From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [1]

("mountain nose, or peak".) The highest of the Antilibanus range, at its S. end. N.E. of Palestine ( Joshua 12:1), over against Lebanon ( Joshua 11:17), adjoining Bashan ( 1 Chronicles 5:23). Called Sion, "the lofty," distinct from Zion at Jerusalem ( Deuteronomy 4:48); among the Amorites Shenir, rather Senir, i.e. cataract or else breast-plate, from Senar "to clatter" ( Deuteronomy 3:8-9;  Ezekiel 27:5); among the Sidonians Sirion, the breast-plate, a name given from the rounded snowy top glittering in the sun, from Shaarah "to glitter" ( Psalms 29:6). A center to Syria and Palestine; the watershed of the Jordan fountains, and of the Syrian Abana and Pharpar of Damascus, the Orontes of Antioch, and the Leontes. Bashan, Damascus, Syria, and Israel converged there. It had numerous Baal sanctuaries, which gave it a name very anciently. (See Baal Hermon

Rising 9,500 feet, it is seen even from the Jordan valley and the shores of the Dead Sea. Lebanon means the "white" mountain, the Mont Blanc of Palestine. Now Jebel es Sheykh, "the old white-headed man's mountain," referring to the long streaks of snow remaining in the ravines radiating from the center, when the snow has disappeared elsewhere, like an old man's scanty white locks. Jebel esh Tilj, "the mount of ice." Shenir and Hermon are mentioned distinctly,  Song of Solomon 4:8. The whole was called Hermon. The part held by the Sidonians was "Sirion," that by the Amorites Shenir, infested by devouring "lions" and swift though stealthy "leopards," in contrast to "the mountain of myrrh" ( Song of Solomon 5:6), the mountain of the Lord's house ( Isaiah 2:2), the good land ( Isaiah 35:9). In  Psalms 89:12 Tabor is made the western, Hermon the eastern landmark.

Thus, N., S., E., and W. represent the whole earth. "The dew of Hermon" ( Psalms 133:3) is used proverbially of an abundant, refreshing dew. (See Dew .) The distance precludes the possibility of the literal dew of Hermon "descending upon the mountains of Zion." But a Hermon dew was a dew such as falls there, the snow on the summit condensing the summer vapors which float in the higher air, and causing light clouds to hover round and abundant dew to fall on it, while the air is elsewhere without a cloud and the whole country parched. The "ointment" sets forth "how good" and "precious" is brotherly "unity"; the dew "how pleasant" it is. Zion is the mountain where this spiritual dew descends, as pleasant as the natural dew that descends on Hermon. It has three summits, a quarter of a mile from each other; hence arises the plural "Hermons" ( Psalms 42:6), not "Hermonites."

A rude wall of massive stones surrounds the crest of the peak, within are the remains of a small ancient temple. Jerome refers to this, and no doubt it is one of those Baal high places set up by the former inhabitants, and so often condemned in the Old Testament. A circle of temples surrounded Hermon, facing its summit, so that Hermon seems to have been the great sanctuary of Baal. At the top, says Capt. Warren, is a plateau comparatively level; here are two small peaks lying N. and S., about 400 yards from each other. The third peak is 500 yards to the W. On the southern peak a hole scooped out is surrounded by an oval of hewn stones; at its southern end is the temple nearly destroyed, with Roman moldings, and of later date than the stone oval, of stones from 2 to 8 ft. long, 2 1/2 broad and thick.

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [2]

HERMON. —A mountain on the north-eastern border of Palestine, the culminating point of the range of Anti-Lebanon, rising to an elevation of 9200 ft. above the sea. Its dome-like summit, usually covered with snow till late in summer, can be seen from almost every part of Palestine. Jesus in His youth must have often seen it from the hill west of Nazareth, and, during His ministry, from the Sea of Galilee. It is not mentioned by name in the Gospels, but is generally believed to be the ‘high mountain’ of  Matthew 17:1,  Mark 9:2, and the ‘mountain’ of  Luke 9:28 where the Transfiguration took place. This was probably not on the summit, which could be reached only by long and hard climbing, but on one of the elevated platforms on the southern slope. That Hermon, rather than Tabor (on which there was then a fortified city), is the ‘high mountain’ referred to, seems clear from the fact that the conversation ( Matthew 16:21-28) which preceded the Transfiguration by six days was closely connected with Peter’s confession; and this occurred at Caesarea Philippi ( Matthew 16:13-18), which stood just at the base of Hermon by the springs of Jordan. See also art. Transfiguration.

Literature.—For description of Hermon, see Robinson, BR P [Note: RP Biblical Researches in Palestine.] iii. 344, 357; Stewart, Land of Israel , 296–301; Conder, Tent-Work , ch. 8; SW P [Note: WP Memoirs of the Survey of W. Palestine.] (‘Jerusalem’ Volume, Appendix, and Volume of Special Papers).

W. W. Moore.

Smith's Bible Dictionary [3]

Her'mon. (A Peak, Summit). A mountain on the northeastern border of Palestine,  Deuteronomy 3:8;  Joshua 12:1, over against Lebanon,  Joshua 11:17, adjoining the plateau of Bashan.  1 Chronicles 5:23. It stands at the southern end, and is the culminating point of the anti-Libanus range; it towers high above the ancient border city of Dan and the fountains of the Jordan, and is the most conspicuous and beautiful mountain in Palestine or Assyria.

At the present day, it is called Jebel Esh-Sheikh , "The Chief Mountain", and Jebel Eth-Thelj , "Snowy Mountain". When the whole country is parched with the summer sun, white lines of snow streak the head of Hermon. This mountain was the great landmark of the Israelites. It was associated with their northern border almost as intimately as the sea was with the western. Hermon has three summits, situated like the angles of a triangle, and about a quarter of a mile from each other.

In two passages of Scripture, this mountain is called Baal-Hermon ,  Judges 3:3;  1 Chronicles 5:23, possibly because Baal was there worshipped. (It is more than probable that some part of Hermon was the scene of the transfiguration, as it stands near Caesarea Philippi, where we know Christ was just before that event - Editor). The height of Hermon has never been measured, though it has often been estimated. It may safely be reckoned at 10,000 feet.

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [4]

a celebrated mountain in the Holy Land, often spoken of in Scripture. It was in the northern boundary of the country, beyond Jordan, and in the territories which originally belonged to Og, king of Bashan,  Joshua 12:5;  Joshua 13:5 . The Psalmist connects Tabor and Hermon together, upon more than one occasion,  Psalms 89:12;  Psalms 133:3; from which it may be inferred that they lay contiguous to each other. This is agreeable to the account that is given us by travellers. Mr. Maundrell, in his journey from Aleppo, says that in three hours and a half from the river Kishon, he came to a small brook near which was an old village and a good kane, called Legune; not far from which his company took up their quarters for the night, and from whence they had an extensive prospect of the plain of Esdraelon. At about six or seven hours' distance eastward, stood, within view, Nazareth, and the two mountains Tabor and Hermon. He adds that they were sufficiently instructed by experience what the holy Psalmist means by the dew of Hermon; their tents being as wet with it as if it had rained all night,  Psalms 133:3 .

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [5]

HERMON . The highest mountain in Syria (9050 ft. high), a spur of the Anti-Lebanon. Its name means ‘apart’ or ‘sanctuary,’ and refers to its ancient sanctity (cf.   Psalms 89:12; and the name ‘mount Baal-hermon ,’   Judges 3:3 ). Meagre traces of ruins remain on its summit, probably connected, at least partly, with a former high place. According to   Deuteronomy 3:9 , it was called Sirion by the Sidonians and Senir (wh. see) by the Amorites. It may have been the scene of the Transfiguration (  Mark 9:2 ). The summit has three peaks, that on the S. E. being the highest. Snow lies on the top throughout the year, except in the autumn of some years; but usually there is a certain amount in the ravines. The top is bare above the snow-line; below it is richly wooded and covered with vineyards. The Syrian bear can sometimes be seen here; seldom, if ever, anywhere else. The modern name is Jebet esh-Sheikh , ‘the Mountain of the Chief.’

R. A. S. Macalister.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [6]

A noble mountain on the north-east border of Palestine, forming the highest part of the Anti-Lebanon range. Its highest summit is 9200 feet above the sea, and is almost constantly covered with snow. It was called by the Sidonians SIRION,  Deuteronomy 3:9;  Psalm 29:6; and SHENIRby the Amorites (or perhaps one of the summits was called SHENIRor SENIR. 1 Chronicles 5:23;  Song of Solomon 4:8;  Ezekiel 27:5 ); and once it was called SION.  Deuteronomy 4:48 . The silent refreshing dews of Hermon are used to illustrate how good and pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity.  Psalm 133:3 . It is probable that some part of Hermon was the mount of transfiguration; the Lord was in that district, and it seems much more suitable from its privacy than the traditional mount Tabor. It is now called Jebel esh Sheikh, or Jebel eth The1j, 'mountain of snow,' 33 25' N, 35 51' E .

People's Dictionary of the Bible [7]

Hermon ( Her'Mon ), A Peak, Summit. The highest mountain in Palestine,  Deuteronomy 3:8;  Joshua 12:1;  Joshua 11:17;  1 Chronicles 5:23. It towers high above the ancient border city of Dan and the fountains of the Jordan, and is the most conspicuous and beautiful mountain in Palestine or Syria. Hermon has three summits, situated like the angles of a triangle, and about a quarter of a mile from each other. In two passages of Scripture this mountain is called Baal-hermon,  Judges 3:3;  1 Chronicles 5:23, possibly because Baal was there worshipped. Hermon was probably the scene of the transfiguration, as it stands near Cæsarea Philippi, where we know Christ was just before that event. The height of Hermon is reckoned at 10,000 feet.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [8]

A lofty mountain on the northeast border of Palestine, called also Sirion Shenir, and Sion, (not Zion,)  Deuteronomy 3:8;  4:39 . It is a part of the great Anti-Lebanon Range; at the point where an eastern and lower arm branches off, a little south of the latitude of Damascus, and runs in a southerly direction terminating east of the head of the sea of Galilee. This low range is called Jebel Heish. Mount Hermon is believed to be what is now known as Jebel esh-Sheikh, whose highest summit, surpassing every other in Syria, rises into the region of perpetual snow or ice, ten thousand feet above the sea.

For a view of Hermon, see  Psalm 89:12 .

The "little Hermon" of modern travellers, not mentioned in Scripture, is a shapeless mass of hills north of the smaller valley of Jezreel. "Hermonites," or Hermons, in  Psalm 42:6 , denotes the peaks of the Hermons range.

Easton's Bible Dictionary [9]

 Deuteronomy 3:8,4:48 Joshua 11:3,17 13:11 12:1 Psalm 42:6 Deuteronomy 3:9 Song of Solomon 4:8 Judges 3:3 1 Chronicles 5:23 Deuteronomy 4:48 Psalm 89 12

Our Lord and his disciples climbed this "high mountain apart" one day, and remained on its summit all night, "weary after their long and toilsome ascent." During the night "he was transfigured before them; and his face did shine as the sun." The next day they descended to Caesarea Philippi.

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary [10]

Mount Hermon was in the far north of Palestine, at the southern end of the Lebanon Range. It was known to the Lebanese as Mt Sirion. The ancient Amorites called it Mt Senir ( Deuteronomy 3:9; see also Lebanon ). It was the highest mountain of the region, and water from its snow-covered heights was a major source of the Jordan River ( Jeremiah 18:14). It was included in the territory God promised to Israel, but Israel’s control never extended beyond its southern foothills ( Joshua 11:16-17).

Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [11]

The sacred hill of Hermon is often spoken of in Scripture, and furnisheth out sweet subject to the Hebrew poetry. David describes the love and unity of brethren as like the dew of Hermon. ( Psalms 133:3) The falling of the dew of Hermon upon the hill of Zion was very natural, for Zion joined to it. And travellers describe the dew of this place as falling plentifully like showers.

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [12]

(Heb. Chermon', חֶרְמוֹן , according to Gesenius, from the Arabic Charm- Sn, a Peak; Sept. Ἀερμών ), a mountain which formed the northernmost boundary ( Joshua 12:1) of the country beyond the Jordan ( Joshua 11:17) which the Hebrews conquered from the Amorites ( Deuteronomy 3:8), and which, therefore, must have belonged to Anti-Libanus ( 1 Chronicles 5:23), as is, indeed, implied or expressed in most of the other passages in which it is named ( Deuteronomy 4:48;  Joshua 11:3;  Joshua 11:17;  Joshua 12:5;  Joshua 13:5;  Joshua 13:11;  Psalms 89:12;  Psalms 133:3;  Song of Solomon 4:8). It has two or more summits, and is therefore spoken of in the plur. ( חֶרְמֹנַים ,  Psalms 42:7; Sept. ῾Εμωνιείμ , Engl. Vers. "Hermonites"). In  Deuteronomy 3:9 it is said to have been called by the Sidonians Sirion ( שַׂרְיוֹן ), and by the Amorites Shenir ( שְׁנַיר ), both of which words signify "a coat of mail," as glittering in the sun. In  Deuteronomy 4:48 it is called Mount Sion ( שַׂיאוֹן ), meaning "an elevation," a high mountain"- which it was well entitled to be designated by way of excellence, being (if correctly identified within Jebel Es-Sheik) by far the highest of all the mountains in or near Palestine. In the later books of the Old Testament, however (as in  1 Chronicles 5:23;  Song of Solomon 4:8), Shenir is distinguished from Hermon properly so called. Probably different summits or parts of this range bore different names, which were applied in a wider or narrower acceptation at different times (see Schwarz, Palestine, p. 56). (See Hivite).

Hermon was a natural landmark. It could be seen from the "plains of Moab" beside the Dead Sea, from the heights of Nebo, from every prominent spot, in fact, in Moab, Gilead, and Bashan a pale blue, snow- capped peak, terminating the view on the northern horizon. When the people came to know the country better when not merely its great physical features, but its towns and villages became familiar to them, then Baal Gad and Dan took the place of Hermon, both of them being situated just at the southern base of that mountain. Hermon itself was not embraced in the country conquered by Moses and Joshua; their conquests extended only to it (see  Joshua 11:17;  Deuteronomy 34:1;  1 Samuel 3:20). Hermon was also the north-western boundary of the old kingdom of Bashan, as Salcah was the south-eastern. We read in  Joshua 12:5 that Og "reigned in Mount Hermon, and in Salcah, and in all Bashan" i.e. in all Bashan, from Hermon to Salcah Another notice of Hermon shows the minute accuracy of the topography of Joshua. He makes "Lebanon towards the sun rising," that is, the range of Anti-Lebanon, extend from Hermon to the entering into Hamath (13, 5). Every Oriental geographer now knows that Hermon is the southern and culminating point of this range. The beauty and grandeur of Hermon did not escape the attention of the Hebrew poets. From nearly every prominent point in Palestine the mountain is visible, but it is when we leave the hill-country of Samaria and enter the plain of Esdraelon that Hermon appears in all its majesty, shooting up on the distant horizon behind the graceful rounded top of Tabor. It was probably this view that suggested to the Psalmist the words "The north and the south thou hast created them: Tabor and Hermon shall rejoice in thy name" ( Psalms 89:12). The "dew of Hermon" is once referred to in a passage which has long been considered a geographical puzzle " As the dew of Hermon, the dew that descended on the mountains of Zion" ( Psalms 133:3). Some have thought that Zion ( צַיּוֹן ) is used here for Sion ( שַׂיאֹן ), one of the old names of Hermon ( Deuteronomy 4:48), but this identification is unnecessary. The snow on the summit of this mountain condenses the vapors that float during the summer in the higher regions of the atmosphere, causing light clouds to hover around it, and abundant dew to descend on it, while the whole country elsewhere is parched, and the whole heaven elsewhere cloudless. One of its tops is actually called Abu- Nedy, i.e. "father of dew" (Porter, Handb. 2, 463).

Since modern travelers have made us acquainted with the country beyond the Jordan, no doubt has been entertained that the Mount Hermon of those texts is no other than the present Jebel es-Sheik, or the Sheik's Mountain, or, which is equivalent, Old Man's Mountain. a name it is said to have obtained from its fancied resemblance (being topped with snow, which sometimes lies in lengthened streaks upon its sloping ridges) to the hoary head and beard of a venerable sheik (Elliot, 1, 317). This Jebel es-sheik is a south-eastern, and in that direction culminating, branch of Anti-Libanus. Its top is partially covered with snow throughout the summer, and has an elevation of 9376 feet (Van de Velde, Memoir, p. 170, 176). Dr. Clarke, who saw it in the month of July, says, "The summit is so lofty that the snow entirely covered the upper part of it, not lying in patches, but investing all the higher part with that perfectly white and smooth velvet- like appearance which snow only exhibits when it is very deep." Dr. Robinson only differs from the preceding by the statement that the snow is perpetual only in the ravines, so that the top presents the appearance of radiant stripes around and below the summit (Bib. Researches, 3:344). At his last visit to Palestine, he observes, under date of April 9 (new ed. of Researches, 3, 48), that "the snow extended for some distance down the sides, while on the peaks of Lebanon opposite there was none." In August, 1852, Rev. J. L. Porter, of Damascus, ascended Jebel es-Sheik from Rashey, and spent a night near its summit. He describes the highest peak as composed strictly of three peaks, so near each other as to appear one from below. On the south-easternmost of these peaks are some interesting remains, called Kulal Antar, probably relics of an ancient Syro-Phoenician temple, consisting of a circular wall around a rock about 15 feet high, which has a rude excavation upon it, and heaps of beveled stones adjoining it. The snow-banks explain the supply anciently made for cooling drinks in Tyre and Sidon (Bibliotheca Sac. January 1854). The summit is about 9000 feet above the Mediterranean (Lieut.Warren, in the Quarterly Statement of the "Palestine Exploration Fund," No. 5, p. 210, where also are a description and cut of the ruined temple).

In two passages of Scripture this mountain is called Baal-hermon ( בִּעִל חֶרְמוֹן ,  Judges 3:3; 1 Chronicles 5, 23), and the only reason that call be assigned for it is that Baal was there worshipped. Jerome says of it, "Diciturque In Vertice Ejus Insigne Templum, quod ab ethnicis cultui habetur e regione Paneadis et Libani" reference must here be made to the building whose ruins are still seen (Onom. s.v. Hermon). It is remarkable that Hermon was anciently encompassed by a circle of temples, all facing the summit. Can it be that this mountain was the great sanctuary of Baal, and that it was to the old Syrians what Jerusalem was to the Jews, and what Mecca is to the Moslems? (See Porter, Handbook for Syria and Pal. p. 454, 457; Reland, Palaest. p. 323 sq.) The above-described ruins seem to confirm this conjecture. (See Baal-Hermon).

It has been suggested that one of the southern peaks of Hermon was the scene of the Transfiguration. Our Lord traveled from Bethsaida, on the northern slope of the Sea of Galilee, "to the coasts of Caesarea-Philippi," where he led his disciples "into a high mountain apart, and was transfigured before them;" and afterwards he returned, going towards Jerusalem through Galilee (comp.  Mark 8:22-28;  Matthew 16:13;  Mark 9:2-13;  Mark 9:30-33). No other mountain in Palestine is more appropriate to the circumstances of that glorious scene, except Tabor, to which many centuries' tradition has assigned this honor (Robinson, Bib. Res. 2, 358); but if it be as, signed to this locality, it will give additional celebrity to the prince of Syrian mountains (Porter's Danascus, 1, 306).

The mention of Hermon along with Tabor  Psalms 89:12, led to its being sought near the latter mountain, where, accordingly, travelers and maps give us a "Little Hermon." But that passage, as well as  Psalms 133:3, applies better to the great mountain already described; and in the former it seems perfectly natural for the Psalmist to call upon these mountains, respectively the most conspicuous in the western and eastern divisions of the Hebrew territory, to rejoice in the name of the Lord. Besides, we are to consider that Jebel es-sheikh is seen from Mount Tabor, and that both together are visible from the plain of Esdraelon. There is no reason to, suppose that the so-called Little Hermon is at all mentioned in Scripture. Its actual name is Jebel ed-Duhy; it is a shapeless, barren, and uninteresting mass of hills, in the north of the valley of Jezreel and opposite Mount Gilboa (Robinson, Researches, 3, 171).

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [13]

hûr´mon ( חרמון , ḥermōn  ; Codex Vaticanus, Ἁερμών , Haermō̇n ):

1. Description

The name of the majestic mountain in which the Anti-Lebanon range terminates to the South ( Deuteronomy 3:8 , etc.). It reaches a height of 9,200 ft. above the sea, and extends some 16 to 20 miles from North to South. It was called Sirion by the Sidonians ( Deuteronomy 3:9; compare  Psalm 29:6 ), and Senir by the Amorites ( Deuteronomy 3:9 ). It is also identified with Sion ( Deuteronomy 4:48 ). See Sirion; Senir; Sion . Sometimes it is called "Mt. Hermon" ( Deuteronomy 3:8;  Joshua 11:17;  1 Chronicles 5:23 , etc.); at other times simply "Hermon" ( Joshua 11:3;  Psalm 89:12 , etc.).

2. The Hermons

Once it is called "Hermons" ( חרמונים , ḥermōnı̄m ). the King James Version mistakenly renders this "the Hermonites" (  Psalm 42:6 ). It must be a reference to the triple summits of the mountain. There are three distinct heads, rising near the middle of the mass, the two higher being toward the East. The eastern declivities are steep and bare; the western slopes are more gradual; and while the upper reaches are barren, the lower are well wooded; and as one descends he passes through fruitful vineyards and orchards, finally entering the rich fields below, in Wādy et - Teim . The Aleppo pine, the oak, and the poplar are plentiful. The wolf and the leopard are still to be found on the mountain; and it is the last resort of the brown, or Syrian, bear. Snow lies long on the summits and shoulders of the mountain; and in some of the deeper hollows, especially to the North, it may be seen through most of the year.

Mt. Hermon is the source of many blessings to the land over which it so proudly lifts its splendid form. Refreshing breezes blow from its cold heights. Its snows are carried to Damascus and to the towns on the seaboard, where, mingled with the sharāb , "drink," they mitigate the heat of the Syrian summer. Great reservoirs in the depths of the mountain, fed by the melting snows, find outlet in the magnificent springs at Ḥasbeiyeh , Tell el - Kāḍy , and Bāniās , while the dew-clouds of Hermon bring a benediction wherever they are carried (  Psalm 133:3 ).

3. Sanctuaries

Hermon marked the northern limit of Joshua's victorious campaigns ( Joshua 12:1 , etc.). It was part, of the dominion of Og ( Joshua 12:5 ), and with the fall of that monarch, it would naturally come under Israelite influence. Its remote and solitary heights must have attracted worshippers from the earliest times; and we cannot doubt that it was a famous sanctuary in far antiquity. Under the highest peak are the ruins of Ḳaṣr ‛Anṭar , which may have been an ancient sanctuary of Baal. Eusebius, Onomasticon , speaks of a temple on the summit much frequented by the surrounding peoples; and the remains of many temples of the Roman period have been found on the sides and at the base of the mountain. The sacredness of Hermon may be inferred from the allusion in  Psalm 89:12 (compare Enoch   Psalm 6:6; and see also Baal-Hermon ).

Some have thought that the scene of the Transfiguration should be sought here; see, however, Transfiguration , Mount Of .

The modern name of Hermon is Jebel eth - thilj , "mount of snow," or Jebel esh - sheikh , "mount of the elder," or "of the chief."

Little Hermon , the name now often applied to the hill between Tabor and Gilboa, possibly the Hill of Moreh, on which is the sanctuary of Neby Daḥy , has no Biblical authority, and dates only from the Middle Ages.

Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [14]

Her´mon, a mountain which formed the northernmost boundary of the country beyond the Jordan which the Hebrews conquered from the Amorites , and which, therefore, must have belonged to Anti-Libanus. Since modern travelers have made us acquainted with the country beyond the Jordan, no doubt has been entertained that the Mount Hermon of those texts is no other than the present Jebel esh-sheikh, or the Sheikh's mountain, or, which is equivalent, Old Man's Mountain, a name it is said to have obtained from its fancied resemblance (being topped with snow, which sometimes lies in lengthened streaks upon its sloping ridges) to the hoary head and beard of a venerable sheikh. This Jebel esh-sheikh is a south-eastern, and in that direction culminating, branch of Amti Libanus. It is probably the highest of all the Lebanon mountains, and is thought to rival Mont Blanc, though, as Elliot observes, the high ground on which it stands detracts considerably from its apparent altitude, and makes it a less imposing object than that king of European mountains as viewed from the Italian valley of Aösta. Its top is covered with snow throughout the summer, and must therefore rise above the point of perpetual congelation, which in this quarter is about 11,000 feet. It might, perhaps, be safe to add another 1000 feet for the height above that point, making in all 12,000 feet; but we must wait the result of more accurate observations than have yet been made.