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Fausset's Bible Dictionary [1]

(See Nahum .) From Sar a "king", and Gin or Kin "established". In the inscriptions Sargina ; founded Κhorsabad (Named Sarghun By Arabian Geographers) . (See Hoshea .) Once "Sargon's" name in  Isaiah 20:1, as having taken Ashdod by his general Tartan, caused a difficulty. He is not mentioned in the Scripture histories nor the classics; but Assyrian inscriptions show he succeeded Shalmaneser, and was father of Sennacherib, and took Ashdod as Isaiah says; he finished the siege of Samaria (721 B.C.) which Shalmaneser had begun, and according to the inscription carried away 27,280 persons (compare  2 Kings 17:6). Scripture, while naming at the capture of Samaria Shalmaneser,  2 Kings 17:3, in  2 Kings 17:4-5-6, four times says "the king of Assyria," which is applicable to Sargon.

In  2 Kings 18:9-11 it is implied Shalmaneser was not the actual captor, since after  2 Kings 18:9 has named him  2 Kings 18:10 says "THEY took it." Isaiah was the sole witness to Sargon's existence for 25 centuries, until the discovery of the Assyrian monuments confirmed his statement. They also remarkably illustrate  2 Kings 17:6, that he placed the deported Israelites (In Halah, Habor, The River Of Gozan, And At A Later Time) "in the cities of the Medes"; for Sargon in them states he overran Media and "annexed many Median towns to Assyria." Sargon mounted the throne the same year that Merodach Baladan ascended the Babylonian throne, according to Ptolemy's canon 721 B.C. He was an usurper, for he avoids mentioning his father. His annals for 15 years, 721-706 B.C., describe his expeditions against Babylonia and Susiana on the S., Media on the E., Armenia and Cappadocia N., Syria, Palestine, Arabia, and Egypt, W. and S.W.

He deposed Merodach Baladan and substituted a viceroy. He built cities in Media, which he peopled with captives from a distance. He subdued Philistia, and brought Egypt under tribute; in his second year (720) he fought to gain Gaza; in his sixth against Egypt (715); in his ninth (712) he took Ashdod by Tartan. Azuri was king of Ashdod; Sargon deposed him and made his brother Ahimiti king; the people drove hint away, and raised Javan to the throne, but the latter was forced to flee to Meroe. (G. Smith, Assyrian Discoveries.) Then, according to the inscriptions, he invaded Egypt and Ethiopia, and received tribute from a Pharaoh of Egypt, besides destroying in part the Ethiopian No-Amon or Thebes ( Nahum 3:8); confirming  Isaiah 20:2-4, "as Isaiah hath walked naked and barefoot three years for a sign and wonder upon Egypt and upon Ethiopia, so shall the king of Assyria lead away the Egyptians and the Ethiopians captives, young and old, naked and barefoot," etc.

The monuments also represent Egypt at this time in that close connection with Ethiopia which the prophet implies. A memorial tablet in Cyprus shows he extended his arms to that island; a statue of him, now in the Berlin Museum, was found at Idalium in Cyprus. Sargon built one of the most magnificent of the Assyrian palaces. He records that he thoroughly repaired the walls of Nineveh, which he raised to be the first city of the empire; and that near it he built the palace and town (Khorsabad) which became his chief residence, Dursargina; from it the Louvre derived its series of Assyrian monuments. He probably reigned 19 years, from 721 to 702 B.C., when Sennacherib succeeded.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [2]

SARGON (  Isaiah 20:1 ). The father of Sennacherib and successor of Shalmaneser iv., king of Assyria (b.c. 722 705). Samaria was captured early in his reign, and Sargon carried away 27,200 of the chief inhabitants, the city being placed under Assyrian governors Sargon’s advent to the throne marked a change of dynasty, and he had to subdue Insurrection right and left. Merodach-baladan, once king of the Chald¿an State of Bît-Yakîn, seized Babylon, and was supported by the Elamites. Sargon defeated the latter, but was obliged to leave Merodach-baladan undisturbed for twelve years, while he subdued the northern rivals of Assyria, Armenia and its neighbours. In b.c. 720 he faced a combination of the W. States under Ilu-bihdi, who drew Hamath, Arpad, Damascus, and Palestine into revolt. This was soon put down, Hamath was colonized by Assyrians, and the Philistines and Egyptians were defeated at Raphia. Then Carchemish was captured and absorbed into the empire (b.c. 717). But Sargon’s greatest difficulty was with Armenia, and the rebellions it perpetually stirred up. He was, however, successful in the end, and subdued all the region S. of the Caucasus and parts of Cilicia, as well as parts of Media. In b.c. 711 an Assyrian army was sent against Palestine, where Merodach-baladan had been intriguing and had drawn Hezekiah into the conspiracy. Ashdod was captured, and Judah, Moab, and Edom submitted. Merodach-baladan was expelled from Babylon (b.c. 709), and then chased from Bît-Yakîn, whither he had retreated. Sargon was welcomed as the deliverer of the native Babylonians, and became king of Babylon. He sent his statue to be erected at Idalion, in Cyprus. In b.c. 708 Commagene was annexed. Sargon was killed b.c. 705, how or where is not yet clear. He founded a magnificent city at Dûr-Sargon, the modern Khorsabad.

C. H. W. Johns.

Easton's Bible Dictionary [3]

 Isaiah 20:1

At the very beginning of his reign he besieged and took the city of Samaria ( 2 Kings 17:6;  18:9-12 ). On an inscription found in the palace he built at Khorsabad, near Nieveh, he says, "The city of Samaria I besieged, I took; 27,280 of its inhabitants I carried away; fifty chariots that were among them I collected," etc. The northern kingdom he changed into an Assyrian satrapy. He afterwards drove Merodach-baladan (q.v.), who kept him at bay for twelve years, out of Babylon, which he entered in triumph. By a succession of victories he gradually enlarged and consolidated the empire, which now extended from the frontiers of Egypt in the west to the mountains of Elam in the east, and thus carried almost to completion the ambitious designs of Tiglath-pileser (q.v.). He was murdered by one of his own soldiers (B.C. 705) in his palace at Khorsabad, after a reign of sixteen years, and was succeeded by his son Sennacherib.

Smith's Bible Dictionary [4]

Sar'gon. (Prince Of The Sea). One of the greatest of the Assyrian kings, is mentioned by name, but once in Scripture -  Isaiah 20:1. He was the successor of Shalmaneser, and was Sennacherib's father and his reign was from B.C. 721 to 702, and he seems to have been a usurper. He was undoubtedly a great and successful warrior.

In his annals, which cover a space of fifteen years, from B.C. 721 to 706, he gives an account of his warlike expeditions against Babylonia and Susiana on the south, Media on the east, Armenia and Cappadocia toward the north, Syria, Palestine, Arabia and Egypt toward the west and southwest. In B.C. 712, he took Ashdod, by one of his generals, which is the event which causes the mention of his name in Scripture. It is not as a warrior only that Sargon deserves special mention among the Assyrian kings. He was also the builder of useful works, and of one of the most magnificent of the Assyrian palaces.

People's Dictionary of the Bible [5]

Sargon ( Sar'Gon ), Firm King. An Assyrian king, successor of Shalmaneser and father of Sennacherib. For centuries nothing was known of him only one fact,  Isaiah 20:1, that Ashdod was taken by his command. The exhumed ruins of the Khorsabad palace show him to have been a great warrior with able generals, the chief of whom was Tartan. He reigned from 722 to 705 b.c., and was murdered in the magnificent palace he had built.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [6]

 Isaiah 20:1-4 , one of the later Assyrian kings, who sent his general, Tartan, with an army against Ashdod, and took it. The northwest palace at Nimroud in the ruins of Nineveh was built by him. There is some doubt whether he is or is not to be identified with one of the kings elsewhere mentioned in Scripture; and some regard him as having reigned for about three years between Shalmaneser and Sennacherib. Others think he was the same as Shalmaneser, which see.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [7]

King of Assyria, successor of Shalmaneser 4, but called a usurper. His general, the Tartan, captured Ashdod.  Isaiah 20:1 . He reigned B.C. 722-705. Though his name appears in scripture only in the above passage, it is believed that he accomplished the taking of Samaria which was begun by Shalmaneser. See SAMARIA. He made various conquests and strengthened the kingdom of Assyria, and built some of the palaces.

Holman Bible Dictionary [8]

 Isaiah 20:1Israel

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [9]

sar´gon (722-705 BC): The name of this ruler is written סרגּון , ṣargōn , in the Old Testament, Shar - ukı̂n in the cuneiform inscriptions, Ἀρνά , Arná , in the Septuagint, and Arkeanos , in the Ptolemaic Canon. Sargon is mentioned but once by name in the Old Testament (  Isaiah 20:1 ), when he sent his Tartan ( turtannu ) against Ashdod, but he is referred to in  2 Kings 17:6 as "the king of Assyria" who carried Israel into captivity.

Shalmaneser 5 had laid siege to Samaria and besieged it three years. But shortly before or very soon after its capitulation, Sargon, perhaps being responsible for the king's death, overthrew the dynasty, and in his annals credited himself with the capture of the city and the deportation of its inhabitants. Whether he assumed the name of the famous ancient founder of the Accad dynasty is not known.

Sargon at the beginning of his reign was confronted with a serious situation in Babylon. Merodach - baladan of Kaldû , who paid tribute to previous rulers, on the change of dynasty had himself proclaimed king, New Year's Day, 721 BC. At Dur-ilu, Sargon fought with the forces of Merodachbalddan and his ally Khumbanigash of Elam, but although he claimed a victory the result was apparently indecisive. Rebellions followed in other parts of the kingdom.

In 720 Bc Ilu - bi'di (or Yau - bi'di ), king of Hamath, formed a coalition against Sargon with Hanno of Gaza, Sib'u of Egypt, and with the cities Arpad, Simirra, Damascus and Samaria. He claims that Sib'u fled, and that he captured and flayed Ilu-bi'di, burned Ḳarḳar , and carried Hanno captive to Assyria. After destroying Rapihu, he carried away 9,033 inhabitants to Assyria.

In the following year Ararat was invaded and the Hittite Carchemish fell before his armies. The territory of Rusas, king of Ararat, as well as a part of Melitene became Assyrian provinces.

In 710 Bc S argon directed his attention to Merodachbaladan, who no longer enjoyed the support of Elam, and whose rule over Babylon had not been popular with his subjects. He was driven out from Babylon and also from his former capital Bı̂t - Yakı̂n , and Sargon had himself crowned as the shakkanak of Babylon.

In 706 Bc the new city called Dûr - Sharrukı̂n was dedicated as his residence. A year later he was murdered. It was during his reign that the height of Assyrian ascendancy had been reached.

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [10]

Bibliography Information McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Sargon'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.

Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [11]

Sar´gon, king of Assyria [ASSYRIA]