From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words [1]

A. Verbs.

Kâbed ( כָּבַד , Strong'S #3513), “to honor.” This verb occurs about 114 times and in all periods of biblical Hebrew. Its cognates appear in the same languages as those of the noun kâbod One occurrence of kâbed is in Deut. 5:16: “Honor thy father and thy mother, as the Lord thy God hath commanded thee.…”

Hâdar ( הָדַר , 1921), “to honor, prefer, exalt oneself, behave arrogantly.” This verb, which appears 8 times in biblical Hebrew, has cognates only in Aramaic although some scholars suggest cognates in Egyptian and Syriac. The word means “to honor” or “to prefer” in Exod. 23:3: “Neither shalt thou countenance a poor man in his cause.” In Prov. 25:6 |hadarmeans “to exalt oneself” or “to behave arrogantly.”

B. Nouns.

Kâbôd ( כָּבֹד , Strong'S #3519), “honor; glory; great quantity; multitude; wealth; reputation [majesty]; splendor.” Cognates of this word appear in Ugaritic, Phoenician, Arabic, Ethiopic, and Akkadian. It appears about 200 times in biblical Hebrew and in all periods. Kâbôd refers to the great physical weight or “quantity” of a thing. In Nah. 2:9 one should read: “For there is no limit to the treasure—a great quantity of every kind of desirable object.” Isa. 22:24 likens Eliakim to a peg firmly anchored in a wall upon which is hung “all the [weighty things] of his father’s house.” This meaning is required in Hos. 9:11, where kâbôd represents a great crowd of people or “multitude”: “As for Ephraim, their [multitude] shall fly away.…” The word does not mean simply “heavy,” but a heavy or imposing quantity of things.

Kâbôd often refers to both “wealth” and significant and positive “reputation” (in a concrete sense). Laban’s sons complained that “Jacob hath taken away all that was our father’s; and of that which was our father’s hath he gotten all this [wealth]” (Gen. 31:1— the first biblical occurrence). The second emphasis appears in Gen. 45:13, where Joseph told his brothers to report to his “father … all my [majesty] in Egypt.” Here this word includes a report of his position and the assurance that if the family came to Egypt, Joseph would be able to provide for them. Trees, forests, and wooded hills have an imposing quality, a richness or “splendor.” God will punish the king of Assyria by destroying most of the trees in his forests, “and shall consume the glory of his forest, … and the rest of the trees of his forest shall be few, that a child may write them” (Isa. 10:18-19). In Ps. 85:9 the idea of richness or abundance predominates: “Surely his salvation is nigh them that fear him; that glory [or abundance] may dwell in our land.” This idea is repeated in Ps. 85:12: “Yea, the Lord shall give that which is good; and our land shall yield her increase.”

Kâbôd can also have an abstract emphasis of “glory,” imposing presence or position. Phinehas’ wife named their son Ichabod, “saying, The glory is departed from Israel: because the ark of God was taken, and because of her father-inlaw and her husband” (they, the high priests, had died; 1 Sam. 4:21). In Isa. 17:3 kâbôd represents the more concrete idea of a fullness of things including fortified cities, sovereignty (self-rule), and people. Among such qualities is “honor,” or respect and position. In Isa. 5:13 this idea of “honor” is represented by kâbôd  : “… And their [my people’s] honorable men are famished, and their multitude dried up with thirst.” Thus the word kâbôd and its parallel (the multitude) represent all the people of Israel: the upper classes and the common people. In many passages the word represents a future rather than a present reality: “In that day shall the branch of the Lord be beautiful and glorious …” (Isa. 4:2).

When used in the sense of “honor” or “importance” (cf. Gen. 45:13) there are two nuances of the word. First, kâbôd can emphasize the position of an individual within the sphere in which he lives (Prov. 11:16). This “honor” can be lost through wrong actions or attitudes (Prov. 26:1, 8) and evidenced in proper actions (Prov. 20:3; 25:2). This emphasis then is on a relationship between personalities. Second, there is a suggestion of nobility in many uses of the word, such as “honor” that belongs to a royal family (1 Kings 3:13). Thus, kâbôd can be used of the social distinction and position of respect enjoyed by nobility.

When applied to God, the word represents a quality corresponding to Him and by which He is recognized. Joshua commanded Achan to give glory to God, to recognize His importance, worth, and significance (Josh. 7:19). In this and similar instances “giving honor” refers to doing something; what Achan was to do was to tell the truth. In other passages giving honor to God is a cultic recognition and confession of God as God (Ps. 29:1). Some have suggested that such passages celebrate the sovereignty of God over nature wherein the celebrant sees His “glory” and confesses it in worship. In other places the word is said to point to God’s sovereignty over history and specifically to a future manifestation of that “glory” (Isa. 40:5). Still other passages relate the manifestation of divine “glory” to past demonstrations of His sovereignty over history and peoples (Exod. 16:7; 24:16).

Hâdâr ( הָדָר , Strong'S #1926), “honor; splendor.” Cognates of this word appear only in Aramaic. Its 31 appearances in the Bible are exclusively in poetic passages and in all periods.

First, hâdâr refers to “splendor” in nature: “And ye shall take you on the first day the boughs of goodly trees [literally, trees of splendor or beauty] …” (Lev. 23:40—the first occurrence).

Second, this word is a counterpart to Hebrew words for “glory” and “dignity.” Thus hâdâr means not so much overwhelming beauty as a combination of physical attractiveness and social position. The Messiah is said to have “no form nor [majesty]; and when we shall see him, there is no beauty that we should desire him” (Isa. 53:2). Mankind is crowned with “glory and honor” in the sense of superior desirability (for God) and rank (Ps. 8:5). In Prov. 20:29 hâdâr focuses on the same idea—an aged man’s mark of rank and privilege is his gray hair. This reflects the theme present throughout the Bible that long life is a mark of divine blessing and results (often) when one is faithful to God, whereas premature death is a result of divine judgment. The ideas of glorious brilliance, preeminence, and lordship are included in hâdâr when it is applied to God: “Glory and honor are in his presence; strength and gladness are in his place” (1 Chron. 16:27). Not only are these characteristics of His sanctuary (Ps. 96:6) but He is clothed with them (Ps. 104:1). This use of hâdâr is rooted in the ancient concept of a king or of a royal city. God gave David all good things: a crown of gold on his head, long life, and glory or “splendor” and majesty (Ps. 21:3- 5). In the case of earthly kings their beauty or brilliance usually arises from their surroundings. So God says of Tyre: “They of Persia and of Lud and of Phut were in thine army, thy men of war: they hanged the shield and helmet in thee; they set forth thy comeliness [honor]. The men of Arvad with thine army were upon thy walls round about, and the Gammadim were in thy towers: they hanged their shields upon thy walls round about; they have made thy beauty perfect” (Ezek. 27:10-11). God, however, manifests the characteristic of “honor or splendor” in Himself.

The noun hâdârah means “majesty; splendor; exaltation; adornment.” This noun appears 5 times in the Bible. The word implies “majesty or exaltation” in Prov. 14:28: “In a multitude of people is the glory of a King, but without people a prince is ruined” (RSV). Hâdârah refers to “adornment” in Ps. 29:2.

C. Adjective.

Kâbêd ( כָּבֵד , Strong'S #3515), “heavy; numerous; severe; rich.” The adjective kâbêd occurs about 40 times. Basically this adjective connotes “heavy.” In Exod. 17:12 the word is used of physical weight: “But Moses’ hands were heavy; and they took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat thereon; and Aaron and Hur stayed up his hands.…” This adjective bears the connotation of heaviness as an enduring, ever-present quality, a lasting thing. Used in a negative but extended sense, the word depicts sin as a yoke ever pressing down upon one: “For mine iniquities are gone over mine head: as a heavy burden they are too heavy for me” (Ps. 38:4). A task can be described as “heavy” (Exod. 18:18). Moses argued his inability to lead God’s people out of Egypt because he was “slow of speech, and of a slow tongue”; his speech or tongue was not smooth-flowing but halting (heavy; Exod. 4:10). This use of kâbêd appears with an explanation in Ezek. 3:6, where God is describing the people to whom Ezekiel is to minister: “… not to many people of a strange speech and of a hard language, whose words thou canst not understand.” Another nuance of this word appears in Exod. 7:14, where it is applied to Pharaoh’s heart: “Pharaoh’s heart is hardened, he refuseth to let the people go.” In all such contexts kâbêd —depicts a burden which weighs down one’s body (or some part of it) so that one is either disabled or unable to function successfully.

A second series of passages uses this word of something that falls upon or overcomes one. So God sent upon Egypt a “heavy” hail (Exod. 9:18), a “great” swarm of insects (8:24), “numerous” locusts, and a “severe” pestilence (9:3). The first appearance of the word belongs to this category: “… The famine was [severe] in the land” of Egypt (Gen. 12:10).

Used with a positive connotation, kâbêd can describe the amount of “riches” one has: “And Abram was very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold” (Gen. 13:2). In Gen. 50:9 the word is used to modify a group of people, “a very great company.” The next verse uses kâbêd in the sense of “imposing” or “ponderous”: “… They mourned with a great and very sore lamentation.…”

This adjective is never used of God.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [2]

A — 1: Τιμή (Strong'S #5092 — Noun Feminine — time — tee-may' )

primarily "a valuing," hence, objectively, (a) "a price paid or received," e.g.,  Matthew 27:6,9;  Acts 4:34;  5:2,3;  7:16 , RV, "price" (AV, "sum");  Acts 19:19;  1—Corinthians 6:20;  7:23; (b) of "the preciousness of Christ" unto believers,  1—Peter 2:7 , RV, i.e., the honor and inestimable value of Christ as appropriated by believers, who are joined, as living stones, to Him the cornerstone; (c) in the sense of value, of human ordinances, valueless against the indulgence of the flesh, or, perhaps of no value in attempts at asceticism,  Colossians 2:23 (see extended note under Indulgence , No. 2); (d) "honor, esteem," (1) used in ascriptions of worship to God,  1—Timothy 1:17;  6:16;  Revelation 4:9,11;  5:13;  7:12; to Christ,  Revelation 5:12,13; (2) bestowed upon Christ by the Father,  Hebrews 2:9;  2—Peter 1:17; (3) bestowed upon man,  Hebrews 2:7; (4) bestowed upon Aaronic priests,  Hebrews 5:4; (5) to be the reward hereafter of "the proof of faith" on the part of tried saints,  1—Peter 1:7 , RV; (6) used of the believer who as a vessel is "meet for the Master's use,"  2—Timothy 2:21; (7) to be the reward of patience in well-doing,  Romans 2:7 , and of working good (a perfect life to which man cannot attain, so as to be justified before God thereby),  Romans 2:10; (8) to be given to all to whom it is due,  Romans 13:7 (see   1—Peter 2:17 , under B, No. 1); (9) as an advantage to be given by believers one to another instead of claiming it for self,  Romans 12:10; (10) to be given to elders that rule well ("double honor"),  1—Timothy 5:17 (here the meaning may be an honorarium); (11) to be given by servants to their master,   1—Timothy 6:1; (12) to be given to wives by husbands,  1—Peter 3:7; (13) said of the husband's use of the wife, in contrast to the exercise of the passion of lust,  1—Thessalonians 4:4 (some regard the "vessel" here as the believer's body); (14) of that bestowed upon; parts of the body,   1—Corinthians 12:23,24; (15) of that which belongs to the builder of a house in contrast to the house itself,  Hebrews 3:3; (16) of that which is not enjoyed by a prophet in his own country,  John 4:44; (17) of that bestowed by the inhabitants of Melita upon Paul and his fellow-passengers, in gratitude for his benefits of healing,  Acts 28:10; (18) of the festive honor to be possessed by nations, and brought into the Holy City, the heavenly Jerusalem,  Revelation 21:26 (in some mss., ver. 24); (19) of honor bestowed upon things inanimate, a potters' vessel,   Romans 9:21;  2—Timothy 2:20 . See Preciousness , Price , Sum , Value.


A — 2: Δόξα (Strong'S #1391 — Noun Feminine — doxa — dox'-ah )

"glory," is translated "honor" in the AV of  John 5:41,44 (twice); 8:54:   2—Corinthians 6:8;  Revelation 19:7; the RV keeps to the word "glory," as the AV everywhere else. See Glory.

B — 1: Τιμάω (Strong'S #5091 — Verb — timao — tim-ah'-o )

"to honor" (akin to A, No. 1), is used of (a) valuing Christ at a price,  Matthew 27:9 , cp. A, No. 1, (a); (b) "honoring" a person: (1) the "honor" done by Christ to the Father,  John 8:49; (2) "honor" bestowed by the Father upon him who serves Christ,  John 12:26; (3) the duty of all to "honor" the Son equally with the Father,  John 5:23; (4) the duty of children to "honor" their parents,  Matthew 15:4;  19:19;  Mark 7:10;  10:19;  Luke 18:20;  Ephesians 6:2; (5) the duty of Christians to "honor" the king, and all men,  1—Peter 2:17; (6) the respect and material assistance to be given to widows "that are widows indeed,"  1—Timothy 5:3; (7) the "honor" done to Paul and his companions by the inhabitants of Melita,  Acts 28:10; (8) mere lip profession of "honor" to God,  Matthew 15:8;  Mark 7:6 .

B — 2: Δοξάζω (Strong'S #1392 — Verb — doxazo — dox-ad'-zo )

"to glorify" (from doxa, A, No. 2), is rendered "honor" and "honoreth" in the AV of  John 8:54; in  1—Corinthians 12:26 , however, in reference to the members of the body, both AV and RV have "honored" (RV marg., "glorified"). Everywhere else it is translated by some form of the verb "to glorify," "have glory," or "be made glorious," except in  Romans 11:13 , "magnify," AV. See Glorify.

King James Dictionary [3]

HON'OR, n. on'or. L. honor, honos.

1. The esteem due or paid to worth high estimation.

A prophet is not without honor, except in his own country.  Matthew 13

2. A testimony of esteem any expression of respect or of high estimation by words or actions as the honors of war military honors funeral honors honors. 3. Dignity exalted rank or place distinction.

I have given thee riches and honor.  1 Kings 3 .

Thou art clothed with honor and majesty.  Psalms 104 .

In doing a good thing, there is both honor and pleasure.

4. Reverence veneration or any act by which reverence and submission are expressed,as worship paid to the Supreme Being. 5. Reputation good name as, his honor is unsullied. 6. True nobleness of mind magnanimity dignified respect for character, springing from probity, principle or moral rectitude a distinguishing trait in the character of good men. 7. An assumed appearance of nobleness scorn of meanness, springing from the fear of reproach, without regard to principle as, shall I violate my trust? Forbid it, honor. 8. Any particular virtue much valued as bravery in men, and chastity in females. 9. Dignity of mien noble appearance.

Godlike erect, with native honor clad.

10. That which honors he or that which confers dignity as,the chancellor is an honor to his profession. 11. Privileges of rank or birth in the plural.

Restore me to my honors.

12. Civilities paid.

Then here a slave, or if you will, a lord,

To do the honors,and to give the word.

13. That which adorns ornament decoration.

The sire then shook the honors of his head.

14. A noble kind of seignory or lordship, held of the king in capite.

On or upon my honor, words accompanying a declaration which pledge one's honor or reputation for the truth of it. The members of the house of lords in Great Britain are not under oath, but give their opinions on their honor.

Laws of honor, among persons of fashion, signify certain rules by which their social intercourse is regulated,and which are founded on a regard to reputation. These laws require a punctilious attention to decorum in external deportment, but admit of the foulest violations of moral duty.

Court of honor, a court of chivalry a court of and criminal jurisdiction, having power to redress injuries of honor, and to hold pleas respecting matters of arms and deeds of war.

HON'OR, on'or. L. honoro.

1. To revere to respect to treat with deference and submission, and perform relative duties to.

Honor thy father and thy mother.  Exodus 20

2. To reverence to manifest the highest veneration for, in words and actions to entertain the most exalted thoughts of to worship to adore.

That all men should honor the Son, even as they honor the Father.  John 5 .

3. To dignify to raise to distinction or notice to elevate in rank or station to exalt. Men are sometimes honored with titles and offices, which they do not merit.

Thus shall it be done to the man whom the king delighteth to honor.  Esther 6

4. To glorify to render illustrious.

I will be honored upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host.  Exodus 14

5. To treat with due civility and respect in the ordinary intercourse of life. The troops honored the governor with a salute. 6. In commerce, to accept and pay when due as, to honor a bill of exchange.

Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology [4]

Social term describing how people within a society evaluate one another. Most occurrences of honor in the Old Testament are translations of some form of kabod [כָּבֹוד], while in the New Testament they are derivatives of timao [Τιμάω]. These terms are generally used with reference to the honor granted fellow human beings, though in some cases they are used to describe the honor a person grants God.

The root of kabod [כָּבֹוד] literally means heavy or weighty. The figurative meaning, however, is far more common: "to give weight to someone." To honor someone, then, is to give weight or to grant a person a position of respect and even authority in one's life. A person grants honor most frequently on the basis of position, status, or wealth, but it can and should also be granted on the basis of character.

While honor is an internal attitude of respect, courtesy, and reverence, it should be accompanied by appropriate attention or even obedience. Honor without such action is incomplete; it is lip service ( Isaiah 29:13 ). God the Father, for example, is honored when people do the things that please him ( 1 Corinthians 6:20 ). Parents are honored through the obedience of their children.

The source of all honor is God on the basis of his position as sovereign Creator and of his character as a loving Father. God the Father has bestowed honor on his Son, Jesus Christ ( John 5:23 ). He bestowed honor on humanity by creating man a little lower than the angels ( Psalm 8:5-6 ). He has also created spheres of authority within human government, the church, and the home. The positions of authority in those spheres are to receive honor implicitly.

The granting of honor to others is an essential experience in the believer's life. Christians are to bestow honor on those for whom honor is due. The believer is to honor God, for he is the sovereign head of the universe and his character is unsurpassed. The believer is to honor those in positions of earthly authority, such as governing authorities ( Romans 13:1-7 ), masters ( 1 Timothy 6:1 ), and parents ( Exodus 20:12 ). As a participant in the church, the believer is also called to honor Jesus Christ, the head of the church ( John 5:23 ), fellow believers ( Romans 12:10 ), and widows ( 1 Timothy 5:3 ).

While the reception of honor is a positive experience, it is not to be sought ( Luke 14:7-8 ). When honor comes from others by reason of position or status, it is not to be taken for granted. The recipients should seek to merit honor through godly character. Honor can be lost through disobedience or disrepute, though in exceptional cases, dishonor is a mark of discipleship ( 2 Corinthians 6:8 ).

Sam Hamstra, Jr.

Webster's Dictionary [5]

(1): ( n.) To dignify; to raise to distinction or notice; to bestow honor upon; to elevate in rank or station; to ennoble; to exalt; to glorify; hence, to do something to honor; to treat in a complimentary manner or with civility.

(2): ( n.) A seigniory or lordship held of the king, on which other lordships and manors depended.

(3): ( n.) To accept and pay when due; as, to honora bill of exchange.

(4): ( n.) Esteem due or paid to worth; high estimation; respect; consideration; reverence; veneration; manifestation of respect or reverence.

(5): ( n.) To regard or treat with honor, esteem, or respect; to revere; to treat with deference and submission; when used of the Supreme Being, to reverence; to adore; to worship.

(6): ( n.) The ace, king, queen, and jack of trumps. The ten and nine are sometimes called Dutch honors.

(7): ( n.) Academic or university prizes or distinctions; as, honors in classics.

(8): ( n.) That which rightfully attracts esteem, respect, or consideration; self-respect; dignity; courage; fidelity; especially, excellence of character; high moral worth; virtue; nobleness; specif., in men, integrity; uprightness; trustworthness; in women, purity; chastity.

(9): ( n.) A title applied to the holders of certain honorable civil offices, or to persons of rank; as, His Honor the Mayor. See Note under Honorable.

(10): ( n.) A cause of respect and fame; a glory; an excellency; an ornament; as, he is an honor to his nation.

(11): ( n.) A token of esteem paid to worth; a mark of respect; a ceremonial sign of consideration; as, he wore an honor on his breast; military honors; civil honors.

(12): ( n.) Fame; reputation; credit.

(13): ( n.) That to which esteem or consideration is paid; distinguished position; high rank.

(14): ( n.) A nice sense of what is right, just, and true, with course of life correspondent thereto; strict conformity to the duty imposed by conscience, position, or privilege.

Holman Bible Dictionary [6]

Shame And Honor

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [7]

(1.) Respect paid to superiors, those to whom we owe particular deference and distinction.

(2.) It is sometimes, in Scripture, used to denote real services: Honor thy father and mother ( Exodus 20:12);" that is, not only show respect and deference, but assist them, and perform such services to them as they need. By honor is also understood that adoration which is due to God only: "Give unto the Lord the honor due unto his name ( Psalms 29:2)."

(3.) Specifically, it is used to denote the testimony of esteem or submission, by which we make known the veneration and respect we entertain for any one on account of his dignity or merit. The Word is used in general for the esteem due to virtue glory, reputation, and probity. In every situation of life, religion only forms the true honor and happiness of man. "It cannot arise from riches, dignity of rank, or office, nor from what are often called splendid actions of heroes, or civil accomplishments; these may be found among men of no real integrity, and may create considerable fame; but a distinction must be made between fame and true honor. The former is a loud and noisy applause; the latter a more silent and internal homage. Fame floats on the breath of the multitude; honor rests on the judgment of the thinking. In order, then, to discern where true honor lies, we must not look to any adventitious circumstance, not to any single sparkling quality, but to the whole of what forms a man; in a word, we must look to the soul. It will discover itself by a mind superior to fear, to selfish interest, and corruption; by an ardent love to the Supreme Being, and by a principle of uniform rectitude. It will make us neither afraid nor ashamed to discharge our duty, as it relates both to God and man. It will influence us to be magnanimous without being proud; humble without being mean; just without being harsh; simple in our manners, but manly in our feelings. This honor, thus formed by religion, or the love of God, is more independent and more complete than what can be acquired by any other means. It is productive of higher felicity, and will be commensurate with eternity itself; while that honor, so called, which arises from any other principle, will resemble the feeble and twinkling flame of a taper, which is often clouded by the smoke it sends forth, but is always wasting, and soon dies totally away" (Blair, Sermons, Serm. 33).

(4.) The term "honor" is also used to denote the personal quality of magnanimity, especially in relation to truth and fidelity. Among men of the world, the "sense of honor," so called, takes the place of conscience; perhaps it might more justly be said that it Is conscience, regulated, however, by the personal pride of the individual. Coleridge remarks that wherever "genuine morality has given way, in the general opinion, to a scheme of ethics founded on utility, its place is soon challenged by the spirit of Honor Paley, who degrades the spirit of honor into a mere club-law among the higher classes, originating in selfish convenience, and enforced by the penalty of excommunication from the society which habit had rendered indispensable to the happiness of the individuals, has misconstrued it not less than Shaftesbury, who extols it as the noblest influence of noble natures. The spirit of honor is more, indeed; than a mere conventional substitute for honesty; but, on the other hand, instead of being a finer form of moral life, it may be more truly described as the shadow or ghost of virtue deceased; for to take the word in a sense which no man of honor would acknowledge may be allowed to the writer of satires, but not to the moral philosopher.

Honor implies a reverence for the invisible and super sensual in our nature, and so far it is virtue; but it is a virtue that neither understands itself nor its true source, and therefore often unsubstantial, not seldom fantastic, and often more or less capricious. Abstract the notion from the lives of lord Herbert of Cherbury, or Henry the Fourth of France, and then compare it with 1 Corinthians 13 and the Epistle to Philemon, or, rather, with the realization of this fair ideal in the character of St. Paul himself. This has struck the better class even of infidels. Collins, one of the most learned of our English deists, is said to have declared that, contradictory as miracles appeared to his reason, he would believe in them notwithstanding if it could be proved to him that St. Paul had asserted any one as having been worked by himself in the modern sense of the word miracle; adding, St. Paul was so perfect A gentleman, and a man of honor!' I know not a better test. Nor can I think of any investigation that would be more instructive where it would be safe, but none, likewise, of greater delicacy from the probability of misinterpretation than a history of the rise of honor in the European monarchies as connected with the corruptions of Christianity, and an inquiry into the specific causes of the inefficacy which has attended the combined efforts of divines and moralists against the practice and obligation of dueling." Of the merely worldly sense of honor, Carlyle remarks, sharply enough, that it "reveals itself too clearly as the daughter and heiress of our old acquaintance, Vanity" (Essays, 2, 74). Montesquieu remarks that what is called honor in Europe is unknown, and of course unnamed, in Asia; and that it would be difficult to render the term intelligible to a Persian." See Montesquieu, Spirit of Laws, bk. 3, ch. 8; Coleridge, Friend, p. 377.