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Fausset's Bible Dictionary [1]

(Huram in Chronicles usually, except  1 Chronicles 14:1, in the Ketibh , the original Hebrew text).

1. King of Tyre. Sent carpenters, masons, and cedars to David to build his palace ( 2 Samuel 5:11). Eupolemon (see Polyhistor, Fragm. Hist. Greek, 3 fr. 18), apparently on the authority of Dius and Menunder of Ephesus in file time of Alexander the Great, states, "David reduced the Syrians near the Euphrates, and Commagene, the Assy. finns, and Phoenicians in Gilead, Edom, Ammon, Moab, Ituraeans, and Nabathaeans; and made an expedition against Suron (Huram?) king of Tyre and Phoenicia, and compelled them all to pay tribute to the Jews." This confirms 2 Samuel 8; 9, and adds particulars drawn probably from Phoenician or other non-Israelite sources. Hiram was "ever a lover of David" ( 1 Kings 5:1;  1 Kings 5:10-12). So he made a "league" with his son Solomon ( Beriyt , "a covenant," recognizing Jehovah, and guaranteeing to Jewish sojourners at Tyre religious liberty).

The mention that "there was peace between Hiram and Solomon" may hint at there having been once war between Hiram and David, before Hiram became "a lover of David." Hiram gave Solomon for the temple cedars and firs, and gold, six score talents, according to all his desire, and Solomon in return gave Hiram 20,000 measures of wheat and 26 measures of pure oil yearly; the mercantile coast cities being dependent on the grain and olive abounding region of Palestine ( Acts 12:20 end). Solomon also gave Hiram 20 cities in Galilee, which did not satisfy him, and which therefore he called Cabul. (See Cabul .) ( 1 Kings 9:11-14;  1 Kings 9:27-32).

Tyre is threatened with punishment for delivering the Jewish captives to Edom, and not remembering "the brotherly covenant," namely, between Hiram and David and Solomon. Hiram sent also in the navy expert shipmen to Ophir from Ezion-Geber, with Solomon's servants; and a navy. (See Ophir .) With Solomon's navy of Tharshish ( 1 Kings 10:22) to share in the Mediterranean trade. Dius assigns to Hiram a 34 years' reign, and names Abibal as his father, Baleazar as his son and successor. Josephus (Ant. 8:2, section 8) States that the correspondence between Hiram and Solomon was kept in his day among the Tyrian archives.

2. King Hiram sent to Solomon an overseer of workmen skilled in working gold, silver, brass, iron, stone, wood, purple, linen, etc. Bezaleel, similarly ( Exodus 31:25), but by supernatural endowment, combined weaving with metallurgy. He cast the two great brass pillars of the temple, and made the lavers, shovels and basins ( 1 Kings 7:13-14-40). He is called "my father," i.e. a title of honour, counselor, master workman ( Genesis 45:8). "Son of a widow of Naphtali," but in  2 Chronicles 2:13-14, of one "of the daughters of Dan," i.e. she was by birth a Danite, and married into Naphtali. When her husband died she married again, as widow of a Naphtalite, a Tyrian to whom she bore Hiram Blunt (Undesigned Coincidences) makes her of the colony Dan or Laish in Naphtali, bordering on Sidoninn or Tyrian territory.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [2]

HIRAM. 1. King of Tyre, son and successor of Abihaal. When David was firmly established on his throne, Hiram, we are told, sent messengers to him, and, in order to show his goodwill, gave David materials for building his palace, sending at the same time workmen to assist in the building (  2 Samuel 5:11 ,   1 Chronicles 14:1 . This first mention of Hiram is somewhat abrupt, and leads to the supposition that there must have been some earlier intercourse between him and David, the details of which have not come down to us. A real friendship, however, undoubtedly existed between the two (  1 Kings 5:1 ), and this was extended to Solomon after the death of David. A regular alliance was made when Solomon came to the throne, Hiram supplying men and materials for the building of the house of the Lord, while Solomon, in return, sent corn and oil to Hiram. Another sign of friendliness was their joint enterprise in sending ships to Ophir to procure gold (  1 Kings 9:26-28; 1Ki 10:11 ,   2 Chronicles 8:17-18;   2 Chronicles 9:10;   2 Chronicles 9:21 ). A curious episode is recounted in   1 Kings 9:10;   1 Kings 9:14 , according to which Solomon gave Hiram ‘twenty cities in the land of Galilee.’ Hiram was dissatisfied with the gift, though he gave Solomon ‘sixscore talents of gold.’ In the parallel account (  2 Chronicles 8:1-2 ) it is Hiram who gives cities (the number is not specified) to Solomon.

There is altogether considerable confusion in the Biblical references to Hiram, as a study of the passages in question shows. When these are compared with extra-Biblical information which we possess in the writings of early historians, discrepancies are emphasized. While, therefore, the friendly intercourse between Hiram and Solomon (as well as with David) is unquestionably historical, it is not always possible to say the same of the details.

2. The name of an artificer from Tyre ‘filled with wisdom and understanding and cunning, to work all works in brass’ (see   1 Kings 7:18-47 ); he is also spoken of as ‘skilful to work in gold, and in silver, in brass, in iron, in stone, and in timber, in purple, in blue, and in fine linen, and in crimson …’ (  2 Chronicles 2:14 ). There is a discrepancy regarding his parentage: in   1 Kings 7:14 he is said to have been the son of a widow of the tribe of Naphtali, and his father a man of Tyre: according to   2 Chronicles 2:14 his mother belonged to the tribe of Dan, though here, too, his father was a Tyrian.

The form of the name is usually Hiram in the Books of Samuel and Kings, but the Chronicler adheres uniformly to the form Huram, while we find also Hirom in   1 Kings 5:10;   1 Kings 5:18;   1 Kings 7:40 .

W. O. E. Oesterley.

Holman Bible Dictionary [3]

Hiram was the son of Abibaal (“my father is Baal”) and was nineteen years old when he succeeded his father as king of Tyre on the Phoenician coast, just north of Israel. He reigned some thirty-four years and is said to have died at age fifty-four, although the biblical references to him seem to necessitate a longer reign.

When he became king, he began to improve and to expand his kingdom. He raised banks at the eastern part of Tyre which enlarged the city, and he built a causeway to connect the city with the island temple of Jupiter Olympius in the harbor, after which he modernized the temple.

When David became king of Israel, Hiram sent congratulatory gifts to him, including men and materials to build a palace ( 2 Samuel 5:11 ). The friendship between the men grew and was evidenced by the commerce which developed between their two nations. The close relationship continued into Solomon's reign, and the two men made an agreement which resulted in the construction of the Temple in Jerusalem ( 1 Kings 5:1-12 ).

This relationship between Israel and Tyre was mutually beneficial. Jerusalem was inland and had the advantages of the overland trade routes. Tyre, as a major seaport, offered the advantages of sea trade. Hiram controlled the maritime trade during this time and was himself a respected world trader. His friendship with David and Solomon undoubtedly explains, at least in part, the prosperity and success of their reigns. See David; Phoenicia; Solomon; Tyre .

2. Craftsman who did artistic metal work for Solomon's Temple ( 1 Kings 7:13-45 ). He lived in Tyre, his father's home town but had a widowed Jewish mother from the tribe of Naphtali.

Hugh Tobias

Morrish Bible Dictionary [4]

1. King of Tyre, who loved David and was a friend of Solomon. By his servants he supplied both timber and stone for the temple and the palaces of Solomon. Their navies also united to bring the produce of other lands. Solomon gave to Hiram twenty cities in the land of Galilee, but Hiram was not pleased with them: he called them, in Aramaic CABUL,'displeasing or dirty;' and the cities were eventually returned to Solomon.  2 Samuel 5:11;  1 Kings 5:1-18;  1 Kings 9:11-27;  1 Kings 10:11,22;  1 Chronicles 14:1 , etc. He is called Huram in  2 Chronicles 2:3-12;  2 Chronicles 8:2,18;  2 Chronicles 9:10,21 .

2. A skilful workman of Tyre, filled with wisdom and understanding, who was sent to make things for the temple. His father was a man of Tyre, and he is called "the son of a woman of the daughters of Dan" in  2 Chronicles 2:14; but in  1 Kings 7:14 it reads "a widow's son of the tribe of Naphtali," which may mean that her husband was a man of Naphtali.   1 Kings 7:13,40,45 . He is called HURAMin  2 Chronicles 2:13;  2 Chronicles 4:11,16 .

Smith's Bible Dictionary [5]

Hi'ram. (Noble). Hiram or Huram

1. The king of Tyre, who sent workmen and materials to Jerusalem, first,  2 Samuel 5:11;  1 Chronicles 14:1, to build a palace for David, (B.C. 1064), whom he ever loved,  1 Kings 5:1, and again,  1 Kings 5:10;  1 Kings 7:13;  2 Chronicles 2:16, to build the Temple for Solomon, with whom he had a treaty of peace and commerce,  1 Kings 5:11-12.

He admitted Solomon's ships issuing from Joppa, to a share in the profitable trade of the Mediterranean,  1 Kings 10:22, and the Jewish sailors, under the guidance of Tyrians, were taught to bring the gold of India,  1 Kings 9:26, to Solomon's two harbors on the Red Sea.

2. Hiram was the name of a man of mixed race,  1 Kings 7:13;  1 Kings 7:40, the principal architect and engineer, sent by King Hiram to Solomon. See Huram .

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary [6]

As king of Tyre in Lebanon, Hiram (or Huram) had always enjoyed good relations with the Israelite kings to the south. He helped David to build a palace ( 2 Samuel 5:11) and later helped Solomon in his extensive building projects. He provided Solomon with huge amounts of materials and many skilled workmen in return for great quantities of farm produce (1 Kings 5). He lent Solomon money, in payment of which Solomon offered to give him a large section of Israel’s northern territory (which bordered Lebanon) ( 1 Kings 9:10-14). The two kings also formed a trade alliance and became partners in a profitable shipping operation ( 1 Kings 9:26-28;  1 Kings 10:22). (For further details of Hiram’s relations with Israel see Solomon .)

Another man named Hiram (or Huram) also features in the biblical record of this period. He was a highly skilled craftsman, also from Lebanon, whom Hiram the king sent to Jerusalem to do the bronze work and other decorations for Solomon’s temple ( 1 Kings 7:13-14;  1 Kings 7:40-46;  2 Chronicles 2:7;  2 Chronicles 2:13-14).

People's Dictionary of the Bible [7]

Hiram ( Hî'Ram ), Noble. 1. A distinguished king of Tyre. He was contemporary with, David and Solomon, and on terms of political and personal friendship with them, under his reign the city of Tyre became celebrated for its wealth and magnificence, and the vast supplies he furnished to the kings of Israel show the greatness of his resources. He aided David with materials for a palace,  2 Samuel 5:11;  1 Chronicles 14:1, and Solomon in the construction of the temple,  1 Kings 5:1-12;  1 Kings 9:11-14, furnishing workmen as well as materials. He also allowed Solomon to send ships with the Tyrian ships Under Tyrian management.  1 Kings 9:26-28;  1 Kings 10:11-28. 2. An eminent artificer of Tyre who was employed by Solomon on some of the most difficult of the fixtures and furniture of the temple.  1 Kings 7:13.

Easton's Bible Dictionary [8]

  • The "master workman" whom Hiram sent to Solomon. He was the son of a widow of Dan, and of a Tyrian father. In  2 Chronicles 2:13 "Huram my father" should be Huram Abi, the word "Abi" (rendered here "my father") being regarded as a proper name, or it may perhaps be a title of distinction given to Huram, and equivalent to "master." (Compare   1 Kings 7:14;  2 Chronicles 4:16 .) He cast the magnificent brazen works for Solomon's temple in clay-beds in the valley of Jordan, between Succoth and Zarthan.

    Copyright Statement These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., DD Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain.

    Bibliography Information Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Hiram'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/ebd/h/hiram.html. 1897.

  • Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [9]

    king of Tyre, and son of Abibal, is mentioned by profane authors as distinguished for his magnificence, and for adorning the city of Tyre. When David was acknowledged king by all Israel, Hiram sent ambassadors with artificers, and cedar, to build his palace. Hiram also sent ambassadors to Solomon, to congratulate him on his accession to the crown. Solomon desired of him timber and stones for building the temple, with labourers. These Hiram promised, provided Solomon would furnish him with corn and oil. The two princes lived on the best terms with each other.

    Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [10]

    King of Tyre. A name rendered memorable from his friendship with Solomon. His name, according to the Hebrew phraseology, Huram, signifies a lifting up. (See  1 Kings 5:1)

    International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [11]

    hı̄´ram ( חירם , ḥı̄rām  ; Septuagint Χιράμ , Chirám , but Χειράμ , Cheirám , in  2 Samuel 5:11;  1 Chronicles 14:1 ): There is some confusion regarding the form of this name. In the books of Samuel and Kings the prevailing form is "Hiram" (חירם , ḥı̄rām ); but in  1 Kings 5:10 ,  1 Kings 5:18 margin (Hebrew 24, 32);   1 Kings 7:40 margin "Hirom" ( חירום , ḥı̄rōm ) is found. In Chronicles the form of the word is uniformly "Huram" (חוּרם , ḥūrām ).

    (1) A king of Tyre who lived on most friendly terms with both David and Solomon. After David had taken the stronghold of Zion, Hiram sent messengers and workmen and materials to build a palace for him at Jerusalem ( 2 Samuel 5:11;  1 Chronicles 14:1 ). Solomon, on his accession to the throne, made a league with Hiram, in consequence of which Hiram furnished the new king of Israel with skilled workmen and with cedar trees and fir trees and algum trees from Lebanon for the building of the Temple. In return Solomon gave annually to Hiram large quantities of wheat and oil ( 1 Kings 5:1 (Hebrew 15) ff;   2 Chronicles 2:3 (Hebrew 2) ff). "At the end of twenty years, wherein Solomon had built the two houses, the house of Yahweh and the king's house," Solomon made a present to Hiram of twenty cities in the land of Galilee. Hiram was not at all pleased with these cities and contemptuously called them "Cabul." His displeasure, however, with this gift does not seem to have disturbed the amicable relations that had hitherto existed between the two kings, for subsequently Hiram sent to the king of Israel 120 talents of gold (  1 Kings 9:10-14 ). Hiram and Solomon maintained merchant vessels on the Mediterranean and shared mutually in a profitable trade with foreign ports ( 1 Kings 10:22 ). Hiram's servants, "shipmen that had knowledge of the sea," taught the sailors of Solomon the route from Ezion-geber and Eloth to Ophir, whence large stores of gold were brought to King Solomon ( 1 Kings 9:26;  2 Chronicles 8:17 f).

    Josephus ( Apion , I, 17,18) informs us, on the authority of the historians Dius and Menander, that Hiram was the son of Abibal, that he had a prosperous reign of 34 years, and died at the age of 53. He tells us on the same authority that Hiram and Solomon sent problems to each other to solve; that Hiram could not solve those sent him by Solomon, whereupon he paid to Solomon a large sum of money, as had at first been agreed upon. Finally, Abdemon, a man of Tyre, did solve the problems, and proposed others which Solomon was unable to explain; consequently Solomon was obliged to pay back to Hiram a vast sum of money. Josephus further states ( Ant. , VIII, ii, 8) that the correspondence carried on between Solomon and Hiram in regard to the building of the Temple was preserved, not only in the records of the Jews, but also in the public records of Tyre. It is also related by Phoenician historians that Hiram gave his daughter to Solomon in marriage.

    (2) The name of a skillful worker in brass and other substances, whom Solomon secured from Hiram king of Tyre to do work on the Temple. His father was a brass-worker of Tyre, and his mother was a woman of the tribe of Naphtali ( 1 Kings 7:14 ), "a woman of the daughters of Dan" ( 2 Chronicles 2:14 (Hebrew 13);   1 Kings 7:13;  2 Chronicles 2:13 f (Hebrew 12, 13)).

    Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [12]

    Hiram, 1

    Hi´ram, King of Tyre, at the commencement of David's reign. He sent an embassy to felicitate David on his accession, which led to an alliance, or strengthened a previous friendship between them. It seems that the dominion of this prince extended over the western slopes of Lebanon; and when David built himself a palace, Hiram materially assisted the work by sending cedar-wood from Lebanon, and able workmen to Jerusalem B.C. 1055.

    Hiram, 2

    Hiram, King of Tyre, son of Abibaal, and grandson of the Hiram who was contemporary with David, in the last years of whose reign he ascended the throne of Tyre. Following his grandfather's example, he sent to Jerusalem an embassy of condolence and congratulation when David died and Solomon succeeded, and contracted with the new king a more intimate alliance than ever before or after existed between a Hebrew king and a foreign prince. The alliance seems to have been very substantially beneficial to both parties, and without it Solomon would scarcely have been able to realize all the great designs he had in view. In consideration of large quantities of corn, wine, and oil, furnished by Solomon, the king of Tyre agreed to supply from Lebanon the timber required for the temple, to float it along the coast, and deliver it at Joppa, which was the port of Jerusalem (, sq.; 9:10, sq.; , sq.). The vast commerce of Tyre made gold very plentiful there; and Hiram supplied no less than 500 talents to Solomon for the ornamental works of the temple, and received in return twenty towns in Galilee; which, when he came to inspect them, pleased him so little, that he applied to them a name of contempt, and restored them to the Jewish king [CABUL]. It does not, however, appear that the good understanding between the two kings was broken by this unpleasant circumstance; for it was after this that Hiram suggested, or at least took part in, Solomon's traffic to the Eastern seas—which certainly could not have been undertaken by the Hebrew king without his assistance in providing ships and experienced mariners (; , etc.;; , etc.), B.C. 1007 [[[Ophir; Solomon; Phoenicia]]]

    Hiram, 3

    Hiram, or Huram, son of a widow of the tribe of Dan and of a Tyrian father. He was sent by the king of the same name to execute the principal works of the interior of the temple, and the various utensils required for the sacred services. It is probable that he was selected for this purpose by the king from among others equally gifted, in the notion that his half Hebrew blood would render him the more acceptable at Jerusalem.

    Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [13]

    Bibliography Information McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Hiram'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/tce/h/hiram.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.