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Hannibal [1]

The great Carthaginian general, son of Hamilcar ( q. v .); learned the art of war under his father in Spain; subjugated all Spain south of the Ebro by the capture of the Roman allied city of Saguntum, which led to the outbreak of the Second Punic War and his leading his army through hostile territory over the Pyrenees and the Alps into Italy; defeated the Romans in succession at the Ticinus, the Trebia, and Lake Trasimenus, to the extirpation of the army sent against him; passed the Apennines and descended into Apulia, where, after being harassed by the tantalising policy of Fabius Maximus, he met the Romans at Cannæ in 216 B.C. and inflicted on them a crushing defeat, retiring after this into winter quarters at Capua, where his soldiers became demoralised; he next season began to experience a succession of reverses, which ended in the evacuation of Italy and the transfer of the seat of war to Africa, where Hannibal was met by Scipio on the field of Zama in 201 B.C. and defeated; he afterwards joined Antiochus, king of Syria, who was at war with Rome, to his defeat there also, upon which he fled to Prusias, king of Bithynia, where, when his surrender was demanded, he ended his life by poisoning himself (247-183 B.C.).