From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types [1]

The horn is used as a symbol of power, strength, honor and grandeur. Sometimes it is a good power, and sometimes an evil power. Sometimes it refers to the strength of a nation, other times to the ruler of a nation. Sometimes it refers to a position of elegance and popularity with pride. Only a few cases will be listed to illustrate these truths.

 Deuteronomy 33:17 (a) Type of the strength and the power of the two tribes of Joseph.

 1 Samuel 2:1 (a) Type of the feelings of victory of Hannah because she was a new mother.

 2 Samuel 22:3 (a) Type of GOD as the power who placed David as King over Israel.

 1 Kings 22:11 (b) Type of the power of the King of Israel in conquering Syria.

 Job 16:15 (b) Type of the humbling experience of Job when he lost his all.  Psalm 18:2 (a) Type of the power of GOD which gave David his position.  Psalm 22:21 (a) GOD's power is compared to or contrasted with the power of the unicorn which perhaps was the rhinoceros.

 Psalm 75:4 (a) Type of the proud rich who wished to exalt their own strength and whom GOD would humble. (See  Psalm 75:10).

 Psalm 89:17 (b) Type of the blessing of GOD because of which the power and excellency of Israel will one day be exalted. (See  Psalm 89:24;  Psalm 92:10;  Psalm 112:9;  Psalm 132:17).

 Psalm 118:27 (c) Probably this means that GOD will bind us to our decisions when we consecrate our lives to Him.

 Lamentations 2:3,  Lamentations 2:17 (b) This is a type of the power of GOD to reduce the strength of Israel and to increase the power of the enemy.

 Jeremiah 48:25 (b) This is a picture of the power of Moab both for offense and defense, which GOD took from them and made them weak.

 Ezekiel 29:21 (b) This is a type in prophecy of the restoration of Israel as a world power.

 Ezekiel 34:21 (b) A figure of the power of the leaders of Israel who were persecuting the poor.

 Daniel 7:7 (b) Here and throughout this book horns are a sign of both men and nations in their power to rule or misrule. The little horns represent kings or generals, or men who rise up out of obscurity and are not well known. The big horns represent mighty kings who become world rulers, such as Alexander the Great.

 Daniel 8:3 (a) These two horns represent the two kings as are mentioned.

 Daniel 8:8 (b) This figure describes a prominent and well-known ruler.

 Amos 6:13 (b) A type of the great power which the people claimed they had created by their own wits and wisdom.

 Micah 4:13 (b) By this type GOD indicates that He will make Israel again a great and strong nation.

 Habakkuk 3:4 The word here is a mistranslation, and it should read "bright beams." It probably indicates that there is power in the light of GOD and in His wonderful hands of strength.

 Zechariah 1:18 (a) Here we see four Gentile powers which persecuted and scattered Israel.

 Luke 1:69 (a) This is a type of the Lord Jesus by whom and through whom sinners are saved from the wrath to come.

 Revelation 5:6 (a) These represent the seven-fold aspect of the Holy Spirit in His power as the seven eyes represent the seven aspects of the Spirit's knowledge.

 Revelation 12:3 (a) The figure represents Satan and his mighty power in controlling men.

 Revelation 13:1 (a) This type represents Satan's antichrist who will have power over the nations.

 Revelation 13:11 (a) The type in this case represents the false prophet. Because there are two horns we understand that he has power to exalt the Devil, and also to curse men.

 Revelation 17:3,  Revelation 17:12 (a) These are the evil powers of the world as represented in the ten kings.

Webster's Dictionary [2]

(1): ( n.) A hard, projecting, and usually pointed organ, growing upon the heads of certain animals, esp. of the ruminants, as cattle, goats, and the like. The hollow horns of the Ox family consist externally of true horn, and are never shed.

(2): ( n.) An incurved, tapering and pointed appendage found in the flowers of the milkweed (Asclepias).

(3): ( n.) The tough, fibrous material of which true horns are composed, being, in the Ox family, chiefly albuminous, with some phosphate of lime; also, any similar substance, as that which forms the hoof crust of horses, sheep, and cattle; as, a spoon of horn.

(4): ( n.) An emblem of a cuckold; - used chiefly in the plural.

(5): ( n.) Something made of a horn, or in resemblance of a horn

(6): ( n.) A wind instrument of music; originally, one made of a horn (of an ox or a ram); now applied to various elaborately wrought instruments of brass or other metal, resembling a horn in shape.

(7): ( n.) A drinking cup, or beaker, as having been originally made of the horns of cattle.

(8): ( n.) The cornucopia, or horn of plenty.

(9): ( n.) A symbol of strength, power, glory, exaltation, or pride.

(10): ( n.) The outer end of a crosstree; also, one of the projections forming the jaws of a gaff, boom, etc.

(11): ( n.) A curved projection on the fore part of a plane.

(12): ( n.) One of the projections at the four corners of the Jewish altar of burnt offering.

(13): ( n.) One of the curved ends of a crescent; esp., an extremity or cusp of the moon when crescent-shaped.

(14): ( n.) The curving extremity of the wing of an army or of a squadron drawn up in a crescentlike form.

(15): ( v. t.) To cause to wear horns; to cuckold.

(16): ( v. t.) To furnish with horns; to give the shape of a horn to.

(17): ( n.) The Ionic volute.

(18): ( n.) The high pommel of a saddle; also, either of the projections on a lady's saddle for supporting the leg.

(19): ( n.) Any natural projection or excrescence from an animal, resembling or thought to resemble a horn in substance or form; esp.: (a) A projection from the beak of a bird, as in the hornbill. (b) A tuft of feathers on the head of a bird, as in the horned owl. (c) A hornlike projection from the head or thorax of an insect, or the head of a reptile, or fish. (d) A sharp spine in front of the fins of a fish, as in the horned pout.

(20): ( n.) The antler of a deer, which is of bone throughout, and annually shed and renewed.

(21): ( n.) A vessel made of a horn; esp., one designed for containing powder; anciently, a small vessel for carrying liquids.

(22): ( n.) The pointed beak of an anvil.

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [3]

Qeren . Trumpets were perhaps at first merely horns perforated at the tip. In  Joshua 6:4-5, instead of "trumpets of rams' horns," translated "Jubilee trumpets." Rams' horns would scarcely have been effective enough. Hajobeel, from jabal "to stream violently with noise," is the name for a long wind instrument like a horn. Used for summoning to war, or for public proclamations ( Judges 3:27;  Judges 7:18). The horn was also used for a flask to contain oil ( 1 Samuel 16:1); also to contain stibium or antimony to beautify the eyelashes and eyelids of women; from whence Job's daughter drew her name Keren-happuch, "horn of stibium," in contrast to Job's "horn defiled in the dust" formerly ( Job 16:15).

The "horn" being the instrument of the oxen's strength is the symbol of power ( 1 Kings 22:11). The "horns of the (See Altar " were simply projections from the four corners. The peak of a hill is called a horn.  Isaiah 5:1, "a very fruitful hill" Hebrew "a horn of the son of oil," as the Swiss Shreckhorn, Wetterhorn, Celtic cairn. In  Habakkuk 3:4, "He had horns coming out of His hand" means, He had the emblems of power wielded by His hand (L. de Dieu), or else rays" (i.e. lightnings):  Psalms 18:8 (Maurer). So  Exodus 34:29-30;  Exodus 34:35, Qaaran , "to horn," is used in the sense to emit rays. Livingstone mentions a horn-shaped cap as worn by Africans; married Druse women wear silver horns on their heads.

The ram with two horns ( Daniel 8:3) represents the Medo-Persian double power. The "notable horn" of the "he goat" ( Daniel 8:5) is Alexander the Great who on coins is represented with horns. The four horns in  Zechariah 1:18 represent the four ruling powers of the world, to be superseded finally by Messiah's kingdom: Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome. (On "the little horn" of the third and of the fourth world powers ( Daniel 7:8;  Daniel 8:9). (See Antichrist .) On Egyptian and Roman coins, and in Assyrian sculptures, are figures of gods with horns, symbolical of power. "A horn of salvation" means mighty instrument of salvation ( Luke 1:69).

Holman Bible Dictionary [4]

Old Testament The basic meaning of horns relate to animal horns ( Genesis 22:13;  Deuteronomy 33:17;  Daniel 8:5 ). Elephant tusks were also called horns ( Ezekiel 27:15 ). Horns are mentioned being used as trumpets ( Joshua 6:5 ). Such instruments were perforated horns of the ram or the wild ox used to sound ceremonial or military signals. Priests sounded trumpets to call to worship. Trumpets later were made of silver. See Music. Horns also were used as vessels. Being hollow and easy to polish, horns were used to hold liquids for drinking or storage, including ceremonial anointing oil ( 1 Samuel 16:1 ). Horn-like projections were built onto the corners of the altar of burnt offerings in the Temple and in tabernacles ( Exodus 27:2 ). The horns were smeared with the blood of the sacrifice, served as binding posts for the sacrifice, and were clung to for safety from punishment ( 1 Kings 2:28 ).

As a topographical feature, the peaks or summits of Palestinian hills were called horns ( Isaiah 51:1 ). Metaphorically, horn signified the strength and honor of people and brightness and rays. Such references are used in Scripture as emblems of power of God ( Hebrews 3:4 ) and other physical or spiritual entities. There is an apocalyptic use of the word in  Daniel 7:7 . Horns budding or sprouting is a figurative language indication of a sign of revival of a nation or power.

New Testament Christ is called “an horn of salvation” ( Luke 1:69 ), which is a methaphorical use of the word signifying strength. Other figurative uses include the Lamb with seven horns mentioned in the Book of Revelation ( Revelation 5:6 ); the beast with ten horns rising up out of the sea ( Revelation 13:1 ); and the scarlet beast of the great prostitute also having ten horns ( Revelation 17:3 ,Revelation 17:3, 17:7 ). Those references represent antichristian powers.

J. William Thompson

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary [5]

Since wild animals used their horns to defend themselves or attack their enemies, Israelites often spoke of the horn as a symbol of power ( Deuteronomy 33:17;  1 Kings 22:11;  Psalms 18:2;  Psalms 22:21;  Psalms 75:5;  Psalms 75:10;  Psalms 92:10;  Zechariah 1:21;  Luke 1:69;  Revelation 5:6). Sometimes horns were symbolic of powerful rulers ( Daniel 7:7;  Daniel 7:24;  Daniel 8:20;  Revelation 17:3;  Revelation 17:12).

People used certain kinds of horns as musical instruments, particularly on ceremonial occasions ( 2 Samuel 6:15). In times of battle, the blowing of horns, like the blowing of trumpets or bugles, was a means of making declarations or sending signals ( Joshua 6:4;  Joshua 6:13;  Judges 7:18;  1 Corinthians 14:8). Other horns were made into containers for the oil used in the ceremonial anointing of kings and priests ( 1 Samuel 16:13;  1 Kings 1:39).

Ornamental horns projected from the four corners of the altars of the tabernacle. The priests applied the blood of certain sacrifices to these horns as part of the ritual for the cleansing of sin ( Exodus 27:2;  Exodus 29:12;  Exodus 30:1-2;  Exodus 30:10). Israelite law did not permit the widespread ancient practice of clinging to the horns of the altar to escape punishment for murder ( Exodus 21:14;  1 Kings 1:51;  1 Kings 2:29).

Easton's Bible Dictionary [6]

 Joshua 6:4,5

Flasks or vessels were made of horn ( 1 Samuel 16:1,13;  1 Kings 1:39 ).

But the word is used also metaphorically to denote the projecting corners of the altar of burnt offerings ( Exodus 27:2 ) and of incense (30:2). The horns of the altar of burnt offerings were to be smeared with the blood of the slain bullock (29:12;  Leviticus 4:7-18 ). The criminal, when his crime was accidental, found an asylum by laying hold of the horns of the altar ( 1 Kings 1:50;  2:28 ).

The word also denotes the peak or summit of a hill ( Isaiah 5:1 , where the word "hill" is the rendering of the same Hebrew word).

This word is used metaphorically also for strength ( Deuteronomy 33:17 ) and honour ( Job 16:15;  Lamentations 2:3 ). Horns are emblems of power, dominion, glory, and fierceness, as they are the chief means of attack and defence with the animals endowed with them ( Daniel 8:5,9;  1 Samuel 2:1;  16:1,13;  1 Kings 1:39;  22:11;  Joshua 6:4,5;  Psalm 75:5,10;  132:17;  Luke 1:69 , etc.). The expression "horn of salvation," applied to Christ, means a salvation of strength, or a strong Saviour ( Luke 1:69 ). To have the horn "exalted" denotes prosperity and triumph ( Psalm 89:17,24 ). To "lift up" the horn is to act proudly ( Zechariah 1:21 ).

Horns are also the symbol of royal dignity and power ( Jeremiah 48:25;  Zechariah 1:18;  Daniel 8:24 ).

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [7]

HORN. —The expression ‘a horn of salvation’ in the song of Zacharias ( Luke 1:69) is undoubtedly a reference to the promised Messiah. A similar combination of words is found in  Psalms 18:2, but the conception is more probably due to  Psalms 132:17,  1 Samuel 2:10.

1 . In the OT the word ‘horn’ is figuratively used in poetical and allegorical language: ( a ) for abstract notions of strength ( Numbers 23:22,  Psalms 89:17-24), and hence of dignity ( Psalms 112:9) or pride ( Psalms 75:4 ff.); also, ( b ) in a concrete sense, to represent kings and empires ( Daniel 7:24;  Daniel 8:20 f.,  Zechariah 1:18 ff.). The rendering ‘a mighty salvation,’  Luke 1:69 (Pr. Bk. [Note: Bk. Prayer Book.] ), paraphrases the sense but obliterates the associations. Hor. Od . iii. 21, 18 is quoted as an instance of the metaphor in ordinary literature, in which it is rare.

2 . Inasmuch as the horn in animals is a weapon of attack rather than of defence, some have regarded it as a symbol of aggressive strength (see Delitzsch, Perowne, etc., on  Psalms 18:2): possibly combative strength, in which both ideas are included, would be a better definition. There are two classes of symbols expressive of such strength: ( a ) natural weapons ( e.g. horn, right hand, arm, etc.), and ( b ) artificial weapons (arrows, axe, shield, etc.). When any distinction is to be made, the former class tends to represent that strength which is personal, inherent, immediate; the latter, to represent that strength in which second causes, instruments, agents appear ( Isaiah 10:5;  Isaiah 10:15).

F. S. Ranken.

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [8]

By horns the Hebrews sometimes understood an eminence, or angle, a corner, or a rising. By horns of the altar of burnt offerings, many understand the angles of that altar; but there were also horns, or eminences, at the corners of that altar,  Exodus 27:2;  Exodus 30:2 . Horn also signifies glory, brightness, rays. God's "brightness was as the light, he had horns coming out of his hand,"  Habakkuk 3:4; that is refulgent beams issuing from the hollow of it. As the ancients frequently used horns to hold liquors, vessels containing oil and perfumes are often called horns, whether made of horn or not. "Fill thine horn with oil," says the Lord to Samuel, "and anoint David,"  1 Samuel 16:1 . Zadok took a horn of oil out of the tabernacle, and anointed Solomon,  1 Kings 1:39 . Job called one of his daughters Kerenhappuch, horn of antimony, or horn to put antimony ( stibium ) in, which the women of the east still use at this day, Job 43:14. The principal defence and strength of horned beasts consist in their horns; and hence the Scripture mentions the horn as a symbol of strength. The Lord exalted the horn of David, the horn of his people; he breaketh the horn of the ungodly; he cutteth off the horn of Moab; he cutteth off the horn of Israel; he promiseth to make the horn of Israel to bud forth; to reestablish the honour of it, and restore its former vigour. Moses compares Joseph to a young bull, and says that he has horns like those of a unicorn. Kingdoms and great powers are often in Scripture described by the symbol of horns. In Daniel 7, 8, horns represent the power of the Persians, of the Greeks, of Syria, of Egypt, or of Pagan and Papal Rome. The prophet represents three animals as having many horns, one of which grew from the other. This emblem is a natural one, since in the east are rams which have many horns.

Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [9]

Horn, Horns

This word in Scripture doth not seem to be very generally understood. Certainly it is more than once spoken of in reference to the Lord Jesus Christ. Thus Jehovah saith, "I will make the horn of David to flourish," meaning Christ. (See  Psalms 132:17) And Zacharias celebrates Christ to the same amount in his song, when saying, "the Lord hath raised up an horn for salvation for us, in the house of his servant David." ( Luke 1:69) But when it is said, that the Lord "will cut off the horns of the wicked, and the horns of the righteous shall be exalted," ( Psalms 75:10) here it appears, that the expression is in allusion to somewhat of a man's own, and not simply with an eye to Christ. Perhaps the word may be considered as referring in general to strength. Thus the son of "Chenaanah made him horns of iron, and said, with these shalt thou push the Syrians." ( 1 Kings 22:11) And, indeed, the prophet describes the Lord as having "horns coming out of his hand, when before him went the pestilence." ( Habakkuk 3:4) Hence also we read of the horns of the altar. ( Jeremiah 17:1;  Revelation 9:13) But whether these had reference to any thing ornamental, or to objects more important, when "the sacrifice was bound with cords even to the horns of the altar," I cannot determine. ( Psalms 118:27)

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [10]

HORN (Heb. qeren , Gr. keras ). Sometimes horns were wrought into vessels in which oil was stored (  1 Kings 1:39 ) or carried (  1 Samuel 16:1 ). Probably with some dainty ornamentation, they were used to hold eye-paint (  Job 42:14 , Keren-happuch ). Of rams’ horns a kind of trumpet was made   Joshua 6:4 ); see Music, 4 (2) ( e ). ‘Horns’ in poetry symbolized strength (  Deuteronomy 33:17 etc.). ‘Horn’ in   Psalms 18:2 =   2 Samuel 22:3 stands for offensive weapons, as ‘shield’ for defensive (Perowne). To ‘exalt one’s born,’ or ‘cause it to bad’ (grow), is to strengthen and prosper him (  1 Samuel 2:1 ,   Ezekiel 29:21 etc.). For one to ‘lift his horn’ is to be arrogant (  Psalms 75:4-5 ). To crush or weaken one is to ‘break or cut off his born’ (  Jeremiah 48:25 ,   Lamentations 2:3 ). In prophetic symbolism borns stand for kings and military powers (  Daniel 7:8;   Daniel 8:21 etc.). The altar borns (  Exodus 27:2 ), to which fugitives seeking asylum clung (  1 Kings 1:50 etc.), were projections at the four corners, and apparently peculiarly sacred (  Exodus 30:10 etc.); but their significance and use are now unknown.

W. Ewing.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [11]

1: Κέρας (Strong'S #2768 — Noun Neuter — keras — ker'-as )

"a horn," is used in the plural, as the symbol of strength, (a) in the apocalyptic visions; (1) on the head of the Lamb as symbolic of Christ,  Revelation 5:6; (2) on the heads of beasts as symbolic of national potentates,  Revelation 12:3;  13:1,11;  17:3,7,12,16 (cp.   Daniel 7:8;  8:9;  Zechariah 1:18 , etc.); (3) at the corners of the golden altar,  Revelation 9:13 (cp.   Exodus 30:2; the horns were of one piece with the altar, as in the case of the brazen altar,  Exodus 27:2 , and were emblematic of the efficacy of the ministry connected with it); (b) metaphorically, in the singular, "a horn of salvation,"  Luke 1:69 (a frequent metaphor in the OT, e.g.,   Psalm 18:2; cp.  1—Samuel 2:10;  Lamentations 2:3 ).

King James Dictionary [12]

HORN, n. L. cornu

1. A hard substance growing on the heads of certain animals, and particularly on cloven-footed quadrupeds usually projecting to some length and terminating in a point. Horns are generally bent or curving, and those of some animals are spiral. They serve for weapons of offense and defense. The substance of horns is gelatinous, and in Papin's digester it may be converted into jelly.

Horn is an animal substance, chiefly membranous, consisting of coagulated albumen, with a little gelatin and phosphate of lime.

The horns of deer possess exactly the properties of bone,and are composed of the same constituents, only the proportion of cartilage is greater.

2. A wind instrument of music, made of horn a trumpet. Such were used by the Israelites. 3. In modern times, a wind instrument made of metal. 4. An extremity of the moon, when it is waxing or waning, and forming a crescent. 5. The feeler or antenna of an insect. 6. The feeler of a snail, which may be withdrawn hence, to pull or draw in the horns, is to repress one's ardor, or to restrain pride. 7. A drinking cup horns being used anciently for cups. 8. A winding stream. 9. Horns, in the plural, is used to characterize a cuckold. He wears the horns. 10. In Scripture, horn is a symbol of strength or power.

The horn of Moab is cut off.  Jeremiah 48

Horn is also an emblem of glory, honor, dignity.

My horn is exalted in the Lord.  1 Samuel 2

In Daniel, horn represents a kingdom or state.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [13]

Of animals were used as drinking vessels, and to hold ointments, perfumes, etc.,  1 Samuel 16:1   1 Kings 1:39 . The "horns of the altar" were its four corners and elevation on them,  Exodus 27:2   30:2 . See Altar .

The principal defense and ornament of many beasts are in their horns; and hence the horn is often a symbol of strength, honor, and dominion. The Lord exalted the horn of David, and of his people; he breaketh the horn of salvation, and of defiling the horn in the dust,  Deuteronomy 33:17   1 Samuel 2:1,10   Job 16:15   Psalm 75:10   Daniel 7:20-24   Luke 1:69 . There may be an allusion in these passages to a very common part of the female dress in some parts of the East. The married women among the Druses of mount Lebanon still wear on their heads silver horns, as in the accompanying cut; the other head is that of an Abyssinian chief.

Smith's Bible Dictionary [14]

Horn. The word "horn" is often Used Metaphorically To Signify Strength And Honor, because horns are the chief weapons and ornaments of the animals which possess them; hence, they are also used as a type of victory. Of Strength , the horn of the unicorn was the most frequent representative,  Deuteronomy 33:17; etc., but not always; compare  1 Kings 22:11 where probably horns of iron, worn defiantly and symbolically on the head, are intended.

Among the Druses, upon Mount Lebanon, the married women wear silver horns on their heads. In the sense of Honor , the word horn stands for the Abstract "my horn,"  Job 16:16, "all the horn of Israel,"  1 Samuel 2:3, and so for the supreme authority. It also stands for the Concrete , whence, it comes to mean king, kingdom.  Daniel 8:2 etc.;  Zechariah 1:18. Out of either or both of these last two metaphors, sprang the idea of representing gods with horns.

People's Dictionary of the Bible [15]

Horn. The word "horn" is often used to signify power and honor. Of Strength, the horn of the unicorn, R. V. "wild ox," was the most frequent representative.  Deuteronomy 33:17, etc., but not always; comp.  1 Kings 22:11, where probably horns of iron, worn defiantly and symbolically on the head, are intended. Among the Druses upon Mount Lebanon the married women wear silver horns on their heads. In the sense of Honor , as "my horn,"  Job 16:15; "all the horn of Israel,"  Lamentations 2:3—and hence for the supreme authority. It also stands for honor or power, whence it comes to mean king, kingdom.  Daniel 8:3, etc.;  Zechariah 1:18. It was also a symbol of victory.  1 Kings 22:11;  Revelation 5:6.

Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [16]

Horn, from its primary use for defense in the case of horned animals, came to acquire several derivative meanings, some of which are connected with the illustration and right understanding of holy writ. As horns are hollow and easily polished, they have in ancient and modern times been used for drinking-vessels and for military purposes; and as they are the chief source of strength for attack and defense with the animals to which God has given them, they serve in Scripture as emblems of power, dominion, glory, and fierceness (;;;;;;;;;;; ). Hence to defile the horn in the dust , is to lower and degrade oneself, and, on the contrary, to lift up, to exalt the horn (;; ), is poetically to raise oneself to eminent honor or prosperity, to bear oneself proudly. In the East, at present, horns are used as an ornament for the head, and as a token of eminent rank. The women among the Druses on Mount Lebanon wear on their heads silver horns of native make, 'which are the distinguishing badge of wifehood.'

Horn Head Dresses

By an easy transition, horn came to denote an elevation or hill in Switzerland mountains still bear this name, thus, Schreckhorn, Buchhorn. The altar of burnt-offerings and the altar of incense , had each at the four corners four horns of shittim-wood, the first being overlaid with brass, the second with gold . Upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offerings was to be smeared with the finger the blood of the slain bullock (;;;;; ). By laying hold of these horns of the altar of burnt-offering the criminal found an asylum and safety . These horns are said to have served as a means for binding the animal destined for sacrifice but this use Winer denies, asserting that they did not and could not answer for such a purpose.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [17]

hôrn (Hebrew and Aramaic קרן , ḳeren  ; κέρας , kéras  ; for the "ram's horn" ( יובל , yōbhēl ) of   Joshua 6 see Music , and for the "inkhorn" of  Ezekiel 9:1-11 ( קסת , ḳeṣeth ) see separate article):

(1) Ḳeren and keras represent the English "horn" exactly, whether on the animal (  Genesis 22:13 ), or used for musical purposes ( Joshua 6:5;  1 Chronicles 25:5 ), or for containing a liquid ( 1 Samuel 16:1 ,  1 Samuel 16:13;  1 Kings 1:39 ), but in  Ezekiel 27:15 the horns of ivory are of course tusks and the "horns" of ebony are small (pointed?) logs. Consequently most of the usages require no explanation.

(2) Both the altar of burnt offering ( Exodus 27:2;  Exodus 38:2; compare  Ezekiel 43:15 ) and the incense altar ( Exodus 30:2;  Exodus 37:25 ,  Exodus 37:26; compare  Revelation 9:13 ) had "horns," which are explained to be projections "of one piece with" the wooden framework and covered with the brass (or gold) that covered the altar. They formed the most sacred part of the altar and were anointed with the blood of the most solemn sacrifices (only) ( Exodus 30:10;  Leviticus 4:7 ,  Leviticus 4:18 ,  Leviticus 4:25 ,  Leviticus 4:30 ,  Leviticus 4:34;  Leviticus 16:18; compare  Ezekiel 43:20 ), and according to  Leviticus 8:15;  Leviticus 9:9 , the first official sacrifices began by anointing them. Consequently cutting off the horns effectually desecrated the altar ( Amos 3:14 ), while "sin graven on them" ( Jeremiah 17:1 ) took all efficacy from the sacrifice. On the other hand they offered the highest sanctuary ( 1 Kings 1:50 ,  1 Kings 1:51;  1 Kings 2:28 ). Of their symbolism nothing whatever is said, and the eventual origin is quite obscure. "Remnants of a bull-cult" and "miniature sacred towers" have been suggested, but are wholly uncertain. A more likely origin is from an old custom of draping the altar with skins of sacrificed animals ( RS , 436). That, however, the "horns" were mere conveniences for binding the sacrificial animals ( Psalm 118:27 , a custom referred to nowhere else in the Old Testament), is most unlikely. See Altar .

(3) The common figurative use of "horn" is taken from the image of battling animals (literal use in   Daniel 8:7 , etc.) to denote aggressive strength. So Zedekiah ben Chenaanah illustrates the predicted defeat of the enemies by pushing with iron horns ( 1 Kings 22:11;  2 Chronicles 18:10 ), while "horns of the wildox" ( Deuteronomy 33:17;  Psalm 22:21;  Psalm 92:10 , the King James Version "unicorn") represent the magnitude of power, and in  Zechariah 1:18-21 "horns" stand for power in general. In   Habakkuk 3:4 the "horns coming out of his hand" denote the potency of Yahweh's gesture (the Revised Version (British and American) "rays" may be smoother, but is weak). So to "exalt the horn" (  1 Samuel 2:1 ,  1 Samuel 2:10;  Psalm 75:4 , etc.) is to clothe with strength, and to "cut off the horn" (not to be explained by  Amos 3:14 ) is to rob of power ( Psalm 75:10;  Jeremiah 48:25 ). Hence, the "horn of salvation" in  2 Samuel 22:3;  Psalm 18:2;  Luke 1:69 is a means of active defense and not a place of sanctuary as in   1 Kings 1:50 . When, in Dan 7:7-24;  Daniel 8:3 ,  Daniel 8:8 ,  Daniel 8:9 ,  Daniel 8:20 ,  Daniel 8:21;  Revelation 13:1;  Revelation 17:3 ,  Revelation 17:7 ,  Revelation 17:12 ,  Revelation 17:16 , many horns are given to the same animal, they figure successive nations or rulers. But the seven horns in  Revelation 5:6;  Revelation 12:3 denote the completeness of the malevolent or righteous power. In   Revelation 13:11 , however, the two horns point only to the external imitation of the harmless lamb, the "horns" being mere stubs.

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [18]

Bibliography Information McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Horn'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/tce/h/horn.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.