From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [1]

Prince . This is the tr. [Note: translate or translation.] of a considerable number of Heb. and Gr. words, expressing different shades of meaning, e.g. ‘chieftain,’ ‘ruler,’ ‘king,’ ‘governor,’ ‘noble,’ ‘deputy.’ The main terms are 1. sar , ‘one who has authority or bears rule.’ It is used of rulers (  Isaiah 21:6 ,   Numbers 21:18 etc.), of royal officials (  Genesis 12:15 ,   2 Kings 24:12 etc.), of leaders in war (  1 Samuel 22:2 ), of tribal chieftains ( e.g. Philistines,   1 Samuel 18:30 ), of the chief butler and baker (  Genesis 40:2;   Genesis 40:16 ), of the keeper of prison (  Genesis 39:21 ), of the taskmaster (  Exodus 1:11 ), of the prince of the eunuchs (  Daniel 1:7 ). It came later to be applied to the guardian angels of the nations (  Daniel 10:13;   Daniel 10:20-21 ), to Michael the archangel (  Daniel 12:1 ). It is the most general term for prince, and occurs in the fem, form sârâh , ‘princess,’ used of the wives of Solomon (  1 Kings 11:3 ), and also of Jerusalem ‘princess among the provinces’ (  Lamentations 1:1 ), and it is translated ‘ladies’ in   Judges 5:29 and ‘queens’ in   Isaiah 49:23 .

2. nâgîd , ‘one who is high, conspicuous, outstanding.’ It is applied to the governor of the palace (  2 Chronicles 28:7 ), the keeper of the treasury (  1 Chronicles 26:24 ), the chief of the Temple (  1 Chronicles 9:11 ,   2 Chronicles 31:13 ); also to the chief of a tribe (  2 Chronicles 19:11 ), the son of a king (  2 Chronicles 11:22 ), the king himself (  1 Samuel 25:30 ), the high priest (  Daniel 9:25 ), and is occasionally in AV [Note: Authorized Version.] translated ‘captain.’

3 . nâsî ’, ‘one lifted up,’ is applied to chiefs of tribes, princes of Ishmael (  Genesis 17:20 ), to Abraham (  Genesis 23:6 ), to Shechem (  Genesis 34:2 ), to Sheshbazzar (  Ezra 1:8 ). It is often used of the heads of the Israelitic tribes, and translated ‘ruler’ in AV [Note: Authorized Version.] . The word is frequently in Ezekiel used of kings of Judah and foreign princes, and is also applied to the future head of the ideal State (  Genesis 34:24 etc.).

4 . nâdîb , ‘willing,’ ‘a volunteer,’ ‘generous,’ ‘noble,’ generally found in plur. and often translated ‘nobles,’ used of those of noble or princely birth (  1 Samuel 2:8 ,   Psalms 47:9;   Psalms 107:40 etc.).

Other less frequent terms are nâsîk ‘installed,’ partÄ•mîm ‘leading men,’ qâtsîn ‘judge,’ shâlîsh ‘officer,’ ‘captain,’ sÄ•gânîm ‘deputies.’ In   Daniel 3:2-3;   Daniel 3:27;   Daniel 6:2;   Daniel 6:4;   Daniel 6:7 , the ‘princes’ of AV [Note: Authorized Version.] are Persian satraps, while in the names Rabshakeh , Rabsaris the prefix rab signifies ‘chief,’ as also the proper name Rezon (  1 Kings 11:23 ), which occurs as a common noun ( râzôn ) in   Proverbs 14:28 . We may also note that in   Job 12:19 the word ‘priests’ ( kôh ăn îm ) is wrongly rendered ‘princes,’ and in   Psalms 68:31 the word translated ‘princes’ is not found in any other passage, the text being likely corrupt.

The NT terms are 1. archçgos , applied to Christ ‘the Prince (author) of life’ (  Acts 3:15 ), ‘Prince and Saviour’ (  Acts 5:31 ); so in   Hebrews 2:10 Jesus is ‘the author (AV [Note: Authorized Version.] ‘captain’) of salvation’ and in   Hebrews 12:2 the ‘ author and finisher of our faith.’ 2. archôn , used of Beelzebub (  Matthew 9:34;   Matthew 12:24 ,   Mark 3:22 ), of the princes of the Gentiles (  Matthew 20:25 ), the princes of this world (  1 Corinthians 2:6;   1 Corinthians 2:8 ), prince of the power of the air (  Ephesians 2:2 ), the Prince of the kings of the earth (  Revelation 1:5 ). 3. hçgemôn , used of Bethlehem, ‘not least among the princes of Judah’ (  Matthew 2:6 ).

W. F. Boyd.

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [2]

This is the rendering of two Gr. words in the NT, viz. ἀρχηγός and ἄρχων. The translation ‘prince’ is assigned to ἀρχηγός in two passages in Acts, viz.  Acts 3:14 f., ‘desired a murderer to be granted unto you; and killed the Prince of life’ (AVm_ and RVm_ ‘Author’); and  Acts 5:31, ‘Him hath God exalted with his right hand to be a Prince and a Saviour.’ In the latter passage the title evidently denotes the royal dignity to which Jesus has been raised by the Resurrection; but in the other quotation ἀρχηγὸς τῆς ζωῆς rather refers to His work as Saviour, and thus the marginal translation is preferable. He is the Author of life in the sense that He is the Mediator to others of eternal life (cf.  Hebrews 2:10, ἀρχηγὸν τῆς σωτηρίας αὐτῶν [AV_ and RVm_ ‘captain of their salvation,’ RV_ ‘author’], and  Hebrews 5:9, αἴτιος σωτηρίας αἰωνίου [AV_ and RV_ ‘author of eternal salvation,’ RVm_ ‘cause’]). The title ‘author of life’ is specially suggestive in the passage in Acts in virtue of the contrast it presents to the ‘murderer’ whom they desired instead.

The title ‘Prince’ (ἄρχων) is applied to Jesus Christ in  Revelation 1:5, ‘firstbegotten (RV_ ‘firstborn’) of the dead, and the prince (RV_ ‘ruler’) of the kings of the earth’ (cf.  Psalms 89:27). In virtue of the Resurrection Jesus has been exalted to Divine Lordship (cf.  Matthew 28:18,  Philippians 2:9). The title ‘prince of the kings of the earth’ corresponds to the ‘King of kings and Lord of lords’ of  Revelation 17:14;  Revelation 19:16. It is characteristic of Rev., with its transference to the Christ of the attributes of the theocratic king, to emphasize the sovereignty of the Exalted Christ over all earthly potentates.

There are two other passages in the apostolic writings in which ἄρχων is translated ‘prince.’ In one,  Ephesians 2:2, ‘the prince of the power of the air’ (ὁ ἄρχων τῆς ἐξουσίας τοῦ ἀέρος), the reference is plainly to Satan. ἐξουσία is here used collectively to denote the whole array of the hosts of evil. These are conceived as having their dwelling in the air, i.e. midway between heaven and earth (cf.  Ephesians 6:12, τὰ πνευματικὰ τῆς πονηρίας ἐν τοῖς ἐπουρανίοις). The other passage is  1 Corinthians 2:6;  1 Corinthians 2:8. There is difference of opinion as to who are ‘the princes of this world’ (RV_ ‘rulers of this world,’ RVm_ ‘age’) here referred to. There are some who see merely a reference to those who through birth, culture, and power hold a high place in the esteem of their fellows. But others find in the passage an allusion to the evil spirits to which there was a tendency in later Judaism to assign part at least of the government of the world. These spirits are represented as having brought about the death of Christ in their blind ignorance of the Divine wisdom. Had they known the Lord of glory, they would never have committed such a fatal mistake.

Literature.-H. Lietzmann’s Handbuch zum NT, 1912, comm. on  1 Corinthians 2:6; W. Bousset, Die Religion des Judentums im neutest. Zeitalter2, 1906, p. 371 ff.; F. H. Chase, The Credibility of the Acts, 1902, p. 129 f.; HDB_, art._ ‘Prince.’

G. Wauchope Stewart.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [3]

1: Ἀρχηγός (Strong'S #747 — Adjective — archegos — ar-khay-gos' )

primarily an adjective signifying "originating, beginning," is used as a noun, denoting "a founder, author, prince or leader,"  Acts 3:15 , "Prince" (marg., "Author");  Acts 5:31; see Author , No. 2.

2: Ἄρχων (Strong'S #758 — Noun Masculine — archon — ar'-khone )

the present participle of the verb archo, "to rule;" denotes "a ruler, a prince." It is used as follows ("p" denoting "prince," or "princes;" "r," "ruler" or "rulers"): (a) of Christ, as "the Ruler (AV, Prince) of the kings of the earth,"  Revelation 1:5; (b) of rulers of nations,  Matthew 20:25 , RV, "r," AV, "p;"  Acts 4:26 , "r;"  Acts 7:27 , "r;"  Acts 7:35 , "r" (twice); (c) of judges and magistrates,  Acts 16:19 , "r;"  Romans 13:3 , "r;" (d) of members of the Sanhedrin,  Luke 14:1 , RV, "r" (AV, "chief");  Luke 23:13,35 , "r;" so  Luke 24:20;  John 3:1;  7:26,48;  12:42 , RV, "r" (AV, "chief r."); "r" in  Acts 3:17;  4:5,8;  13:27;  14:5; (e) of rulers of synagogues,  Matthew 9:18,23 , "r;" so  Luke 8:41;  18:18; (f) of the Devil, as "prince" of this world,  John 12:31;  14:30;  16:11; of the power of the air,  Ephesians 2:2 , "the air" being that sphere in which the inhabitants of the world live and which, through the rebellious and godless condition of humanity, constitutes the seat of his authority; (g) of Beelzebub, the "prince" of the demons,  Matthew 9:24;  12:24;  Mark 3:22;  Luke 11:15 . See Chief , B, No. 10.

3: Ἡγεμών (Strong'S #2232 — Noun Masculine — hegemon — hayg-em-ohn' )

"a leader, ruler," is translated "princes" (i.e., leaders) in  Matthew 2:6 : see Governor , A, No. 1.

 Revelation 6:15 18:23Lord

Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words [4]

A. Nouns.

Nâśı̂y' ( נָשִׁא , Strong'S #5387), “prince; chief; leader.” This noun appears 129 times in biblical Hebrew. An early occurrence of nâśı̂y' is in Gen. 23:6: “Hear us, my lord: thou art a mighty prince among us.…” The books of Numbers and Ezekiel use the word most frequently. Elsewhere it rarely occurs.

Though the origin and meaning of nâśı̂y' are controversial, it is clearly associated with leadership, both Israelite and non-lsraelite. M. Noth proposed the idea that the nâśı̂y' was originally a tribal representative or a “deputy, chief.” Ishmael was promised to give rise to twelve “princes” (Gen. 17:20; cf. 25:16); the Midianites had “princes” (Num. 25:18), as well as the Amorites (Josh. 13:21), the peoples of the sea (Ezek. 26:16), Kedar (Ezek. 27:21), Egypt (Ezek. 30:13), and Edom (Ezek. 32:29). Also Israel had her “princes” (“rulers”): “… On the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for one man: and all the rulers of the congregation came and told Moses” (Exod. 16:22). The “princes” (“leaders”) of Israel did not only participate in the civil leadership; they were also regarded as pillars in Israelite religious life, the upholders of the covenantal way of life: “And Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the rulers of the congregation returned unto him: and Moses talked with them” (Exod. 34:31; cf. Josh. 22:30). Hence, Israel was to obey her “leaders”: “Thou shalt not revile the gods, nor curse the ruler of thy people” (Exod. 22:28).

The Septuagint translation is arxon (“ruler; lord; prince; authority; official”), and the KJV has these translations: “prince; captain; chief; ruler.”

Another noun, neshi’im , is related to neshi’. —The word, which is found 4 times, means “clouds”: “Whoso boasteth himself of a false gift is like clouds and wind without rain” (Prov. 25:14; cf. Ps. 135:7; Jer. 10:13; 51:16).

B. Verb.

Nâśâ' ( נָסָה , Strong'S #5375), “to lift up, carry.” This verb appears 654 times in the Old Testament; once in Gen. 44:1: “Fill the men’s sacks with food, as much as they can carry.…”

Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [5]

This is one of the titles of the Lord Jesus. The prophet Ezekiel, in the close of his prophecy, dwells much upon the character of the Lord Jesus under the title of prince. I refer the reader to  Ezekiel 44:1-31;  Ezekiel 45:1-25 and  Ezekiel 46:1-24. I shall not think it necessary to enlarge in our views of our adorable Lord as our Prince and Saviour, for every act of his manifests his royal princely sovereignty and power as the glorious Head of his body the church. All his reigns in nature, providence, grace, and glory, set him forth as the Prince of Peace, the universal Lord and emperor in heaven and in earth. Hail, thou almighty Lord! do thou reign and rule in me and my poor heart now and for ever. Amen. It may not be amiss to observe, in a world of this kind, that the Scripture attaches the title of prince to various characters among men. We read of the Dukes of Edom and other places in the first ages of the world. ( Genesis 36:15, etc.) And the heads of families were called Cohen, prince, and Cohenim, princes, by way of distinction. Indeed the word is sometimes rendered priest also, as in thee case of Jethro, priest or prince of Midian. ( Exodus 2:16) So the word is sometimes rendered Governor. ( 2 Chronicles 18:25) And even Satan is called the prince of this world, and the prince of the power of the air; ( John 12:31;  Ephesians 2:2) The general acceptation, therefore, of the term implies somewhat of power and dominion.

King James Dictionary [6]

PRINCE, n. prins. L. princeps.

1. In a general sense, a sovereign the chief and independent ruler of a nation or state. Thus when we speak of the princes of Europe, we include emperors and kings. Hence, a chief in general as a prince of the celestial host. 2. A sovereign in a certain territory one who has the government of a particular state or territory, but holds of a superior to whom he owes certain services as the princes of the German states. 3. The son of a king or emperor, or the issue of a royal family as princes of the blood. In England, the eldest son of the king is created prince of Wales. 4. The chief of any body of men. 5. A chief or ruler of either sex. Queen Elizabeth is called by Camden prince, but this application is unusual and harsh.

Prince of the senate, in ancient Rome, was the person first called in the roll of senators. He was always of consular and censorian


In Scripture, this name prince is given to God, Dan.8 to Christ, who is called the prince of peace, Is.9, and the prince of life,  Acts 3 . to the chief of the priests, the prince of the sanctuary,  Isaiah 43 to the Roman emperor,  Daniel 9 to men of superior worth and excellence,  Ecclesiastes 10 . to nobles, counselors and officers of a kingdom,  Isaiah 10 to the chief men of families or tribes,  Numbers 17 . to Satan, who is called the prince of this world,  John 12 .., and prince of the power of the air,  Ephesians 2

PRINCE, To play the prince to take state.

Holman Bible Dictionary [7]

 Zephaniah 1:8  1 Samuel 13:14 1 Chronicles 12:27 Numbers 25:18 Genesis 34:2 1 Kings 20:15 Jeremiah 34:19 Matthew 20:25 1 Corinthians 2:8 prince   Isaiah 9:6 Acts 3:15 Acts 5:31 Daniel 8:25  Daniel 12:1 prince  John 12:31 John 14:30 John 16:11 Matthew 9:34 Matthew 12:24 Ephesians 2:2

Webster's Dictionary [8]

(1): ( a.) The son of a king or emperor, or the issue of a royal family; as, princes of the blood.

(2): ( v. i.) To play the prince.

(3): ( a.) The chief of any body of men; one at the head of a class or profession; one who is preeminent; as, a merchant prince; a prince of players.

(4): ( a.) A title belonging to persons of high rank, differing in different countries. In England it belongs to dukes, marquises, and earls, but is given to members of the royal family only. In Italy a prince is inferior to a duke as a member of a particular order of nobility; in Spain he is always one of the royal family.

(5): ( a.) The one of highest rank; one holding the highest place and authority; a sovereign; a monarch; - originally applied to either sex, but now rarely applied to a female.

Smith's Bible Dictionary [9]

Prince. The only special uses of the word " prince " are - "Princes of provinces,"  1 Kings 20:14, who were probably local governors or magistrates. The "princes" mentioned in  Daniel 6:1, (see  Esther 1:1, were the predecessors of the satraps of Darius Hystaspes. The word " princess " is seldom used in the Bible, but the persons to which it alludes - "Daughters Of Kings" are frequently mentioned.

Easton's Bible Dictionary [10]

 1 Kings 20:14 Daniel 6:1,3,4,6,7 Esther 3:12 8:9 Daniel 9:25 Acts 3:15 5:31 Daniel 12:1

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [11]

prins  : This word occurs quite frequently in our English Bible, mostly in the Old Testament. While it is never used to denote royal parentage (compare   1 Chronicles 29:24 ), it often indicates actual royal or ruling power, together with royal dignity and authority. As a rule, the name is given to human beings; in a few instances it is applied to God and Christ, the angels and the devil.

In  Matthew 2:6 the word rendered "princes" might be translated "princely cities"; at least, this seems to be implied. Here the term ἡγεμών , hēgemṓn , "leader," "ruler," "prince," is used, undoubtedly to hint at the fact that Bethlehem was the native city of a great prince. In the other New Testament passages the word ἄρχων , árchōn , "a potentate," "a person in authority," "a magistrate," occurs most frequently (compare  Matthew 9:34;  Matthew 12:24;  Matthew 20:25 (the Revised Version (British and American) "ruler");   Mark 3:22;  John 12:31;  John 14:30;  John 16:11;  1 Corinthians 2:6 ,  1 Corinthians 2:8 the King James Version;   Ephesians 2:2;  Revelation 1:5 (the Revised Version (British and American) "ruler")). In most of these instances the term "prince" refers to the devil.

In  Acts 3:15;  Acts 5:31 , the word ἀρχηγός , archēgós , "leader," is employed referring to Christ as the author of life and salvation (compare  Hebrews 12:2 , where the term archēgos is rendered "author" (Revised Version) or "captain" (Revised Version margin)).

The Old Testament contains a number of different words mostly rendered "prince" or "princes" in the English Versions of the Bible.

(1) שׂר , sar  : In   Joshua 5:14 the mysterious armed stranger seen by Joshua near Jericho calls himself the "prince of the host of Yahweh": a high military title applied to a superhuman being. In   Isaiah 9:6 , the name is given to the child representing the future Messiah. The term "Prince of Peace" denotes the eminent position and the peaceful reign of the Messianic king: the highest human title in its most ideal sense.  Daniel 8:11 : here, again, as in   Joshua 5:14 , occurs the phrase "prince of the host." In  Daniel 8:25 "the prince of princes" refers to God Himself: the highest human title in its absolute sense applied to God.   Daniel 10:21 : "Michael your prince." Michael the archangel is here called the prince of the Jewish people. He is the princely representative of God's people in the sight of God, a royal title suggesting high power and alliance with God in the great struggle going on between Him and the powers of darkness.   Daniel 12:1 : here Michael is called "the great prince" who standeth for the children of Israel; supplementing   Daniel 10:21 . In  Daniel 10:13 : "the prince of the kingdom of Persia" (compare   Daniel 10:20 , "the prince of Persia," "the prince of Greece"), the expression is used in the same general sense as in  Daniel 10:21 . Each individual nation is represented as guided by a spiritual being that may or may not be an ally of God in His combat with the devil. In the majority of cases, though, the term sar is applied ( a ) to men exercising royal or ruling power:  Proverbs 8:16 : "By me princes (margin "or rulers") rule"   Isaiah 32:1 : "Behold, a king shall reign in righteousness, and princes shall rule in justice." Judicial power is included (compare   Exodus 2:14 : "Who made thee a prince and a judge over us?" and   Psalm 148:11 : "princes and all judges of the earth"). In some passages the word sar , having been rendered "prince," stands for "chief"; so  Judges 7:25 : "They took the two princes of Midian" (compare   Judges 8:14;  1 Samuel 29:4;  2 Samuel 10:3 , etc.). ( b ) To royal officers of a high rank:  Genesis 12:15 : "the princes of Pharaoh" (compare   2 Kings 24:14 : "Jerus and all the princes";   1 Chronicles 29:24;  2 Chronicles 24:23;  Jeremiah 36:21;  Jeremiah 52:10;  Hosea 5:10 , etc.). "Ambassadors" ( Jeremiah 36:14 ); "governors" ( 1 Kings 20:14 : "By the young men (margin "or, servants") of the princes of the provinces"; compare   Esther 1:3 ,  Esther 1:14 , "the seven princes"); "the chief of the eunuchs" ( Daniel 1:7 ); a "quartermaster" ( Jeremiah 51:59 : "Seraiah was chief chamberlain" (margin "or, quartermaster")). The King James Version renders it "a quiet prince," i.e. a prince having rest, instead of procuring rest ( מנוּחה שׂר , sar menūḥāh , "a sar of rest"). In post-exilic times:  Ezra 9:1 : "The princes drew near unto me." They were the political leaders of the people (compare   Ezra 10:8 : "the princes and the elders";   Nehemiah 9:38 : "our princes, our Levites, and our priests";   Nehemiah 11:1 : "The princes of the people dwelt in Jerus";   Nehemiah 12:31 : "the princes of Judah"). Of course, they were all subject to the authority of the Persian kings. ( c ) To the priesthood:  1 Chronicles 24:5 : "princes of the sanctuary, and princes of God" (of   Isaiah 43:28 ). ( d ) On account of great achievements:  2 Samuel 3:38 : "Know ye not that there is a prince and a great man fallen this day in Israel?" - an honorary title. Generally speaking, a prince is a wealthy man (compare   Job 34:19 : "That respecteth not the persons of princes, nor regardeth the rich more than the poor"), and he is a prominent man embodying true, although mortal, manhood (compare   Psalm 82:7 : "Nevertheless ye shall die like men, and fall like one of the princes).

(2) נשׂיא , nāsı̄'  : usually derived from נשׂא , nāsā' , "to lift," hence, "exalted"; otherwise: a "speaker." ( a ) An honorary title (compare   Genesis 23:6 : "Thou art a prince of God among us." The distinction is conferred upon Abraham by the children of Heth). ( b ) A name given to the heads of the Israelite tribes, families and fathers' houses:  Numbers 3:24 : "the prince of the fathers' house of the Gershonites" (compare   Numbers 3:30 ,  Numbers 3:35 );  Numbers 3:32 : "Eleazar ... shall be prince of the princes of the Levites, and have the oversight of them that keep the charge of the sanctuary";   Numbers 4:34 : "the princes of the congregation." They seem to be identical with the "rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens" (compare   Exodus 18:21;  Numbers 16:2 ).  Numbers 7:2 : "the princes of Israel, the heads of their fathers' houses ... the princes of the tribes" (compare   Numbers 17:2 ,  Numbers 17:6;  Numbers 34:18;  Joshua 22:14;  1 Chronicles 4:38 ). ( c ) Equivalent to chief or king:  Genesis 17:20 : "Twelve princes shall he beget" (compare   Genesis 25:16 );  Genesis 34:2 : "Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, the prince of the land";   Numbers 25:18 : "Cozbi, the daughter of the prince of Midian" (compare   Joshua 13:21 );  1 Kings 11:34 : "I will make him prince all the days of his life." This was said of Solomon, which shows the term equivalent to king. Of special interest is the use of the word nāsı̄' in Ezekiel. The name is given to the Jewish king (compare  Ezekiel 12:10 : "This burden concerneth the prince in Jerusalem"). Then, again, it is applied to the future theocratic king (compare   Ezekiel 34:24;  Ezekiel 37:25 , etc., and especially chapters 45; 46). It is also used of foreign potentates and high officers (compare  Ezekiel 26:16 : "the princes of the sea";   Ezekiel 28:2 : "the prince of Tyre";   Ezekiel 30:13 : "a prince from the land of Egypt");   Ezekiel 32:29 : "Edom, her kings and all her princes"; and, likewise, of high Jewish officers (  Ezekiel 21:12 ). ( d ) A title bestowed upon Sheshbazzar ( Ezra 1:8 ).

(3) נדיב , nādhı̄bh  :   1 Samuel 2:8 : "To make them sit with princes" (compare   Psalm 113:8 ). The original meaning of the term is willing or obliging; then generous ("liberal"; compare  Proverbs 19:6 : "Many will entreat the favor of the liberal man"; yet, it might safely be rendered here "prince", margin) or noble-minded; a gentleman, a nobleman, a person of rank, a prince.   Job 12:21 : "He poureth contempt upon princes" (compare   Psalm 107:40 );  Job 21:28 : "Where is the house of the prince? And where is the tent wherein the wicked dwelt?" The context here suggests the thought of a wicked prince, a tyrant.   Psalm 47:9 : "The princes of the peoples are gathered together" (compare   Psalm 118:9;  Psalm 146:3;  Proverbs 17:7;  Proverbs 25:7;  Song of Solomon 7:1 ).

(4) נגיד , nāghı̄dh  : According to Gesenius, this term denotes originally either a high-minded person (compare the preceding word, nādhı̄bh ) or a speaker, a spokesman; then a prince, a king.   1 Samuel 13:14 : "Yahweh hath appointed him to be prince over his people" (compare   2 Samuel 5:2 : "Thou shalt be prince (the Revised Version margin "leader") over Israel";   2 Samuel 6:21;  2 Samuel 7:8;  1 Kings 1:35;  1 Kings 14:7;  1 Kings 16:2;  Job 29:9;  Job 31:37;  Psalm 76:12;  Proverbs 28:16;  Ezekiel 28:2 : "prince of Tyre";   Daniel 9:25 : "the anointed one, the prince," the King James Version the "Messiah the Prince";   Daniel 9:26 : "the prince that shall come" (the Roman emperor?);   Daniel 11:22 : "the prince of the covenant" (either a high priest or some Egyptian king, Ptolemeus Philometor?).

(5), (6) רזון , rāzōn , and רוזן , rōzēn , "a high official," "a prince," usually associated with the word "king" or "judge."   Proverbs 14:28 : "In the multitude of people is the king's glory; but in the want of people is the destruction of the prince" ( rāzōn );  Judges 5:3 : "Hear, O ye kings; give ear, O ye princes" ( rōzenı̄m );  Proverbs 8:15 : "By me kings reign, and princes ( rōzenı̄m ) decree justice" (compare  Proverbs 31:4;  Habakkuk 1:10 );  Isaiah 40:23 : "that bringeth princes ( rōzenı̄m ) to nothing; that maketh the judges of the earth as vanity."

(7) נסך , nāṣı̄kh , derived from נסך , nāṣakh , "to install a king" (compare   Psalm 2:6 ); hence, a prince:  Joshua 13:21 : "the princes of Sihon" (compare   Psalm 83:11 );  Ezekiel 32:30 : "the princes of the north";   Micah 5:5 : the Revised Version (British and American) "principal men," the Revised Version margin "princes among men";   Daniel 11:8 : the Revised Version (British and American) "molten images," the Revised Version margin "princes."

(8) קצין , ḳācı̄n , "a judge," "a military leader," "a prince";   Daniel 11:18 : "A prince (the Revised Version margin "captain") shall cause the reproach ... to cease" (probably a Roman consul; a Roman general?).

(9) שׁלישׁ , shālı̄sh  : The usual explanation, "one of the three men on a war-chariot" is highly improbable; Gesenius suggests that it is a loan-word, and renders it "hero."   Ezekiel 23:15 : "All of them princes to look upon" ("picked men," Gesenius).

(10) חשׁמנּים , ḥashmannı̄m  :   Psalm 68:31 : "Princes shall come out of Egypt." Septuagint renders it πρέσβεις , présbeis , "ambassadors," Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) legati . But the meaning is uncertain. See also Governor , 1, (8).

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [12]

is the rendering of several Heb. and Gr. words in the A. V. Sar, שִׂר (from שָׂרִר , To Rule, To Have Dominion ; Sept. Ἄρχων ; Vulg. princts), The Chief Of Any Class, The Master Of A Company, A Prince Or Noble ; used of Pharaoh's chief butler and baker ( Genesis 40:2 sq.); of the taskmasters set over the Israelites in Egypt ( Exodus 1:11); even of chief herdsmen ( Genesis 47:6). It is frequently used for military commanders ( Exodus 18:21 ["rulers"];  2 Kings 1:9 ["captain"];  Isaiah 3:3, etc.), and or princes both supreme and subordinate ( 1 Samuel 29:3;  Job 29:1;  Job 29:9;  Isaiah 49:7;  Jeremiah 51:59, etc.). In  Daniel 8:11 God is called שִׂר הִצָּבָ ( Sar Hatstaba ), Prince of the host; and in  Daniel 8:25 the title שָׁרִים שָׂר ( Sar Sarim ), Prince of princes, is applied to the Messiah. The "princes of the provinces" ( הִמְּדִינוֹת שָׁרֵו , Sarey Ham-Medinoth,  1 Kings 20:14) were probably the district magistrates who had taken refire in Samaria during the invasion of Benhadad, and their "young men" were their attendants, Παιδάρια , Pedisseqiui (Thenius, Ewall. Gesch . 3, 495). Josephus savs, Υἱοὶ Τῶν Ἡγεμόνων (Ant . 8:14, 2).

There is a peculiar sense in which the term "prince" is used by the prophet Daniel: thus, "Prince of the kingdom of Persia" ( Daniel 10:13), "Michael your prince" ( Daniel 10:21). In these passages the term probably means a tutelary angel; and the doctrine of tutelary angels of different countries seems to be countenanced by several passages of Scripture ( Zechariah 3:1;  Zechariah 6:5;  Judges 1:9;  Revelation 12:7). Michael and Gabriel were probably the tutelary angels of the Jews. These names do not occur In any books of the Old Test. that were written before the captivity; and it is suggested by some that they were borrowed from the Chaldaeans, with whom and the Persians the doctrine of the general administration and superintendence of angels over empires and provinces was commonly received. (See Angel).

2. Nagid , נָגִיד : (from, נָגִד to be in front, to precede; Sept. Ἄρχων or Ἡγούμενος ; Vulg. Dux ), One Who Has The Precedence, A Leader, Or Chief , used of persons set over any undertaking, superintending any trust, or invested with supreme power ( 1 Kings 14:7; Psalm 76:13;  1 Chronicles 26:24 ["ruler"];  1 Samuel 9:16 ["captain"], etc.). In  Daniel 9:25 it is applied to the Messiah; and in  Daniel 11:22 to Ptolemy Philometor, king of Egypt.

3. Nadib , נָדִיב (from נָדִב , which in Hithp. signifies to Volunteer, To Offer Voluntarily Or Spontaneously; chiefly in poetry; Sept. Ἄρχων ; Vulg. Princeps ), Generous, Noble-Minded, Noble By Birth ( 1 Samuel 2:8;  Psalms 107:40;  Psalms 113:8;  Psalms 118:9;  Proverbs 27:7, etc.). This word is the converse of the preceding; נָגִיד means primarily a chief, and derivatively what is morally noble, excellent ( Proverbs 8:6); נדיב means primarily what is morally noble, and derivatively one who is noble by birth or position.

4. Nasi , נָשִׂיץ (from נָשָׂץ , To Lift Up , Niph. To Be Elevated ; Sept. Ἄρχων , Ἡγούμενος , Ἡγεμών , Βασιλεύς Vulg. Princeps , Dux ), One Exalted ; used as a general term for princes, including kings ( 1 Kings 11:24;  Ezekiel 12:10, etc.), heads of tribes or families ( Numbers 1:44;  Numbers 3:24 [A. V. "chief"];  Numbers 7:10;  Numbers 34:18;  Genesis 17:20;  1 Chronicles 7:40, etc.). In the A.V. it is often rendered "ruler" or "captain." In  Genesis 23:6 Abraham is addressed by the sons of Heth as נָשִׂיץ אֵֹלהִים ( Nasi Elohim ), a prince of God, i.e. constituted, and consequently protected, by God [A.V. "mighty prince"]. This word appears on the coins of Judas Maccableus (Gesenius, Thesaur. p. 917).

5. Nasik , נָסִיךְ (from נָסִךְ , To Pour Out, Anoint ; Sept. Ἄρχων ; Vulg. Princeps ;  Psalms 83:11;  Ezekiel 32:30;  Daniel 11:5; "duke,"  Joshua 13:8; "principal,"  Micah 5:5).

6. Katsin , קָצִין (from קָצָה , To Cut, To Decide ; Sept. Ἀρχηγός , Ἄρχων ; Vulg. Princeps ;  Proverbs 25:15;  Daniel 11:18;  Micah 3:1;  Micah 3:9; elsewhere "captain," "guide," "ruler").

7. Rab , רִב (usually an adj. great; Sept. Ἄρχων , Ἡγεμών ; Vulg. Optimus ); only occasional; but used in compounds, e.g. Rab-mag, Rab-saris (q.v.). So its Chald. reduplicature Rabreban , רִבְרְבָן , in the plur. ( Daniel 5:2-3; elsewhere "lords").

8. Rozen , רֹזֵן (participle of רָזִן , To Rule ; Sept. ( Σατράπης , Δυνάστης ; Vulg. Princeps, Legum Conditor ), a poetical word ( Judges 5:3;  Proverbs 8:15;  Proverbs 31:4;  Isaiah 40:23;  Habakkuk 1:10 "ruller,"  Psalms 2:2).

9. Shalish , שָׁלִישׁ (apparently from שָלוֹשׁ , Three ; only  Ezekiel 23:13; elsewhere "captain" [q.v.]).

10. Achashdarpenaya (Chald. plur. אֲחִשְׁדִּרְפְּנִיָּ ,  Daniel 3:2;  Daniel 3:27;  Daniel 6:1-7; Sept.; Ὕρατοι ), a Persian word. Those mentioned in  Daniel 6:1 (see Esther 1, 1) were the predecessors, either in fact or in place, of the satraps of Darius Hystaspis (Herod. 3, 89). (See Satrap).

11. Chashmannim , חִשְׁמִנִּים (plur. literally Rich , only in  Psalms 68:13).

12. Segen , סֶגֶן (a Persian word, used only in the plur. Isaiah 11:25; elsewhere "rulers").

13. Partemim , only in the plur. פִּרְתְּמִים (another Persian word,  Daniel 1:3; elsewhere "rulers").

14. ῎Αρχων , which in the Sept. appears as the rendering of all the Hebrew words above cited, in the New Test. is used of earthly princes ( Matthew 20:25;  1 Corinthians 2:6), of Jesus Christ ( Revelation 1:5), and of Satan ( Matthew 9:34;  Matthew 12:24; Mark 3, 22;  John 12:31;  John 14:30;  John 16:11;  Ephesians 2:2). On the phrase "prince of the power of the air" in this last passage, see AIR.

15. Ἀρχηγός , which in Theodotion is the rendering of נָשִׂיא ( Numbers 13:3;  Numbers 16:2); and in the Sept. is the rendering of שִׂר (Judges 5, 15; Nehemiah 2, 9;  Isaiah 30:4), in the New Test. is applied only to our Lord ( Acts 3:15;  Acts 5:31;  Hebrews 2:10 [A. V. "captain"];  Hebrews 12:2 [A. V. "author"]).

16. ῾Ηγεμών is used ( Matthew 2:6) in a general sense for a chief or ruler. (See Governor); (See King); (See Ruler).