Fausset's Bible Dictionary 
1. Gideon's youngest son; escaped when his 69 brothers were killed at Ophrah by their half brother Abimelech. Upon the latter being made king, Jotham from Mount Gerizim, which rises 800 ft. above the valley of Shechem on the S. side of the city, uttered against him and the Shechemites the parable or fable (the oldest extant) of the bramble and the trees. (See Fable .) The olive, fig, and vine, the most valuable products of Palestine, represent the nobler persons like Gideon, who bear fruit to God's glory and man's good, and wish no transference to kingly positions ("to float about restless and insecure", Nuwah , instead of being rooted in the soil: Judges 9:9). The bramble, good for nothing but to burn, represents Abimelech who can do nothing but harm. The bramble's hollow pretentiousness appears in his invitation, "trust in my shadow!" It could only scratch, not shelter from the heat. Easily catching fire, it can set on fire the noblest trees of Lebanon; the worthless can cause fatal hurt to the noblest ( Exodus 22:5). Jotham fled to Beer and dwelt there, out of Abimelech's way.
2. King Jotham, son of Uzziah or Azariah and Jerushah. He was regent during Uzziah's leprosy ( 2 Chronicles 26:21); at the age of 25 he succeeded him, and reigned for 16 years in Jerusalem (758-742 B.C.). A contemporary of Isaiah. He did right before the Lord; but did not remove the high places, for "the people did yet corruptly," sacrificing and burning incense still on them (2 Kings 15; 2 Chronicles 27), He built the higher gate of the house of Jehovah, i.e. the N. gate of the inner or upper court (see Ezekiel 8:3; Ezekiel 8:5; Ezekiel 8:14; Ezekiel 8:16; Ezekiel 9:2; Ezekiel 40:38-43), and built much at the wall of the Ophel (the S. slope of the temple mountain, a wall from which passed to the W. mountain, commonly called Zion), and cities on Judah's mountains, and castles in the forests to protect the herds, as Uzziah had done ( 2 Chronicles 26:10). (See Jerusalem .) He imposed on Ammon, after subduing them, a heavy tribute for three years.
3. 1 Chronicles 2:47.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary 
The book of Judges records the story of Jotham the son of Gideon. After Gideon’s death, another son, Abimelech, killed his brothers and, with the help of some worthless men from Shechem, established himself ‘king’. Jotham, who was the only one of Gideon’s sons to escape the massacre, told a parable to warn the Shechemites of the trouble they had brought upon themselves ( Judges 9:1-21). His forecast of doom came true when Abimelech’s ambition brought about his own death and the destruction of his supporters ( Judges 9:57).
About five hundred years later another man named Jotham appears in the Bible story. He was the son of King Uzziah, and helped his father rule Judah when Uzziah became a leper in his later years ( 2 Chronicles 26:21). After his father’s death (739 BC), Jotham maintained the policies of national development his father had introduced. Judah continued to enjoy prosperity ( 2 Chronicles 27:1-6; see also Uzziah ). Nevertheless, the greed and corruption of Uzziah’s reign continued through the reign of Jotham. The prophets Hosea, Isaiah and Micah denounced the social and religious evils of the self-satisfied people ( Isaiah 1:1; Hosea 1:1; Micah 1:1). (For details of social conditions in Judah during the reign of Jotham see Isaiah ; Micah .)
Easton's Bible Dictionary 
Bibliography Information Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Jotham'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/ebd/j/jotham.html. 1897.
Morrish Bible Dictionary 
1. Gideon'syoungest son who escaped the massacre by Abimelech. He boldly declared the parable 'The Reign of the Bramble' in the hearing of the men of Shechem. Judges 9:5-21,57 .
2. Son and successor of Uzziah, or Azariah, king of Judah: he reigned sixteen years: B.C. 758-742, besides ruling during the leprosy of his father. Jotham did that which was right in the sight of the Lord. He erected the high gate of the house of the Lord, and built much on Ophel; also in the mountains of Judah he built cities, castles, and towers. He conquered the Ammonites, and for three years they paid him tribute. He became mighty because he prepared his way before the Lord his God. 2 Kings 15:5-38; 2 Chronicles 27:1-9; Isaiah 1:1; Isaiah 7:1; Hosea 1:1; Micah 1:1 . Called JOATHAMin Matthew 1:9 .
3. Son of Jahdai, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chronicles 2:47 .
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary 
1. The youngest son of Gideon, who escaped the massacre of his brethren by Abimelech, and afterwards boldly and prophetically denounced the Shechemites in the beautiful parable of the bramble and the other trees. He escaped to Beer, and probably lived to see his threatenings fulfilled, Judges 9:1-57 . See Abimelech 3.
2. The son and successor of Uzziah, or Azariah, king of Judah, B. C. 758. He appears to have been for some years regent before the death of Uzziah his leprous father, but ascended the throne at the age of twenty-five years, and reigned sixteen years in the fear of God. The history of his wise and prosperous reign, and of his useful public works, is found in 2 Kings 15:5,32,38 2 Chronicles 26:21 27:9 .
People's Dictionary of the Bible 
Jotham ( Jô'Tham ), Jehovah Is Upright. 1. The youngest son br Gideon, Judges 9:5, who escaped from the massacre of his brethren. His parable of the reign of the bramble is the earliest example of the kind, Judges 9:7 to Judges 21:2. The son of king Uzziah or Azariah and Jerushah. After ruling the kingdom for some years during his father's leprosy, he succeeded to the throne b.c. 758, when he was 25 years old, and reigned 16 years in Jerusalem. He was contemporary with Pekah and with the prophet Isaiah. His history is contained in 2 Kings 15:1-38 and 2 Chronicles 27:1-9.
Smith's Bible Dictionary 
Jo'tham. (Jehovah Is Upright).
1. The youngest son of Gideon, Judges 9:5, who escaped from the massacre of his brethren. (B.C. after 1256). His parable of the reign of the bramble, is the earliest example of the kind.
2. The son of King Uzziah or Azariah and Jerushah. After administering the kingdom for some years, during his father's leprosy, he succeeded to the throne, B.C. 758, when he was 25 years old, and reigned 16 years in Jerusalem. He was contemporary with Pekah, and with the prophet, Isaiah. His history is contained in 2 Kings 15:1, and 2 Chronicles 27:1.
3. A descendant of Judah, son of Jahdai. 1 Chronicles 2:47.
Holman Bible Dictionary 
2. In 2 Kings 15:32 , the son and successor of Uzziah as king of Judah (750-732 B.C.). He was twenty-five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned for sixteen years. His mother's name was Jerusha. The sixteen-year period given for his reign may include the time that he acted as regent for his father Uzziah. Uzziah contracted leprosy during the final years of his reign and thus could not perform the functions required of royalty. Jotham evidently was an effective ruler. His reign was marked by building projects, material prosperity, and military successes. See Chronology.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible 
JOTHAM. 1. A king of Judah in the time of Isaiah. His father was afflicted with leprosy, and Jotham had some sort of regency before becoming sole ruler ( 2 Kings 15:5 ). We know nothing of him except that he rebuilt or ornamented one of the gates of the Temple ( 2 Kings 15:35 ), and that the hostilities which later culminated in the invasion of Judah began before his death ( 2 Kings 15:37-38 ).
2. A Calebite ( 1 Chronicles 2:47 ).
H. P. Smith.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament 
JOTHAM. —A king of Judah, named in our Lord’s genealogy ( Matthew 1:9).
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia 
jō´tham ( יותם , yōthām , "Yahweh is perfect"; Ἰωαθάμ , Iōathám ):
(1) The youngest son of Gideon-Jerubbaal, the sole survivor of the massacre of his seventy brothers by Abimelech ( Judges 9:5 ), and (by Judges 8:22 ) the legitimate ruler of Shechem after their death. Recognizing, however, that he is powerless to assert his claim, Jotham delivers from the summit of Gerizim his famous fable ( Judges 9:7-15 ), applies it to the situation in hand, and then flees for his life to Beer ( Judges 9:21 ). Nothing more is told of him, but the downfall of Abimelech is referred in part to his "curse" ( Judges 9:57 ). The fable tells of the kingship of the trees which, after having been declined by all useful plants, was finally offered to the bramble. The latter, inflated by its unexpected dignity, pompously offers its "shade' to its faithful subjects, while threatening all traitors with punishment (brambles carry forest fires), quite in the manner of an oriental monarch on assuming the throne. Having thus parodied the relationship of the worthless Abimelech to the Shechemites, Jotham ironically wishes both parties joy of their bargain, which will end in destruction for all concerned. Otherwise the connection between the fable and its application is loose, for, while the fable depicts the kingship as refused by all properly qualified persons, in the application the Shechemites are upbraided for their treachery and their murder of the rightful heirs. In fact, the fable taken by itself would seem rather to be a protest against kings as a class (compare 1 Samuel 8:10-18; 1 Samuel 12:19 , etc.); so it is possible that either the fable or its application has become expanded in transmission. Or an older fable may have been used for the sake of a single salient point, for nothing is more common than such an imperfect reapplication of fables, allegories and parables.
(2) Twelfth king of Judah, son of Uzziah and Jerusha, daughter of Zadok ( 2 Kings 15:32-38; 2 Chronicles 27:1-9 ).
1. Accession and Regency:
Jotham was 25 years of age at the time of his father's attack of leprosy, and was at once called upon to take the administration of the kingdom ( 2 Kings 15:5; 2 Chronicles 26:21 ). In doing this he not only judged the people of the land by presiding at the administration of justice, but also was over the household of the king, showing how complete was the isolation of his father. He was thus king in all but name, and is invariably spoken of as reigning in Jerusalem. His reign lasted for 16 years ( 2 Kings 15:33; 2 Chronicles 27:1 ), 759-744 (others put later). While the father loved husbandry and had much cattle ( 2 Chronicles 26:10 ) - external affairs with which he could occupy himself in his retirement - to the son fell the sterner duties and heavier responsibilities of the state.
2. The War with Ammon:
The relation between father and son is well brought out in the Chronicler's account of the Ammonite war. In 2 Chronicles 26:8 we are told that "the Ammonites gave tribute (the King James Version "gifts") to Uzziah," such gifts being compulsory, and of the nature of tribute. In 2 Chronicles 27:5 we are told that the actual conquest of Ammon was made by Jotham, and that for 3 successive years he compelled them to pay an annual subsidy of 100 talents of silver and 10,000 "cors" each of wheat and barley (the cor (Hebrew kōr ) was about 10 bushels). The campaign on the East of the Jordan was the only one in which Jotham took part, but as the state suffered no loss of territory during his regency, the external provinces must have been strongly held and well governed.
3. Jotham's Building Operations:
It is probable that before attempting to win any extension of territory, Jotham had spent some years in completing the unfinished building schemes in which his father was engaged at the time of his affliction. Like him, he became an enthusiastic builder ( 2 Chronicles 27:3 , 2 Chronicles 27:4 ). He is recorded to have built towers, castles and cities, and specifically to have completed the Ophel wall in Jerusalem, which is still standing to the South of the Haram area. But the crowning architectural glory of his reign was the completion of the temple court by erecting, or setting up, "the upper gate of the house of Yahweh" ( 2 Chronicles 27:3; 2 Kings 15:35 ). This particular gate was the entrance to, and exit from, the upper or new court of the temple, which had been begun so long ago as the time of Asa (compare the writer's Solomon's Temple , Part II, chapter viii). Its situation is perfectly known, as it bore the same name and place in the Herodian temple as in each of its predecessors. It stood facing the South, and was on higher ground than any other of the temple gates. Hence, its name. It gave entrance to that upper court of the temple, mentioned in Jeremiah 36:10 , where it is spoken of as "the new gate of Yahweh's house." As Jeremiah began his ministry about a century after Jotham's death, Jeremiah's use of the name commemorates the fact that the gate was not built till long after the other parts of the structure.
4. The Syrian League:
During Jotham's regency, a formidable combination of the Northern Kingdom and the Syrian state, with Damascus as capital, began to show signs of hostility to Judah. For 4 years before Jotham's death, Pekah occupied the throne of Samaria. The Assyrian king, Tiglath-pileser III, was then pushing his arms westward, and a Syrian league was formed to oppose them. Jotham may have refused to join this league. The political situation at his death is thus described: "In those days Yahweh began to send against Judah Rezin the king of Syria, and Pekah the son of Remaliah" ( 2 Kings 15:37 ).
5. Condition of Judah:
Jotham's character is represented in a moderately favorable light, it being put to his credit that he did not enter the temple ( 2 Chronicles 27:2 ). The wisdom and vigor of his administration, and of his policy for the defense of the country, are recognized. It was owing to his completion of his father's plans for the protection of Jerusalem, and of the building of country fortresses, that Hezekiah, a few years afterward, was able to show so stout a resistance to Sennacherib. But within the state itself corruption and oppression were rife. The great prophets, Isaiah, Hosea and Micah, exercised their ministries in Jotham's days, and in their pages we have graphic picture of the moral condition of the time. Isa does not name Jotham, except in the title ( Isaiah 1:1; compare Isaiah 7:1 ), but Isaiah 1 through 5 of his book were probably written in this reign. Hosea's writings go back to the last years of Jeroboam II, who died the year Jotham came to the throne. Micah's evidence is valuable, telling us that Omri had formulated and published rules for the cult of the Zidonian Baal, and that these "statutes" were kept by some of the citizens of Samaria, and, possibly, of Jerusalem ( Micah 6:16 ).
Jotham's name appears in the royal genealogical list of 1 Chronicles 3:12 , and in the genealogy of Jesus ( Matthew 1:9 ).
(3) A C alebite ( 1 Chronicles 2:47 the King James Version).
Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature 
(Heb. Yotham', יוֹתָ , Jehovah is Upright; Sept. and N. Test. Ι᾿Ωάθαμ , but Ι᾿Ωαθάμ in 1 Chronicles 2:47 Ι᾿Ωνάθαν v.r. Ι᾿Ωαθαν in 1 Chronicles 3:12; v.r. Ι᾿Ωθάμ in 1 Chronicles 5:17; v.r. Ι᾿Ωάθαν in 2 Chronicles 26:21; v.r. Ι᾿Ωνάθαν in 2 Chronicles 26:23; Josephus Ι᾿Ωάθαμος , Ant. 5, 7, 2; 9,11, 2 sq. Vulg. Joathan and Joatham; Auth. Vers. "Joatham," Matthew 1:9), the name of several men.
2. The youngest of Gideon's seventy legitimate sons, and the only one who escaped when the rest were massacred by the order of Abimelech ( Judges 9:5). B.C. 1322. When the fratricide was made King by the people of Shechem, the young Jotham was so daring as to make his appearance on Mount Gerizim for the purpose of lifting up a protesting voice, and of giving vent to his feelings (see Thomson, Land And Book, 2 , 210). This he did in a beautiful parable, wherein the trees are represented as making choice of a king, and bestowing on the bramble the honor which the cedar, the olive. and the vine would not accept. (See Fable). The obvious application, which, indeed, Jotham failed not himself to point out, must have been highly exasperating to Abimelech and his friends; but the speaker fled, as soon as he had delivered his parable, to the town of Beer and remained there out of his brother's reach ( Judges 9:7-21). We hear no more of him; but three years after, if then living, he saw the accomplishment of the malediction he had pronounced ( Judges 9:57);
3. A person named by Josephus ( Ι᾿Ωάθαμος , Ant. 8, 1, 3) as the son of Bukki and father of Meraioth, in the regular line of Phinehas's descendants, although he (incorrectly) states that these lived privately; he seems to refer to ZERAHIAH (See Zerahiah) (q.v.) of the scriptural list ( 1 Chronicles 6:5). (See High Priest).
4. The eleventh king of the separate kingdom of Judah, and son of Uzziah (by Jerusha, daughter of Zadok), whom he succeeded B.C. 756; he reigned sixteen years (comp. the synchronism in 1 Chronicles 5:17). His father having during his last years been excluded by leprosy from public life, the government was administered by his son, at that time twenty-five years of age ( 2 Chronicles 26:21; 2 Kings 15:33). B.C. 781. (See Uzziah).
For the chronological difficulties of his reign (see Crusius, De Oera Jothamica, Lips. 1756; Winer's Realw Ö Rterb. s.v.), (See Chronology).
Jotham profited by the experience which the reign of his father, and of the kings who preceded him, afforded, and he ruled in the fear of God, although he was unable to correct all the corrupt practices into which the people had fallen. His sincere intentions were rewarded with a prosperous reign. He was successful in his wars. The Ammonites, who had "given gifts" as a sort of tribute to Uzziah, but had ceased to do so after his leprosy had incapacitated him from governing, were constrained by Jotham, but not till several years after he had become settled as sole monarch, to pay, for the three remaining years of his reign, a heavy tribute in silver, wheat, and barley ( 2 Chronicles 26:8; 2 Chronicles 27:5-6). Many important public works were also undertaken and accomplished by Jotham. The principal gate of the Temple was rebuilt by him on a more magnificent scale; the quarter of Ophel, in Jerusalem, was strengthened by new fortifications; various towns were built or rebuilt in the mountains of Judah; and castles and towers of defense were erected in the wilderness. Jotham died greatly lamented by his people, and was buried in the sepulchre of the kings ( 2 Kings 15:38; 2 Chronicles 17:3; 2 Chronicles 17:9). B.C. 740. His reign was favored with the ministrations of the prophets Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah ( Isaiah 1:1; Isaiah 7:1; Hosea 1:1; Micah 1:1). (See Judah).
5. A high priest named by Josephus ( Ι᾿Ωάθσμος , Ant. 10, 8, 6) as son of Joel and father of Urijah in the regular incumbency; probably the AMARIAH (See Amariah) (q.v.) of 1 Chronicles 6:11). (See High Priest).
Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature 
Jo′tham, (God is upright), the youngest of Gideon's seventy legitimate sons; and the only one who escaped when the rest were massacred by the order of Abimelech. When the fratricide was made king by the people of Shechem, the young Jotham was so daring as to make his appearance on Mount Gerizim for the purpose of lifting up a protesting voice, and of giving vent to his feelings. This he did in a beautiful parable, wherein the trees are represented as making choice of a king, and bestowing on the bramble the honor which the cedar, the olive, and the vine would not accept. The obvious application, which indeed Jotham failed not himself to point out, must have been highly exasperating to Abimelech and his friends; but the speaker fled, as soon as he had delivered his parable, to the town of Beer, and remained there out of his brother's reach. We hear no more of him; but three years after, if then living, he saw the accomplishment of the malediction he had pronounced .
Jotham, tenth king of Judah, and son of Uzziah, whom he succeeded in B.C. 758, at the age of twenty-five: he reigned sixteen years. His father having during his last years been excluded by leprosy from public life [UZZIAH], the government was administered by his son. Jotham profited by the experience which the reign of his father, and of the kings who preceded him, of forded, and he ruled in the fear of God, although he was unable to correct all the corrupt practices into which the people had fallen. His sincere intentions were rewarded with a prosperous reign. He was successful in his wars. The Ammonites, who had 'given gifts' as a sort of tribute to Uzziah, but had ceased to do so after his leprosy had incapacitated him from governing, were constrained by Jotham to pay for three years a heavy tribute in silver, wheat, and barley . Many important public works were also undertaken and accomplished by Jotham. The principal gate of the temple was rebuilt by him on a more magnificent scale; the quarter of Ophel, in Jerusalem, was strengthened by new fortifications; various towns were built or rebuilt in the mountains of Judah; and castles and towers of defense were erected in the wilderness. Jotham died greatly lamented by his people, and was buried in the sepulcher of the kings .
- Jotham from Fausset's Bible Dictionary
- Jotham from Bridgeway Bible Dictionary
- Jotham from Easton's Bible Dictionary
- Jotham from Morrish Bible Dictionary
- Jotham from American Tract Society Bible Dictionary
- Jotham from People's Dictionary of the Bible
- Jotham from Smith's Bible Dictionary
- Jotham from Holman Bible Dictionary
- Jotham from Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible
- Jotham from Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament
- Jotham from International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
- Jotham from Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature
- Jotham from Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature