: invited to salvation in consequence of this design. This promulgation of the Gospel, by the personal ministry of the apostle, under the name of Calling, is also referred to in  Galatians 1:6, I marvel that ye are so soon removed from him that called you into the grace of Christ,' obviously meaning that it was he himself who had called them, by his preaching, to embrace the grace of Christ. So also in  Galatians 5:3, For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty.' Again ( 1 Thessalonians 2:12), That ye would walk worthy of God, who hath calledyou,' invited you, to his kingdom and glory.'

    " 3. In our Lord's parable it will also be observed that the persons called are not invited as separate individuals to partake of solitary blessings; but they are called to a feast,' into a company or society, before whom the banquet is spread. The full revelation of the transfer of the visible Church of Christ from Jews by birth to believers of all nations, was not, however, then made. When this branch of the evangelic system was fully revealed to the apostles, and taught by them to others, that part of the meaning of our Lord's parable which was not at first developed was more particularly discovered to his inspired followers. The calling of guests to the evangelical feast, we then more fully learn, was not the mere calling of mrren to partake of spiritual benefits, but calling them also to form a spiritual society composed of Jews and Gentiles, the believing men of all nations, to have a common fellowship in these blessings, and to be formed into this fellowship for the purpose of increasing their number, anddiffusing the benefits of salvation among the people or nation to which they respectively belonged. The invitation, the calling,' of the first preacherswas to all who heard them in Rome, in Ephesus, in Corinth, and other places; and those who embraced it, and joined themselves to the Church by faith, baptism, and continued public profession, were named, especially and eminently, the called,' because of their obedience to the invitation. They not only put in their claim to the blessings of Christianity individually, but became members of the new Church, that spiritual society of believers which God now visibly owned as his people. As they were thus called intoa common fellowship by the Gospel, this is sometimes termed their vocation;' as the object of this Church state was to promote holiness,' it is termed a holy vocation;' as sanctity was required of the members, they were said to have been called to be saints;' as the final result was,' through the mercy of God, to be eternal life, we hear of the hope of their calling,' and of their being called to his eternal glory by Christ Jesus.'

    " 4. These views will abundantly explain the various passages in which the term Calling occurs in the epistles: Even us whom he hath Called, not of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles' ( Romans 9:24); that is, whom he hath made members of his Church through faith. But unto them whichare called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God;' the wisdom and efficacy of the Gospel being, of course, acknowledged in their very profession of Christ, in opposition to those to whom the preaching of Christ crucified' was a stumbling-block' and foolishness' ( 1 Corinthians 1:24). Is any man Called (brought to acknowledge Christ, and to become a member of his Church), being circumcised? let him not become uncircumcised. Is any Called in uncircumcision? let him not be circumcised' ( 1 Corinthians 7:18). That ye walk worthy of the Vocation wherewith ye are called. There is one body and one Spirit, even as ye are called in one hope of your calling' ( Ephesians 4:1;  Ephesians 4:4). That ye would walk worthy of God, who hath Called you to his kingdom and glory' ( 1 Thessalonians 2:12). Through sanctification of the Spirit, and belief of the truth, whereunto he called youby our Gospel, to the obtaining of the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ' ( 2 Thessalonians 2:13-14). Who hath saved us and called us with a holy calling; not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began, but is now made manifest by the appearing of our Savior Jesus Christ' ( 2 Timothy 1:9-10). On this passage we in by remark that the calling' and the purpose' mentioned in it must of necessity be interpreted to refer to the establishment of the Church on the principle of faith, so that it might include men of all nations; and not, as formerly, be restricted to natural descent. For personal election and a purpose of effectual personal calling could not have been hidden till manifested by the appearing of Christ,' since every instance of true conversion to God in any age prior to the appearing of Christ would be as much a manifestation of eternal election, and an instance of personal effectual calling, according to the Calvinistic scheme, as it was after the appearance of Christ. The apostle is speaking of a purpose of God, which was kept secret till revealed by the Christian system; and from various other parallel passages we learn that this secret, this mystery,' as he often calls it, was the union of the Jews and Gentilesin one body,' or Church, by faith.

    " 5. In none of these passages is the doctrine of the exclusive calling of a set number of men contained; and the Synod of Dort, as though they felt this, only attempt to Infer the doctrine from a text already quoted, but which we will now more fully notice: Whom he did predestinate, them he also called; and whom he called, them he also justified; and whom he justified, them he also glorified' ( Romans 8:30). This is the text on which the Calvinists chiefly rest their doctrine of effectual calling; and tracing it, as they say, through its steps and links, they conclude that a set and determinate number of persons having been predestinated unto salvation, this set number only are Called Effectually, then justified, and finally glorified. But this passage was evidently nothing to the purpose, unless it had spoken of a set and determinate number of men' as predestinated and called, independent of any consideration of their faith and obedience, which number, as being determinate, would, by consequence, exclude the rest.The context declares that those who are foreknown, and predestinated to eternal glory, are true believers, those who love God,' as stated in a subsequent verse; for of such only the apostle speaks; and when he adds, Moreover, whom he did predestinate, them he also called, and whom he called, them he also justified, and whom he justified, them he also glorified,' he shows in particular how the divine purpose to glorify believers is carried into effect through all its stages. The great instrument of bringing men to love God' is the Gospel; they are, therefore, called, invited by it, to this state and benefit; the calling being obeyed, they are justified; and being justified, and continuing in that state of grace, they are glorified. Nothing, however, is here said to favor the conclusion that many others who were called by the Gospel, but refused, might not have been justified and glorified as well as they; nothing to distinguish this calling into common and effectual; and the very guilt which those are everywhere represented as contracting who despised the Gospel calling shows that they reject a grace which is sufficient, and sincerely intended, to save them." Watson, Institutes, 2:352 sq.; Herzog, Real Encyklopadiae, 2:104; Nitzsch, Christliche Lehre, § 141; Warren, Systenmt. Theologie, p. 147.

    '''Iii.''' A Call To The Ministry of the Gospel is regarded by Christians generally as proceeding from God; and the Church of England, the Protestant Episcopal Church, and the Methodist Episcopal Church, require of candidates for ordination an express profession that they trust they are so moved of the Holy Ghost. (See Ministry).

    '''Iv.''' Ministerial Call is an invitation on the part of a congregation to a preacher to become their settled pastor. (See Installation).