From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Holman Bible Dictionary [1]

Old Testament Esdraelon, also called the Great Plain of Esdraelon or the Plain of Jezreel, is the area assigned to Zebulun and Issachar ( Joshua 19:10-23 ). It extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the Jordan River at Beth-Shean. Included are the Valley or Plain of Megiddo in the east and the Valley of Jezreel in the west.

Sources disagree on the actual naming of the area. Some scholars say that the Valley of Jezreel is the name for the entire region; Esdraelon being the western portion, comprised of the Plain of Accho and the Valley of Megiddo. Whatever the entire region is called, it is assumed that references to Jezreel indicate both the town of Jezreel and the valley in which it is located; and references to Megiddo indicate both the town and the plain on which it is located.

The historical and biblical significance of Esdraelon in the Old Testament is its association with war and bloodshed. As a battleground, it was a strategically-favored place. It was occupied by Canaanites who were less than willing to relocate when the tribes of Israel tried to settle there ( Judges 1:27 ). The Song of Deborah in  Judges 5:1 celebrates the battle “at Tanaach by the waters of Megiddo” (  Judges 5:19 ) where Barak finally routed the Canaanites.

Other important battles were fought in Esdraelon. Frequently the question of Israel's leadership was settled there. Josiah died in battle against Pharaoh Neco at Megiddo ( 2 Chronicles 35:20-24 ). Saul and Jonathan died at the hands of the Philistines in the Valley of Jezreel (1Samuel 29:1, 1 Samuel 29:11;  1 Samuel 31:1-7 ). Jehu killed his rivals Joram and Ahaziah at Jezreel ( 2 Kings 9:1 ). He later slaughtered all the men of Ahab and Azariah and all the prophets of Baal there ( 2 Kings 10:1 ).

Brutal slaughter for other than political reasons took place in Esdraelon. Naboth owned a vineyard in Jezreel. Jezebel and Ahab wanted to buy the vineyard, but Naboth refused because it had been handed down to him from his ancestors ( 1 Kings 21:3 ). Jezebel arranged Naboth's murder so Ahab could take possession of the vineyard ( 1 Kings 21:5-16 ).

The tragedies at Esdraelon did not go unnoticed by God. For her part, Jezebel was later murdered at Jezreel as prophesied by Elijah ( 1 Kings 21:23;  2 Kings 9:36 ). Hosea prophesied vengeance on the house of Jehu for his role in the slaughter at Jezreel ( Hosea 1:4-5 ).

New Testament Esdraelon is mentioned in the New Testament as Armageddon or har-Megiddon, meaning hill or city of Megiddo.  Revelation 16:16 echoes the Old Testament portrayal of Esdraelon as a place of war and tragedy. The final battle of the Lord will be waged there (  Revelation 16:14-16;  Revelation 19:19 ).

Donna R. Ridge

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [2]

Plain Of in the tribe of Issachar, extends east and west from Scythopolis to Mount Carmel; called, likewise, the Great Plain, the Valley of Jezreel, the Plain of Esdrela. Dr. E. D. Clarke observes, it is by far the largest plain in the Holy Land; extending quite across the country from Mount Carmel and the Mediterranean Sea to the southern extremity of the Sea of Galilee; about thirty miles in length, and twenty in breadth. It is also a very fertile district, abounding in pasture; on which account it has been selected for the purposes of encampment by almost every army that has traversed the Holy Land. Here Barak, descending with his ten thousand men from Mount Tabor, which rises like a cone in the centre of the plain, defeated Sisera, with his "nine hundred chariots of iron, and all the people that were with him, gathered from Harosheth of the Gentiles unto the river of Kishon; and pursued after the chariots and after the host unto Harosheth of the Gentiles; and all the host of Sisera fell upon the edge of the sword; and there was not a man left," Judges 4. Here Josiah, king of Judah, fell, fighting against Necho, king of Egypt,

 2 Kings 23:29 . And here the Midianites and the Amalekites, who were "like grasshoppers for multitude, and their camels without number as the sand of the sea," encamped, when they were defeated by Gideon, Judges 6. This plain has likewise been used for the same purpose by the armies of every conqueror or invader, from Nabuchodonosor, king of Assyria, to his imitator, Napoleon Buonaparte, who, in the spring of 1799, with a small body of French, defeated an army of several thousand Turks and Mamelukes. Jews, Gentiles, Saracens, Christians, crusaders, and antichristian Frenchmen, Egyptians, Persians, Druses, Turks, and Arabs, warriors out of every nation which is under heaven, have pitched their tents in the Plain of Esdraelon; and have beheld the various banners of their nations wet with the dews of Tabor and of Hermon. And it is to this day generally found to be the place of encampment of large parties of Arabs.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [3]

ESDRAELON . The Greek name for Merj Ibn ‘Amr , the great plain north of the range of Carmel. It is triangular in shape, the angles being defined by Tell el-Kassis in the N.W., Jenin in the S.E., and Tabor in the N.E. The dimensions of the area are about 20 miles N.W. to S.E., 14 miles N.E. to S.W. It affords a passage into the mountainous interior of Palestine, from the sea-coast at the harbours of the Bay of ‘Acca. It is drained by the Kishon, and is, over nearly all its area, remarkably fertile. It was allotted to the tribe of Issachar.

Esdraelon has been the great battlefield of Palestine. Here Deborah and Barak routed the hosts of Jabin and Sisera ( Judges 4:1-24 ), and here Gideon defeated the Midianites (7). Saul here fought his last battle with the Philistines ( 1Sa 28:1-25;   1 Samuel 29:1-11;   1 Samuel 30:1-31;   1 Samuel 31:1-13 ). Josiah here attacked Pharaoh-necho on his way to Mesopotamia and was slain (  2 Kings 23:30 ). It is the scene of the encampment of Holofernes ( Jdt 7:3 ), in connexion with which appears the name by which the valley is generally known: it is a Greek corruption of Jazreel . Here Saladin encamped in 1186; and, finally, here Napoleon encountered and defeated an army of Arabs in 1799. It is chosen by the Apocalyptic writer (  Revelation 16:14-16 ) as the fitting scene for the final battle between the good and evil forces of the world.

R. A. S. Macalister.

Easton's Bible Dictionary [4]

 Judges 4:14 2 Kings 9:27 Judges 7:1-25 2 Chronicles 35:20-27 2 Kings 2329-29

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [5]

(See Jezreel .)

Morrish Bible Dictionary [6]


Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [7]

[from v.r. Ε᾿Σδραηλών ] (or rather Esdrelon, Ε᾿Σδρηλών ,  Judith 3:9;  Judith 4:6; but "Esdreloam," Ε᾿Σδρηλών ,  Judith 1:8; "Esdraelom," 7:3, where it is called "the great plain," as simply in Josephus everywhere, Τὸ Πεδίον Μέγα ), the name of a valley or large bottom, a Graecized form derived from the old royal city of Jezreel, which occupied a commanding site, near the eastern extremity of the plateau, on a spur of Mount Gilboa. "The great plain of Esdraelon" extends across central Palestine from the Mediterranean to the Jordan, separating the mountain ranges of Carmel and Samaria from those of Galilee. The western section of it is properly the plain of Accho or Acre ('Akka). The main body of the plain is a triangle. Its base on the east extends from Jenin (the ancient Engannim) to the foot of the hills below Nazareth, and is about 15 miles long; the north side, formed by the hills of Galilee, is about 12 miles long; and the south side, formed by the Samaria range, is about 18 miles. The apex on the west is a narrow pass opening into the plain of 'Akka. This vast expanse has a gently undulating surface in spring all green with corn where cultivated, and rank weeds and grass where neglected dotted with several low gray tells, and near the sides with a few olive groves. This is that valley of Megiddo ( בַּקְעִת מְגַדּוֹ , so called from the city of Megiddo [q.v.], which stood on its southern border), where Barak triumphed, and where king Josiah was defeated and received his death-wound ( Judges 5:1-31;  2 Chronicles 25:1-28). Probably, too, it was before the mind of the apostle John when he figuratively described the final conflict between the hosts of good and evil who were gathered to a place called Ar-mageddon ( Ἀρμαγεδδών , from the Hebrews עָר מְגַדּוֹ , that is, the city ofMegiddo;  Revelation 16:16). The river Kishon "that ancient river" so fatal to the army of Sisera ( Judges 5:21) drains the plain, and flows off through the pass westward to the Mediterranean.

From the base of this triangular plain three branch plains stretch out eastward, like fingers from a hand, divided by two bleak gray ridges one bearing the familiar name of Mount Gilboa; the other called by Franks Little Hermon, but by natives Jebel ed-Duhy. The northern branch has Tabor on the one side, and Little Hermon on the other; into it the troops of Barak defiled from the heights of Tabor ( Judges 4:6); and on its opposite side are the sites of Nain and Endor. The Southern branch lies between Jenin and Gilboa, terminating in a point among the hills to the eastward; it was across it that Ahaziah fled from Jehu ( 2 Kings 9:27). The Central branch is the richest as well as the most celebrated; it descends in green, fertile slopes to the banks of the Jordan, having Jezreel and Shunem on opposite sides at the western end, and Bethshean in its midst towards the east. This is the " valley of Jezreel" proper the battle-field on which Gideon triumphed; and Saul and Jonathan were overthrown ( Judges 7:1 sq.;  1 Samuel 29:1-11;  1 Samuel 31:1-13). Indeed, a large part of the most sanguinary battles fought in Palestine in every age have been waged upon this eventful plain.

Two things are worthy of special notice in the plain of Esdraelon: 1. Its wonderful richness. Its unbroken expanse of verdure contrasts strangely with the gray, bleak crowns of Gilboa, and the rugged ranges on the north and south. The gigantic thistles, the luxuriant grass, and the exuberance of the crops on the few cultivated spots, show the fertility of the soil. It was the frontier of Zebulon "Rejoice, Zebulon, in thy going out" ( Deuteronomy 33:18). But it was the special portion of Issachar "And he saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant; and bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a servant unto tribute" ( Genesis 49:15). 2. Its Desolation. If we except the eastern branches, there is not a single inhabited village on its whole surface, and not more than one sixth of its soil is cultivated. It is the home of the wild, wandering Bedouin, who scour its smooth turf on their fleet horses in search of plunder; and when hard pressed can speedily remove their tents and flocks beyond the Jordan, and beyond the reach of a weak government. It has always been insecure since history began. The old Canaanitish tribes drove victoriously through it in their iron chariots ( Judges 4:3;  Judges 4:7); the nomad Midianites and Amalekites those "children of the East," who were "as grasshoppers for multitude," Whose "camels were without number" devoured its rich pastures ( Judges 6:1-6;  Judges 7:1); the Philistines long held it, establishing a stronghold at Bethshean ( 1 Samuel 29:1;  1 Samuel 31:10); and the Syrians frequently swept over it with their armies ( 1 Kings 20:26;  2 Kings 13:17). In its condition, thus exposed to every hasty incursion and to every shock of war, we read the fortunes of that tribe which for the sake of its richness consented to sink into a half-nomadic state "Rejoice, O Issachar, in thy Tents... . Issachar is a strong ass, crouching down between two burdens; and he saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant, and bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a servant unto tribute" ( Genesis 49:14-15;  Deuteronomy 33:18). Once only did this tribe shake off the yoke-when under the heavy pressure of Sisera, "the chiefs of Issachar were with Deborah" ( Judges 5:15). Their exposed position and valuable possessions in this open plain made them anxious for the succession of David to the throne, as one under whose powerful protection they would enjoy that peace and rest which they loved; and they joined with their neighbors of Zebulun and Naphtali in sending to David presents of the richest productions of their rich country ( 1 Chronicles 12:32;  1 Chronicles 12:40). (See Issachar).

The whole borders of the plain of Esdraelon are dotted with places of high historic and sacred interest. Here we group them together, while referring the reader for details to the separate articles. On the east we have Endor, Nain, and Shunem, ranged round the base of the "hill of Moreh;" then Bethshean in the center of the plain where the "valley of Jezreel" opens towards,the Jordan; then Gilboa, with the "well of Harod," and the ruins of Jezreel at its western base. On the south are Engannim, Taanach, and Megiddo. At the western apex, on the overhanging brow of Carmel, is the scene of Elijah's sacrifice; and close by the foot of the mountain below runs the Kishon, on whose banks the false prophets of Baal were slain. On the north, among places of less note, are Nazareth and Tabor. The modern Syrians have forgotten the ancient name as they have forgotten the ancient history of Esdraelon, and it is now known among them only as Merj ibn- 'Amer, "the Plain of the Son of Amer." A graphic sketch of Esdraelon is given in Stanley's Syr. and Pales. page 327 sq.; see also Porter, Handbook for Syria and Palestine, p. 851 sq.; Jowett, Christian Researches, page 146, 222; Robinson, Researches, new edition, 2:315-30, 366; 3:113 sq.; Thomson; L(rd and Book. 2:216 sq.; Walther, De Μεγαλωπεδιῳ Paulestinca (Lips. 1792). (See Jezreel).

The Nuttall Encyclopedia [8]

A flat and fertile valley in Galilee, called also the valley of Jezreel, which, with a maximum breadth of 9 m., extends in a NW. direction from the Jordan at Bathshean to the Bay of Acre.