From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [1]

A — 1: Ἡγεμών (Strong'S #2232 — Noun Masculine — hegemon — hayg-em-ohn' )

is a term used (a) for "rulers" generally,  Mark 13:9;  1—Peter 2:14; translated "princes" (i.e., leaders) in  Matthew 2:6; (b) for the Roman procurators, referring, in the Gospels to Pontius Pilate, e.g.,  Matthew 27:2;  Luke 20:20 (so designated by Tacitus, Annals, XV. 44); to Felix,   Acts 23:26 . Technically the procurator was a financial official under a proconsul or propretor, for collecting the imperial revenues, but entrusted also with magisterial powers for decisions of questions relative to the revenues. In certain provinces, of which Judea was one (the procurator of which was dependent on the legate of Syria), he was the general administrator and supreme judge, with sole power of life and death. Such a governor was a person of high social standing. Felix, however, was an ex-slave, a freedman, and his appointment to Judea could not but be regarded by the Jews as an insult to the nation. The headquarters of the governor of Judea was Caesarea, which was made a garrison town. See Prince , Ruler. For anthupatos, "a proconsul," see Proconsul.

A — 2: Ἐθνάρχης (Strong'S #1481 — Noun Masculine — ethnarches — eth-nar'-khace )

"an ethnarch," lit. "a ruler of a nation" (ethnos, "a people," arche, "rule"), is translated "governor" in  2—Corinthians 11:32; it describes normally the ruler of a nation possessed of separate laws and customs among those of a different race. Eventually it denoted a ruler of a province, superior to a tetrarch, but inferior to a king (e.g., Aretas).

A — 3: Οἰκονόμος (Strong'S #3623 — Noun Masculine — oikonomos — oy-kon-om'-os )

lit., "one who rules a house" (oikos, "a house," nomos, "a law"),  Galatians 4:2 , denotes a superior servant responsible for the family housekeeping, the direction of other servants, and the care of the children under age. See Chamberlain , Steward.

A — 4: Ἀρχιτρίκλινος (Strong'S #755 — Noun Masculine — architriklinos — ar-khee-tree'-klee-nos )

from arche, "rule," and triklinos, "a room with three couches," denotes "the ruler of a feast,"  John 2:8 , RV (AV, "the governor of the feast"), a man appointed to see that the table and couches were duly placed and the courses arranged, and to taste the food and wine.

B — 1: Ἡγέομαι (Strong'S #2233 — Verb — hegeomai — hayg-eh'-om-ahee )

akin to A, No. 1, is used in the present participle to denote "a governor," lit., "(one) governing,"  Matthew 2:6;  Acts 7:10 .

B — 2: Ἡγεμονεύω (Strong'S #2230 — Verb — hegemoneuo — hayg-em-on-yoo'-o )

to be a hegemon, "to lead the way," came to signify to be "a governor of a province;" it is used of Quirinius, governor of Syria,  Luke 2:2 , RV (for the circumstances see under ENROLLMENT); of Pontius Pilate, governor of Judea,  Luke 3:1 . In the first clause of this verse the noun hegemonia, "a rule of sovereignty," is translated "reign;" Eng., "hegemony."

 James 3:4

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [2]

Governor —The word ‘governor’ (ἡγεμών, Lat. praeses, dux ) is a comprehensive term, being the only Greek word which includes every class of provincial governor under the Roman empire. The following officials, for instance, are included under this title:—(1) Governors of Senatorial Provinces, namely, pro consulibus who are ex-consuls, and pro consulibus who are ex-praetors. The former class ruled the governmental spheres of duty, Asia and Africa; the latter all other provinces which by the arrangement between Augustus and the Senate in 27 b.c. were put under the authority of that body, such as Sicily, Macedonia, Achaia. (2) Governors of Imperial Provinces, namely, legati Augusti pro practoribus who are ex-consuls; legati Augusti pro practoribus who are ex-praetors; procuratores  ; praefecti Acgypti , etc. Examples of Imperial provinces are Syria, the Gauls (except Narbonensis), Judaea, and Egypt. These governors were all accountable to the Emperor, being put in charge of his provinces, but were by no means of equal rank. The legati were always members of the Senate, but the others were of the lower rank of equites . It was to this class that Pilate belonged (Matthew 27, 28; see under Procurator, Pilate). Every senator, being a member of the same class as the Emperor himself, was a possible rival to him; those of inferior rank were practically in the position of his servants.

Governors of provinces had certain powers of jurisdiction delegated to them, which it is now impossible accurately to define. These were embodied in mandata given to them before setting out. They were also, of course, influenced by the traditions of the province to which they were going. They administered the law with a competence and a justice which have never been surpassed. As the provinces had an appeal from their decisions to the Senate in the case of Senatorial provinces, and to the Emperor in the case of Imperial, it was dangerous for a governor to go against the strongly expressed wish of the subjects of Rome. A procurator, for example, could be cast aside by the Emperor and ruined for life, without the slightest chance of redress.

Governors were commonly changed annually. The emperor Tiberius, however, retained many governors for a number of years in one position, and he also instituted the custom of payment of definite salaries to such, thus doing away with the necessity for plunder in order to recoup themselves. The Roman system was sufficiently elastic to permit the appointment of officers for special service and the suspension of the regular order of things. It was probably under an arrangement of this kind that P. Sulpicius Quirinius was ‘governor of Syria’ ( Luke 2:2) in a.d. 6–9 (Ramsay, Was Christ Born at Bethlehem  ? ch. xi.), in order to carry on a campaign against the Homonadenses, and leave the ordinary governor free for civil duties. See art. Birth of Christ.

In  Matthew 10:18,  Mark 13:9, and  Luke 21:12 ‘kings’ are coupled with ‘governors.’ The reference here is to ‘client-kings’ of the Roman empire (such as Herod) as well as the ordinary governors. The territory ruled by such kings was part of the imperium Romanum in the fullest sense of that term. In other words, the Romans had suzerainty over these kingdoms; but they left them under the rule of their kings until they were sufficiently civilized to become ordinary provinces under ordinary governors. Then they were taken over. In  Luke 21:12 the ‘kings’ are mentioned before the ‘governors.’ If this change is not accidental, it would appear that St. Luke wished βασιλεῖς to be understood in the sense of ‘emperors,’ a sense quite in accordance with the Greek. The plural need be no difficulty, as it was the common practice for emperors to have their successors invested with the imperatorial powers, while they themselves were still alive and active.

Literature.—H. F. Pelham, Outlines of Roman History , hk. v. ch. iii.; J. B. Bury, A History of the Roman Empire , ch. vi.; A. H. J. Greenidge, Roman Public Life , ch. xi.; for the regular course of an administrative career, see R. Cagnat, Cours d’Epigraphie Latine 3 [Note: designates the particular edition of the work referred] (1898, with Supplement 1904), pp. 86–155; Schürer, HJ P [Note: JP History of the Jewish People.] i. ii. 43–48.

Alex. Souter.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [3]

GOVERNOR . This word represents various Heb. and Gr. words, technical and non-technical. In   Genesis 42:6 (Joseph, cf. 41:40) it is probably the Ta-te , the second after the king in the court of the palace; cf.   1 Kings 18:3 ,   Daniel 2:48 for similar offices. It frequently represents an Assyr. [Note: Assyrian.] word, pechah , used of Persian satraps in general (  Esther 3:12;   Esther 8:8 ), and of Assyrian generals (  2 Kings 18:24 , cf.   1 Kings 20:24 ). It is applied particularly to Tattenai, the governor of the large Persian province of which Judæa was a sub-district (  Ezra 5:3;   Ezra 6:6 etc., cf.   Nehemiah 2:7 ). It is also, like tirshatha (wh. see), applied to the subordinate governor of Judæa (  Ezra 5:14 [Sheshbazzar] 6:7 [Nehemiah],   Haggai 1:1;   Haggai 1:14 [Zerubbabel]). The first passage shows that the subordinate pechah was directly appointed by the king.

In the NT the word usually represents Gr. hçgemôn , and is used of Pontius Pilate (  Luke 3:1 etc.), of Felix (  Acts 23:26 ), and of Festus (  Acts 26:30 ). The proper title of these governors was ‘ procurator ’ (Tac. Ann . xv. 44), of which originally eparchos and then epitropos were the Gr. equivalents. Josephus, however, uses hçgemôn , as well as these words, for the governor of Judæa, so that there is no inaccuracy in its employment by NT writers. But, being a general word, it does not help us to decide the nature of the ‘governorship’ of Quirinius (  Luke 2:2 ). The procurator, originally a financial official, was appointed directly by the Emperor to govern provinces, such as Thrace, Cappadocia, and Judæa, which were in a transitional state, being no longer ruled by subject kings, but not yet fully Romanized, and requiring special treatment. The procurator was in a sense subordinate to the legate of the neighbouring ‘province,’ e.g. Cappadocia to Galatia, Judæa to Syria; but except in emergencies he had full authority, military, judicial, and financial. In   1 Peter 2:14 the word is specially appropriate to any provincial governor, as ‘sent’ by the Emperor. In   2 Corinthians 11:32 it represents ‘ ethnarch ,’ a word apparently used originally of the ruler of a nation ( ethnos ) living with laws of its own in a foreign community; but as applied to Aretas it may mean no more than petty king. In   Galatians 4:2 it means ‘ steward ’ (RV [Note: Revised Version.] ), the ‘tutor’ controlling the ward’s person, the steward his property (Lightfoot, ad loc. ). In   James 3:4 RV [Note: Revised Version.] has ‘steersman.’ The ‘ governor of the feast ’ (  John 2:8 , RV [Note: Revised Version.] ‘ruler’) was probably a guest, not a servant, chosen to control and arrange for the feast; It is doubtful whether he is to be identified with the ‘friend of the bridegroom’ or best man.

C. W. Emmet.

Holman Bible Dictionary [4]

The King James Version uses governor to translate a variety of Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek terms. These terms represent a wide range of meanings that encompass almost every form of leadership or oversight. For example governor is used of city and tribal leaders (  Judges 5:9;  1 Kings 22:26 ), rulers ( Psalm 22:28 ), temple officials ( Jeremiah 20:1 ), managers of households ( John 2:8;  Galatians 4:2 ), and even pilots of ships ( James 3:4 ). Recent versions of the Bible have translated the Hebrew word more specifically with words like ruler, leader, prince, commander, chief officer, master, manager, trustee, and ethnarch. This has allowed governor to be used to describe those officials serving under a rule who have administrative responsibility for assigned territories or projects. Generally the governor exercised both law enforcement and judicial functions as a representative of his superior.

Old Testament. The most widely used term for governor in the Old Testament is the Accadian loanword pechah . This word first occurs in Ezra and Nehemiah as a title for Tattenai (KJV Tatnai), the Persian administrator of the province “beyond the River” ( Ezra 5:3 ). Tattenai's response to Darius' decree ( Ezra 6:13 ) is indicative of the governor's allegiance to the king and responsiveness to the king's command.

The title also is used of Sheshbazzar ( Ezra 5:14 ) to describe his appointment as “governor of the Jews” ( Ezra 6:7 ). Cyrus had commissioned him to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem at the end of the Babylonian exile. Nehemiah described his appointment by Artaxerxes I as “governor in the land of Judah” ( Nehemiah 5:14 ). The prophet Haggai addressed his message to “Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah” ( Haggai 1:1 ). Pechah is used of other leaders in the Old Testament as well (see  2 Kings 18:24;  2 Kings 20:24;  Isaiah 36:9 ).

New Testament. The Greek word hegemon and its derivatives predominate in the New Testament occurrences of governor . The term often is used to describe Roman officials who exercised the tax and military authority of the emperor. Quirinius ( Luke 2:2 ), Pontius Pilate ( Luke 3:1;  Matthew 27:2 ), Felix ( Acts 23:24 ), and Porcius Festus ( Acts 24:27 ) are specifically named. Joseph's rule in Egypt also is classified as that of a governor ( Acts 7:10 ). Because governors are sent by the king “to punish evildoers and for the praise of them that do well” ( 1 Peter 2:13-14 ), believers are to submit to their authority. Sent out by Christ, however, Christians will be brought before governors and kings for judgment. Faithfulness in such situations will bear witness for His sake ( Matthew 10:18 ).

Michael Fink

People's Dictionary of the Bible [5]

Governor. Various Hebrew terms are thus translated: thus it is used to designate certain provincial officers of the Assyrian, Babylonian, Median and Persian empires. The original word is Pechah, probably akin to the modern pacha. Several of these governors presided over districts on the western side of the Euphrates,  Nehemiah 2:7;  Nehemiah 2:9; and they were inferior to the satraps, or king's lieutenants.  Ezra 8:36. In the New Testament the Roman procurator of Judea is called the "governor," E.G.,  Matthew 27:2;  Matthew 27:11;  Matthew 27:14; a kindred word being used to describe the authority of Tiberius,  Luke 3:1, where our version has "reign." The "governor" of a marriage-feast was the bridegroom's friend, who took charge of the entertainment,  John 2:8-9. The "governor" of Damascus would seem to have been the ethnarch who held the place as the king's lieutenant or vassal.  2 Corinthians 11:32. The "governors" of a minor were the trustees of his property, R. V. "stewards."  Galatians 4:2. The "governor "of a ship was the steersman. See R. V.,  James 3:4.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [6]

There are ten Hebrew words thus translated, signifying any ruler, captain, viceroy, etc., that was set over the people. The term is also so used in the N.T. except the following:

1. ἐθνάρχης 'governor of a nation,' an ethnarch, as the ruler of Damascus was called.  2 Corinthians 11:32 .

2. εὐθύνων, 'one who directs, guides,' used of the 'steersman of a ship.'   James 3:4 .

3. ἡγεμών, the procurator of Judaea.  Matthew 27:2;  Luke 20:20 , etc.

4. οἰκονόμος, 'manager of a house, steward.'   Galatians 4:2 .

King James Dictionary [7]

GOV'ERNOR, n. He that governs, rules or directs one invested with supreme authority. The Creator is the rightful governor of all his creatures.

1. One who is invested with supreme authority to administer or enforce the laws the supreme executive magistrate of a state, commmunity, corporation or post. Thus, in America, each state has its governor Canada has its governor. 2. A tutor one who has the care of a young man one who instructs him and forms his manners. 3. A pilot one who steers a ship.  James 3 . 4. One possessing delegated authority. Joseph was governor over the land of Egypt. Obadiah was governor over Ahab's house. Damascus had a governor under Aretas the king.

Easton's Bible Dictionary [8]

  • A director, i.e., helmsman; Lat. gubernator, ( James 3:4 ).

    Copyright Statement These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., DD Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain.

    Bibliography Information Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Governor'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. 1897.

  • Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [9]

    Judea having been reduced into a province by the Romans, they sent governors thither, who were subject not only to the emperors, but also to the governors of Syria, whereof Judea made a part.

    Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [10]

    a term used by the A.V. to denote various degrees of authority and power absolute and limited, acquired by birth or by election, military and civil. The numerous and mostly vague original terms are found in other passages translated by "ruler," "chief," "prince, "captain," etc.

    1. נָגִיד Nagid (Phcan. נָגִדָא נָגִד ; Ar. Najid ; Syr. Nagida ; from נָגִד , a verb only used in Hiph. and Hoph. in the signification of to tell). The original meaning of this root is to Rise, to become conspicuous, visible, to be in front (comp. נֶגֶד ), Pacesto, vorstehen, to lead, to be first (compare Germ. F Ü rst=prince). The noun נָגִיד therefore, denoten a prominent personage, whatever his capacity, and is used of a chief or praefect, "governor" of the royal palace, Azriksm ( 2 Chronicles 28:7; compare  1 Kings 4:6;  Isaiah 22:15; Οἰκόνομος , chamberlain, secretary of state), whose power ( מֶמְשֶׁלֶת ) seems to have been very considerable (compare  Isaiah 22:21 sq. "Shebnah... a nail to the throne"), and who, it would appear, was distinguished from the aother court officers by a particularly brilliant uniform (girdle and robe), and to whose insignia belonged a key worn over the shoulder. In a wider sense the word is applied to the chief of the Temple: Azariah, the high-priest, "a ruler of the house of God." ( 1 Chronicles 9:11; comp.  2 Chronicles 31:13); Pasur, "chief governor of the house of God" ( Jeremiah 20:1); further, to the "leader of the aronites," Jehoiadah ( 1 Chronicles 12:27). Again,"it is used of the keeper of the sacred treasury, "Shebuel, ruler of the treasures" ( 1 Chronicles 26:24); of the chieftains of a tribe, "Zebadiab, the ruler of the house of Judah" ( 2 Chronicles 19:11) of the "captains" of the army ( 1 Chronicles 13:1;  2 Chronicles 32:21); of the oldest son of the kiteg, the heir apparent, "Abijab, the son of Maacbah [the chief], to be ruler among his brethren" ( 2 Chronicles 11:22). It is finally applied to the king himself: to Saul (A. Vers. "anoint him to be captain, " 1 Samuel 9:16, etc.), to "Messiah [the Anointed], the Prince" ( Daniel 9:25, etc.). In the plural the word occurs in the more, general sense of aristocracy, "Nobles" ( Proverbs 8:16). The Targum renders שופטיהם "their judges," by מנגיִדיהון and in the Talmud נגידא is used parabalically for "leader of a flock." "'When the shepherd is angry with his flock he gives it a blind leader"' (Baba K. 52) a corrupt generation to which God appoints a bad king. How far the Talmudical use of נגד , in the sense of "flagellate" (Pes. 52) and of "extend (Baba Mez. 74), may be connected with the notion of supremacy, reign, we cannot decide here.

    2. נָשַׁא , Nasi (from נָשִׂא , to carry, lift up; lit. raised, exalted, elected; Sept. Ἡγούμενος , Ἄρχων ), a word applied to the chiefs of. the families of which a. tribe was composed ( Numbers 3:24;  Numbers 3:30;  Numbers 3:32;  Numbers 3:35;  Numbers 16:2, etc.; as many as 250 on one occasion,  Numbers 16:2);. And who, as deputies (commoners) at the National Assembly, are also called Nasis of the congregation, or Nasis of Israel (elected, called to the assembly). But it was also used, of the twelve supreme chiefs of the triales themselves ( Numbers 2:3 sq.;  Numbers 7:2 sq.;  Numbers 3:32, etc.). Both these dignities, the chiefdom of a family as well as that of a tribe, would appear to have been elective corresponding to the word נָשִׂיא not hereditary, as Michaelis and Winer hold. The Nasi of Judah, e.g. Nahshon ben-Aminadab, does not descend from the first line of the tribe (Numbers 2; compare  1 Chronicles 2:9-10). The Nasi of Issachars again, is called Nathaniel ben- Shuar, a name not found among the eldest sons of this tribe ( 1 Chronicles 7:1-3). Finally, in the table of the Nasis no doubt the chiefs of the tribes to whom the division of the Promised Land was intrusted by Moses at his death no son of the Nasts of the desert occurs (Munk, Palaest. page 194). נָישַׁא is further employed for generals, under a head ( ראשׁ ),  1 Chronicles 7:40; of Abraham, a Nasi of God, a mighty sheik; for non-Israelitish "princes:" of the Midianites ( Joshua 13:21), and of the Hivites (Shechem) ( Genesis 34:2). On the Maccabaean coins Simeon is called "Nasi of Israel." Nasi was also the official name of the president of the Sanhedrim (under whom stood the "father of the tribunal, or vice-president"), whose seat was in the middle of the seventy-one manem bers (Maim. Jad. Chaz . 14, Syn. 1).

    3. פָּקִיד , Paktd (from פָּקִד , to appoint), an officer, official, magistrate, applied to the ecclesiastical delegate of the high-priest, who, together with the king's scribe, had to empty the chest cotaining the contribution to the Temple ( 2 Chronicles 24:11); to the Levites ( Nehemiah 11:22);. to the "chief " of the Temple ( Jeremiah 20:1-2); to "officers in the house of the Lord" ( Jeremiah 29:26); to a military commander ( 2 Kings 25:19; Jeremiah 53:25), and to his adjutant or principal manager ( Judges 9:28). Further, to the officers whom Joseph suggested that Pharaoh should put over Egypt during the years of the famine ( Genesis 41:34); to those who were to gather all the virgins unto Shushan for Ahasuerus ( Esther 2:3); to praefects, "overseers," etc. ( Nehemiah 11:9;  Nehemiah 12:42); and, finally, to the nobles or "princes" of the king ( Jeremiah 20:1;  2 Chronicles 35:8).

    4. שִׁלִּיט , Shallit , Heb. and Aram. (from שָׁלִט to rule, have power, Arab. id. comp. Sultan); "one who hath power" ( Ecclesiastes 8:8); "Arioch, the king's captain" ( Daniel 2:15); "Joseph, the governor over the land" ( Genesis 42:6); a "mighty man" or hero ( Ecclesiastes 7:19); a "king" or satrap ( Ezra 4:20); Daniel, the third "ruler" ( Daniel 5:29), etc. The verb שָׁלִט is also used in later Hebrew in the sense "to have power," of evil hours, evil spirits, etc

    5. אִלּוּ , All Û Ph ´ (from אָלִ ; Arab. id. to join, etc.); originally, one who is put over a "thousand," or אֶל ֶ viz. the round number of families which constitute a clan or subdivision of a tribe; (comp. old Saxon "Hundred"). It is first used of the chiefs, "dukes," of Edom (Genesis 36;  1 Chronicles 1:51); we find it at a later period also applied to Jewish chiefs ( Zechariah 9:7;  Zechariah 12:5-6). This word is not to be confounded either with the captain of a body of a thousand men, or with the "rulers of thousands," a kind of magistrates selected by Moses, on the advice of Jethro, for the purpose of judging the smaller matters during the sojourn of the Israelites in the desert; and who were, at a later period, superseded by the regular institution of the judges. The further use of the word in the sense of "friend" (parallel with רֵ , companion,  Micah 7:5;  Proverbs 16:28, or מְיֻרָ , acquaintance,  Psalms 55:14) must be traced directly to the root ( אָלִ , to Accustom one's self). It may further be noticed here that  Matthew 2:6 seems to have read the passage in  Micah 5:2, בְּאִלְפֵי , יְהוּדָה "among the thousands [clans] of Judah," as בְּאִלּוּפֵי יְהוּדה "among the princes of Judah."

    Derived from the partic. act. (Kal and Piel) are the following four: 6. מְהֹקֵק חֹקֵק , Chok '''''Ê''''' K ´ , Mechokek (from חָקִק ), lit. an Engraver, a writer scil. of laws ( חֵקֶק חֻקִּק חֹק , law, decree); a lawgiver ( Genesis 49:10;  Deuteronomy 33:21); one who decides by the law: a judge ( Isaiah 10:1, parallel with "they that write;" with "they that handle the pen of the writer,"  Judges 5:14); "the Lord is our judge, the Lord is our lawgiver , the Lord is our king" ( Isaiah 33:22); "princes decree justice" ( Proverbs 8:15), etc. The Talmud has retained the original meaning of engraving, painting, writing, e.g. יונתן חקוקה (Gem. Pes. 1, a), is explained by "of the engravers, scribes" (Aruch, s.v.), and the imitation implied in the notion of "drawing" has become fixed in the word Ü r. (Talm. Chul. 41, b, "that he shall not Imitate the Sadducees").

    7. משֵׁל , Moshel ( מָשֵׁל , to Be Strong), one who Reigns, holds dominion, "rules;" used for nearly all degrees of power: of the taskmaster of the ant ( Proverbs 6:7), the husband who rules his wife ( Genesis 3:16), Eliezer, who had the management of Abraham's house ( Genesis 24:2), Joseph, the second in command over a country ( Genesis 45:8), an absolute king ( Psalms 105:20;  Isaiah 16:1); also in the bad sense of despot ( Isaiah 14:5); of the Messiah ( Micah 5:1); of God ( 1 Chronicles 29:12;  Psalms 103:19), etc. No less is the word the sway which the sun and moon hold over day and night ( Genesis 1:18 ["eomnium moderator et dux sol," Cic. Tusc. 1:68; sol coeli rector," Pliny, 2:4]). In the Talmudical tract Jad. 76, מושל is used for Pharaoh.

    8. שִׂר , Sar (from שָׂרִר ,.to Rule, reign; comp. Phcen. סדאסיד סרגד ; Assyr. סד , king, e.g. "Nabukudurrusur Sar Babilu," Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, Inscr. Borsippa, etc.), a word used of nearly all degrees of chiefdom or wardenship. It is applied to the chief baker of Pharaoh ( Genesis 40:16), to the chief butler ( Genesis 40:2), to the "ruler over the cattle" ( Genesis 47:6), to the keeper of the prison ( Genesis 39:21), to the taskmaster of the Israelites ( Exodus 1:11), to the "prince of the eunuchs" ( Daniel 1:7), to the "master of the song," Chenaniah ( 1 Chronicles 15:27); further, to prsefects, civil or military, of very limited or very extensive authority: Zebul, the "ruler of Shechem" ( Judges 9:30); "Amon, the governor of the city" ( 1 Kings 22:26); prefects of the provinces ( 1 Kings 20:15); "decurion" ( Exodus 18:21); "a captain of fifty," Πεντηκόνταρχος ( 2 Kings 1:9); captains (judges) over hundreds ( Deuteronomy 1:15); over a thousand ( 1 Samuel 18:3); over many thousands ( 1 Chronicles 15:25); "captain over half of the chariots of war" ( 1 Kings 16:9); "captain of the host" ( 2 Samuel 24:2); general-in-chief ( Genesis 21:22;  1 Samuel 12:9): hence used after God of hosts of God himself ( Daniel 8:11). It occurs by itself in the absolute state as a parallel to "judge:" "who has made the a Prince and a judge over us?" ( Exodus 2:14); to "elder" ( Ezra 10:8), to "counselor" ( Ezra 8:25), to "king" ( Hosea 3:4). The merchants of Tyre are called שָׂרִים , merchant princes ( Isaiah 23:9); the same term is applied to noblemen and courtiers, "the princes of Pharaoh"' ( Genesis 12:15); "princes of Zoan" ( Isaiah 19:11;  Isaiah 19:13) The priests are called chiefs or princes of the sanctuary ( Isaiah 43:28;  1 Chronicles 25:5), and the chiefpriests again are called Princes Of The Priests. Gradually the word came to be used of angels, as patrons and representatives of special nations (guardian angels): of Persia ( Daniel 10:13;  Daniel 10:20); of Greece ( Daniel 10:20); of Israel ( Daniel 10:21); Michael, "the great prince" ( Daniel 12:1); the chief princes (10:13); "the Prince of princes" God (8:25; comp. Sept. in  Deuteronomy 32:8). The use of שִׂד as guardian angel is retained in, the Midrash, but the word is also applied in the Talmud to "a hero at the table, a mighty drinker" (Nidd. 16, etc.). (See Captain).

    Of foreign origin is,

    9. פֶּחָה , Pechah", פִּחָה , פִּח ; Josephus, Ἔπαρχος , of Tatnai (Ant. 11:4, 4). This word has been variously derived from the Persian for "magnates" (Bohlen); Persic "to Cook" (Ewald); Persic for "Satelles," "Pedisequus" (Gesenius); from; the Turkish for "general" (Frahn); from the Assyrian Pa/Kha (Sanscr. Pakhshca ); whence Pasha Friend [of the king], adjutant, governor of a province (Benfey, Stern); from the Arab. Pe, "the lower," and gh, "royal office" = Pegah, sub-king (Furst); from the Arab. verb פחו , Wallen" (Jahn); and, finally, from the Hebrew פחה = חקק Ταγέω . It is applied to a subpraefect of a province, who is subject to the authority of The praefect or real governor, in contradistinction. from אחשדרפון , a satrap ( Esther 8:9); from שִׁן (ib.); from סָגָן , "sagan," municipal officer ( Jeremiah 51:28); and from מֶלֶךְ , "king" or sub-king ( 2 Chronicles 9:14). It is used of the "chiefs" of provinces in the Assyrian ( 2 Kings 18:24;  Isaiah 36:9), Babylonian [Chaldee] ( Jeremiah 51:57;  Ezekiel 23:6;  Ezekiel 23:23;  Daniel 3:2), Median, and Persian empires ( Jeremiah 51:28;  Esther 3:12;  Esther 8:9). Palestine stood, while under Persian dominion, under such officers, called "Praefects over the river" (Euphrates), whose official residence [ כסא ] was in Jerusalem ( Nehemiah 3:7;  Ezra 5:3;  Ezra 6:6;  Nehemiah 2:7;  Nehemiah 2:9). They were also Called Praefects of Judah ( Haggai 1:1); e.g. Zerubbabel ( Ezra 2:63;  Haggai 2:21, etc.); Nehemiah, who succeeded Sheshbazzar (Nehemiah 5:5, 14;: 18:12). The word seems to have been adopted intothe Hebrew idiom at an early period, since we find it used in  1 Kings 10:15 ( 2 Chronicles 9:14) of the tributary chieftains "of the country" together with the "kings of Arabia;" further, of Syrian captains to be put in the room of the (vice) kings at the.time of Ben-hadad ( 1 Kings 20:24); and, finally, it passed current for any person in high authority who was to be propitiated by gifts ( Malachi 1:8). With respect to the Judaea, introduced by Persian rule, it would appear that their remuneration ("bread of the governor,"  Ezra 4:14) consisted partly in kind, partly in money ("bread, wine, and forty shekels of silver,"  Nehemiah 5:15), chargeable upon the people ( Nehemiah 5:18 : "One ox and six choice sheep, also fowls, and once in ten days store of all sorts of wine"). Their office seems chiefly to have consisted in collecting the taxes of the province ( Ezra 6:8); an office at a later period in the hands of the high-priest, and still later let out on lease. (See Pahath-Moab).

    10. The Chaldee term סְגִן , Segan (in,the plur סִגְנִין ) is applied ( Daniel 3:2;  Daniel 3:27;  Daniel 6:8) to the governors of the Babylonian satrapies, in a general way, in connection with other official terms, from which it is not clearly distinguishable, except that it appears to designate the provincial prsefects or viceroys; and elsewhere ( Daniel 2:48) it is applied to the praefects over the Magi, of whom one is especially entitled as chief or supreme ( דִב ) over his colleagues. The corresponding Heb. term סָגָן , Sagan', is spoken of the provincial rulers under the Chaldee supremacy ( Jeremiah 2:23;  Jeremiah 2:28 where it distinguished from פֶּחָה , above;  Ezekiel 23:6;  Ezekiel 23:12;  Ezekiel 23:23; comp.  Isaiah 41:25); also to the chiefs and rulers of the people of Jerusalem under the Persian supremacy ( Ezra 9:2;  Nehemiah 2:16;  Nehemiah 4:8;  Nehemiah 4:13;  Nehemiah 5:7;  Nehemiah 5:17;  Nehemiah 7:5;  Nehemiah 12:40;  Nehemiah 13:11; in many of which passages it is associated with other titles of office or honor); and in the Targums it is used of the vicar of the high-priest, or the presiding officer of the Temple. Corresponding to this term are the modern Persian, Arabic, and Syriac words for satrap. It is apparently of Sanscrit origin.

    The Greek terms rendered in the N.T. "governor" are the following, of which the first two relate to public or military officers, and the last two to domestic usages:

    11. Ε᾿Θνάρχης , Ethnarch ( 2 Corinthians 11:32), an officer of rank under Aretas, the Arabian king of Damascus. It is not easy to determine the capacity in which he acted. The term is applied in  1 Maccabees 14:47;  1 Maccabees 15:1, to Simon the high-priest, who was made general and ethnarch of the Jews as a vassal of Demetrius. From this the office would appear to be distinct from a military command. The jurisdiction of Archelaus, called .by Josephus (War, 2:6, 3) an ethnarchy, extended over Idumaea and all Judaea, the half of his father's kingdom, which he held as the emperor's vassal.: But, on' the other hand, Strabo (17:13), in enumerating the officers who formed part of the machinery of the Roman government in Egypt, mentions ethnarchs apparently as inferior both to the military commanders, .and to the monarchs, or governors of districts. Again, the praefect of the colony of Jews in Alexandria (called by Philo, lib. in Flacc. § 10) is designated by this title in the edict of Claudius given by Josephus Ant. 19:5, 2). According to Strabo (Joseph. Ant. 14:7, 2), he exercised the prerogatives of an ordinary independent ruler. It has therefore beep conjectured that the ethnarch of Damascus was merely the governor of the resident Jews, and this conjecture receives some support from the parallel narrative in  Acts 9:24, where the Jews alone are said to have taken part in the conspiracy against the apostle. But it does not seem probable that an officer of such limited jurisdiction would be styled "the ethnarch of Aretas the king; and as the term is clearly capable of a wide range of ineaning, it was most liketly intended to denote one who held the city and district of Damascus as the king's vassal or representative. (See Ethnarch).

    12. ῾Ηγεμών , the Procurator of Judaea under the Romans ( Matthew 27:2, etc.). The verb is employed ( Luke 2:2, etc.) to denote the nature of the jurisdiction of Quirinus over the imperial province of Syria (see Gerlach, Die Romischen Statthalterin Syrien Und Ju daea, Berl. 1865). (See Procurator).

    13. Οἰκονομός ( Galatians 4:2), a Steward, apparently intrusted with the management of a minor's property. (See Steward).

    14. Ἀρχιτρίκλινος ( John 2:9), "the Governor of the feast." It has been conjectured, but without much show of probability, that this officer corresponded to the Συμποσίαρχος of the Greeks, whose duties are described by Plutarch (Sympos. Quaest. 4), and to the Arbiter Ibendi of the Romans. Lightfoot supposes him to have been a kind of chaplain, who pronounced the blessings upon the wine that was drunk during the seven days of the marriage feast. Again, some have taken him to be equivalent to the Τραπεζοποιός , who is defined by Pollux (Onom. 6:1) as one who had the charge of all the servants at a feast, the carvers, cup-bearers, cooks, etc. But there is nothing in the narrative of the marriage feast at Cana which would lead to the supposition that the Ἀρχιτρίκλινος held the rank of a servant. He appears rather to have been on intimate terms with the bridegroom, and to have presided at the banquet in his stead. The duties of the master of a feast are given at full length in Sirach 35 (32). (See Architriclinus).

    In the apocryphal books, in addition to the common words Ἄρχων , Δεσπότης , Στρατηγός , which are rendered "governor," we find Ἐπιστάτης ( 1 Esdras 1:8;  Judith 2:14), which closely corresponds to פָּקִיד ; Ἔπαρχος used of Zerubbabel and Tatnai ( 1 Esdras 6:3;  1 Esdras 6:29;  1 Esdras 7:1), and Προστάτης , applied to Sheshbazzar ( 1 Esdras 2:12), both of which represent פֶּהָה ; Ἱεροστάτης ( 1 Esdras 7:2) and Προστάτης Τοῦ Ἱεροῦ ( 2 Maccabees 3:4), "the governor of the temple"= נָגִיד (comp.  2 Chronicles 35:8); and Σατράπης ( 1 Esdras 3:2;  1 Esdras 3:21), "a satrap," not always used in its strict sense, but as the equivalent of Στρατηγός ( Judith 5:2;  Judith 7:8). Smith, s.v. (See Prince).

    15. In  James 3:4, the Greek term rendered "governor" is Εὐθύνων , a guide or Director, i.e., helmsman (prop. Κυβερνήτης , whence Lat. Gubernator, Eng. governor, the last in a different sense). (See Ship).

    The following list (modified from the Biblical Repository, 1832, page 381, 382) of the presiding officers of Judaea (q.v.) will be found useful in comparing the history of those times. See each name in its place. For those of Syria, (See Syria).

    Procurators Of Judea. AD

    (1.) Coponius 6- 9

    (2.) Marcus Ambivius 9-12

    (3.) Annius Rufus. These three were appointed by Augustus; the two following by Tiberius 12-15

    (4.) Valerius Gratus 15-26

    (5.) Pontius Pilatus 26-36

    (6.) Marcellus, sent by Vitellius, the governor of Syria, in place of Pilate 36-37

    (7.) Marullus, sent by Cligula 37-40

    (8.) Publius Petronius, who was at the same time governor of Syria, managed the affairs of the Jews himself. Under his successor Marsus also, there seems to have been no distinct procurator of Judaea for two or three years 40-42

    (9.) Cuspius Fadus, sent by Claudius 45-46

    (10.) Tiberius Alexander 47-49

    (11.) Ventidius Cumanus 49-53

    (12.) A. Claudius Felix 53-55

    (13.) Portius Festus, under Nero 55-62

    (14.) Albinus 62-64

    (15.) Gessius Florus, the last procurator of Judaea 65

    (16.) Josephus, however, speaks (War, 6:4, 3) of a Marcus Antonius Julianus as being (or having been) procurator of Judaea in the last struggle with the Romans, A.D. 70.

    International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [11]

    guv´ẽr - nẽr  : The word "governor" is employed in English Versions of the Bible in rendering a great variety of Hebrew and Greek words. In certain cases strict consistency is neither observed nor possible.

    1. In the Old Testament

    In the rendering of Hebrew terms account has naturally been taken of the translations offered in Septuagint, which, being the work of different hands, is both uneven in quality and inconsistent. But there are inherent difficulties which can never be entirely overcome. First and most important, there is the difficulty arising from our ignorance of many details of the government of the oriental nations to which the terms apply. Hardly less is the embarrassment occasioned by the vague employment of words in indiscriminate reference to persons of superior rank and somehow exercising authority. There is consequently much confusion in the use of titles such as "deputy," "duke," "judge," "lawgiver," "overseer" "prince" "ruler" etc. for which the student may consult the special articles.

    (1) אלּוּף , 'alluwph or אלּף , 'allūph , "governor" (the Revised Version (British and American) "chieftain") in Judah (  Zechariah 9:7;  Zechariah 12:5 f).

    (2) חוקק , ḥōḳēḳ (  Judges 5:9;  Judges 5:14 , the King James Version margin"or lawgivers"). The word is variously rendered with "ruler" or "lawgiver" in English Versions of the Bible of  Genesis 49:10;  Deuteronomy 33:21;  Isaiah 33:22 .

    (3) משׁל , mōshēl , participle of משׁל , māshal , "to be master," "to rule" (  Genesis 45:26 , the Revised Version (British and American) "ruler").

    (4) נשׂיא , nāsı̄' (  2 Chronicles 1:2 , the Revised Version (British and American) "prince").

    (5) סגן , ṣāghān (  Daniel 3:2 f;   Jeremiah 51:23 , the Revised Version, margin "or lieutenants";  Jeremiah 51:28 ,  Jeremiah 51:57;  Ezekiel 23:6 ,  Ezekiel 23:12 ,  Ezekiel 23:23 ). The same word is rendered "rulers" or "deputies" ( Isaiah 41:25;  Ezra 9:2;  Nehemiah 2:16;  Nehemiah 5:7;  Nehemiah 7:5;  Nehemiah 12:40 ).

    (6) פחה , peḥāh , is variously used: ( a ) of the military governor of a province among the Assyrians (  Isaiah 36:9 ); ( b ) among the Chaldees ( Ezekiel 23:6 ,  Ezekiel 23:23;  Jeremiah 51:23 ,  Jeremiah 51:18 ,  Jeremiah 51:57 ); ( c ) among the Persians ( Esther 3:12;  Esther 8:9;  Esther 9:3 ); ( d ) of the governor-general of the province beyond the River (Euphrates) ( Ezra 8:36;  Nehemiah 2:7 :9); ( e ) of Nehemiah as subordinate "governor in the land of Judah" under him ( Nehemiah 5:14 ); ( f ) of Zerubbabel as "governor of Judah" ( Haggai 1:1 ,  Haggai 1:14;  Haggai 2:2 ,  Haggai 2:21 ); ( g ) of Solomon's governors ( 1 Kings 10:15;  1 Kings 20:24 (in Syria)).

    (7) פקיד , pāḳı̄dh (  Jeremiah 20:1 , the Revised Version (British and American) "chief officer"). Elsewhere it is rendered "overseer" or "officer" (compare  Genesis 41:34;  2 Kings 25:19;  Nehemiah 11:9 ,  Nehemiah 11:22 ).

    (8) שׂר , sar "governor of the city" (  1 Kings 22:26 ). Elsewhere commonly rendered "prince."

    (9) שׁלּיט , shallı̄ṭ (  Genesis 42:6 ). Elsewhere rendered "ruler" or "captain."

    (10) תּרשׁתא , tirshāthā' the Revised Version (British and American) "the governor," the King James Version "the Tirshatha" (  Ezra 2:63;  Nehemiah 7:70 ). See Tirshatha .

    2. In the New Testament

    The word "governor" in English Versions of the Bible represents an almost equal variety of Greek words. Here again the usage is for the most part lax and untechnical; but since reference is chiefly had to officers of the Roman imperial administration, concerning which we possess ample information, no embarrassment is thereby occasioned. The words chiefly in use for "governor" are derived from root ag -, "drive," "lead":

    (1) ἡγέομαι , hēgéomai , "lead" (  Matthew 2:6; of Joseph as grand vizier of Egypt,  Acts 7:10 ).

    (2) ἡγεμών , hēgemṓn , "leader" (  Matthew 10:18;  1 Peter 2:14; of Pilate,  Matthew 27:2 ,  Matthew 27:11 ,  Matthew 27:14 ,  Matthew 27:15 ,  Matthew 27:21 ,  Matthew 27:27; of Felix,  Acts 23:24 ,  Acts 23:26 ,  Acts 23:33; of Festus,  Acts 24:1 ,  Acts 24:10;  Acts 26:30 ).

    (3) ἡγεμονεύω , hēgemoneúō , "function as leader" (  Luke 2:2; of Pilate,  Luke 3:1 ).

    To these are added terms of more specific meaning:

    (4) ἐθνάρχης , ethnárchēs , "ethnarch" or "ruler of a nation" (  2 Corinthians 11:32 ). See Government , 6, 7.

    (5) εὐθύνω , euthúnō "direct," "guide" (  James 3:4 ). Here the Revised Version (British and American) properly render it "steersman."

    (6) ἀρχιτρίκλινος , architrı́klinos , "president of a banquet" (  John 2:8 f, the American Standard Revised Version "ruler of the feast").

    (7) οἰκονόμος , oikonómos , "steward," "manager of a household or estate" (  Galatians 4:2 , the Revised Version (British and American) "stewards").

    It is thus seen that in the New Testament "governor" in the political sense occurs chiefly in reference to the Roman procurators of Judea - P ilate, Felix, and Festus. See Pilate; Felix; Festus . It remains for us here to speak briefly of the government of Roman provinces.

    Latin provincia signifies a magistrate's sphere of duty or authority, either ( a ) judicially or legally, defining the scope of his competence, or ( b ) geographically, designating the territorial limits within which he may exercise authority. It is in the latter sense that we are now considering the word. When, in the 3century bc, Rome began to rule conquered lands outside Italy, each territory was set under the authority of a single magistrate, and hence came to be called a "province." Conquered territories left under the rule of native princes or kings were not so designated, although their government was practically directed by Rome. At first provinces were governed by proconsuls or proprietors (i.e. ex-consuls or ex- praetors); but with the steady multiplication of provinces various expedients became necessary in order to provide governors of suitable rank and dignity. Thus, the number of praetors was largely augmented, and the term of possible service as governor was extended. Under Augustus the provinces were parceled out between the emperor and the senate, the former reserving for himself such as seemed to require the maintenance of a considerable armed force. In these the emperor was himself proconsul. Early in the Empire imperial provinces of a different type appear, in which the emperor, regarded as sovereign proprietor, governs by a viceroy ( praefectus ) or steward ( procurator ). In some of these, tributary kings or princes ruled with the emperor's representative - a legatus or a procurator - by their side, much as England now rules Egypt. Among the provinces so ruled were Egypt and Judea, partly, no doubt, because of their strategic position, partly because of the temper of their inhabitants.