From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [1]

1. The word in its literal sense. -Before considering the use of this term in spiritual metaphor it will be convenient to enumerate those passages in the apostolic writings where it is employed in its natural sense. (a) General .-These are  James 5:7;  James 5:18 (in illustration of patience and prayer),  Acts 14:17 (God’s gift of rain and fruitful seasons),  1 Corinthians 9:7 (in support of the apostles’ right to sustenance; cf.  2 Timothy 2:6),  Revelation 18:14;  Revelation 22:2 -passages which, like some of the others, are on the borderland between the literal and the symbolic.  Judges 1:12 compares the ‘ungodly’ of the day with ‘trees in late autumn when the fruit is past. In  Acts 2:30 the word is used in its physiological sense.

( b ) Specific .-References to specific fruits are not numerous.  James 3:12 asks whether a fig-tree can yield olives or a vine figs. St. Paul in  Romans 11:17 f. uses the curious idea of grafting a wild olive on to a good olive tree (‘contrary to nature,’  Romans 11:24) to illustrate the participation of the Gentiles in the promises made to Israel.  Revelation 11:4 identifies the ‘two witnesses’ (perhaps St. Peter and St. Paul) with the ‘two olive trees’ of Zechariah 4; and  Revelation 6:13 in its mention of a fig-tree casting her unripe figs in the spring tempests recalls  Isaiah 34:4,  Revelation 14:14-20 is a vision of the harvest and vintage of the earth when the grain and the grapes are fully ripe. St. Paul’s use of the grain or wheat in the great Resurrection argument of 1 Corinthians 15 is familiar to all, and is an echo of Christ’s word in  John 12:24-25.

2. The term in spiritual metaphor .-We may begin our study of the spiritual lessons inculcated under the image of fruit with another passage from Corinthians. In  1 Corinthians 3:9 the Apostle reminds his readers that they are ‘God’s husbandry,’ i.e. His ‘tilth’ or ‘tilled land.’ This recalls the Parable of the Vineyard spoken by Jesus (Matthew 21, Luke 20); Christian churches and lives are fields and gardens from which the owner who has spent love and time and care over them may reasonably expect good results, ‘fruit unto God’ ( Romans 7:4). And those too who are His overseers, those who plant and water, naturally look for produce and the reward of their toil. Thus the Apostle hopes, as he looks forward to his visit to Rome, that he may ‘have some fruit among’ the people of that city as he had in Corinth and Ephesus ( Romans 1:13). Two passages in Phil. may be glanced at here: ( a ) the difficult reference in  Romans 1:22, which probably means that, though death would be gain, yet if continuance in living means fruitful labour (‘fruit of work’ = fruit which fallows and issues from toil), St. Paul is quite ready to waive his own preference; ( b )  Romans 4:17, where, thanking the Philippians for their kindly gift, he says he welcomes it not so much for himself as on their behalf; it is a token that they are not unfruitful in love, and it will, like all such evidences of Christian thought and ministry, enrich the givers as much as the recipient (cf.  2 Corinthians 9:6).

(1) The way is now clear for a brief survey of the main topic- the fruits of the new life in Christ Jesus . The ‘fruit of the light,’ says St. Paul ( Ephesians 5:9), ‘is in all goodness and righteousness and truth,’ and the more familiar passage in  Galatians 5:22 speaks of the ‘fruit of the Spirit’ as ‘love, joy, peace, longsuffering, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, meekness, self-control.’ Trees are known by their fruit, and the existence of these virtues in an individual or a community are the surest, if not the sole, signs that the life is rooted with Christ in God, that the branches are abiding in the True Vine. It was the Apostle’s greatest joy when he could congratulate a church like that at Colossae on its share in the fruit-bearing which the gospel was accomplishing wherever it was proclaimed and accepted ( Colossians 1:6), when it bore fruit in every good work ( Colossians 1:10). The fruit of the new life is regarded in  Romans 6:22 as sanctification. On the other hand, St. James ( James 3:17) gives it as one of the characteristics of the ‘wisdom that is from above’-which is perhaps his way of speaking of the Spirit-that it is ‘full of … good fruits,’ by which he no doubt means ‘good works.’ In the next verse he says that ‘the fruit ( i.e. the seed which bears the fruit) of righteousness is sown in peace for them that make peace.’ The ‘fruit of righteousness’ is an OT phrase, and meets us again in  Philippians 1:11 and  Hebrews 12:11, where ‘righteousness,’ or conformity to the highest moral standard, is described as the ‘peaceful fruit’ of discipline patiently endured.

Returning to the locus classicus ,  Galatians 5:22, it is worth noticing that St. Paul introduces the nine virtues which he enumerates as one ‘fruit.’ Like the chain of graces in  2 Peter 1:5-7, they are all linked together as though to suggest that the absence of any one means the nullity of all. We need not press too heavily the suggestion that the nine fall into three groups describing ( a ) the soul in relation to God; ( b ) its attitude to others (this is to make ‘faith’ = faithfulness, and though St. Paul usually thinks of faith as the basis of Christian character, he was not so rigidly systematic as not to see in it, or at least in an increase of it, a fruit of the Spirit); ( c ) principles of daily conduct. There is more perhaps in the antithesis between the ‘works’ of the flesh ( 2 Peter 1:19) and the ‘fruit’ of the Spirit. Yet the dispositions enumerated show themselves in good works, though these are not expressly specified, being infinitely varied and adaptable to changing conditions. The list may be supplemented, for example, by  Hebrews 13:15, where ‘praise’ is the fruit of a thankful heart expressed by the lips, and  Romans 15:28, where the generosity of the Gentile Christians towards the Judaea n poor is the fruit of the spiritual blessing which St. Paul’s converts had received.

(2) The unfruitful .-The other side of the picture can be briefly dismissed. Those who walk in darkness are spoken of as unfruitful ( Ephesians 5:11). ‘What fruit had you then in those things of which you are ashamed?’ asks St. Paul in  Romans 6:21, though we might possibly translate, ‘What fruit had you then?-Things (gratifications of sense) of which you are now ashamed.’ In  Romans 7:4 the Apostle describes the unregenerate life as producing fruit ‘unto death,’ and if we desire an enumeration of these poisonous products we shall find them in  Galatians 5:19-21 (cf.  Colossians 3:5-9). For the final harvesting we have the picture of Revelation 14.

(3) The time of fruit-bearing .-It is the will of Jesus that His disciples should bear ‘much fruit’; in His words on this theme (John 15) He does not seem to contemplate the possibility of bearing a little. It is much or none. The trouble is that churches and individuals only too often look like orchards stricken by a blight, and where a little fruit is found it is not so mellow as it might be. We need not be in too great a hurry to see the full fruit in young lives. There is a time for blossom and a time for ripe fruit, and the intervening stage is not attractive though it is necessary. There is a time for the blade and a time for the full corn in the ear, but before we get this harvest there is the period of the green and unsatisfying ear. We sometimes speak of a harvest of souls following on a series of revival or mission services; but it is only the blade pushing up into the light-the harvest is still far distant.

A day now and again with a fruit-grower on his farm will have much to teach the preacher as to natural law in the spiritual world. He will learn amongst other things how vital is the process of pruning, and how no stroke is made at random. He will learn how to guard the nascent life against frosts and chills, its need of nutriment from soil and sun and rain. The wonderful exploits of the Californian fruit-grower, Luther Burbank, will open up a whole universe of possibilities; the story of what irrigation and scientific culture have done in Australia will show how deserts may become orchards. And as palm trees are said to bear their heaviest clusters in old age, the life that abides in Christ may be confident of escaping the reproach or crabbed and withered senility-it shall bring forth fruit in old age. But it need not wait for old age-it shall be like the tree of life that bears its fruit every month-fruit that is for the delectation and the healing of the world.

A. J. Grieve.

Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types [2]

 Genesis 1:29 (c) This type may be used as a symbol of the blessed results which come from preaching the Gospel. The tree bearing fruit may represent great Christians with great visions and talents. The bushes and herbs may represent lesser ones not so widely known but who also bear fruit after their kind. The grass may be taken to mean the great mass of obscure Christians who tell the story in their own way and win hearts for Christ in their own sphere. The fruit is those who are saved. (See  Genesis 1:11-12).

 Genesis 4:3 (b) By this type we probably understand that it represents our own self-made righteousness. It was the product of his own efforts.

 Numbers 13:26 (c) We may understand this to be a type of the blessed results of walking with GOD in the promised land.

 2 Kings 19:30 (a) By this type is revealed that in the restoration Israel will be firmly rooted and grounded in their relationship to GOD, and they will be useful and fruitful in their relationships to the other nations.

 Psalm 92:14 (a) This is a word of encouragement to those who have come to advanced age in that they will still be useful, and be blessed in their ministry as they come to the end of the journey.

 Proverbs 8:19 (b) We may understand from this picture the spiritual graces which GOD gives to the believer. It may also include rich and fruitful work in which the Christian engages, such as soul winning, Christian edification, missions and other ministries which flow from the hearts of those who are saved by grace.

 Proverbs 10:16 (b) By this type GOD describes the results of wicked living and sinful practices.

 Proverbs 11:30 (b) In contrast to the above, the Lord uses this type as a picture of the results of Godly living and Christian practices.

 Song of Solomon 2:3 (b) This is a symbol of the precious fellowship and the gracious results which come from feeding on CHRIST and His Word.

 Jeremiah 17:8 (a) This wonderful type is used to reveal the success that will follow a Godly walk in fellowship with the Lord, and a constant abiding in the Holy Spirit, and a constant feeding on the Word of GOD.

 Matthew 3:8 (a) This is a type of those works which prove that one is born again and has received the gift of eternal life. (See also  Luke 3:8).

 Matthew 12:33 (b) Here is a type of the Godly actions and desires that emanate from the heart of the Christian.

 Matthew 13:23 (a) By this type is meant a Godly, fruitful life which brings glory to GOD and blessing to others.

 Matthew 13:26 (a) Here we see the Christian life in full bloom, so that it is well recognized. The hypocrites, however, are exposed and denounced.

 Matthew 21:19 (b) By this type the Lord is revealing His disappointment in the useless life lived by the nation of Israel. No good results followed in their train.

 Matthew 21:34 (b) This type represents good and blessed results that should have been found in the experience of Israel when the Lord Jesus came to live among them. Instead of being thus welcomed, exalted and received, He was rejected and despised.

 Luke 13:6 (b) By this type we learn that there should be more in the life of the professing Christian than merely a profession. There must be the manifestation of the life of the Lord in our souls.

 John 4:36 (a) Fruit in this place is also a type of the good results which follow in the service of the King. (See also  Mark 4:20;  Romans 1:13;  Romans 6:21;  Romans 15:28;  Philippians 4:17;  James 3:18).

 John 12:24 (a) This type represents the wonderful results that have come through the centuries from the death of the Lord JESUS at Calvary. Many have been saved, lives and homes have been enriched, the Gospel has been preached, the poor and the unfortunate have been relieved.

 John 15:2,  John 15:4,  John 15:8 (a) In this case "fruit" is a type and an emblem of good and profitable works, holy endeavors and Christian activities which should normally come from the life, the heart and the soul of a saved person. (See also  Matthew 3:10;  Matthew 7:17,  Matthew 7:19;  Luke 3:9;  Luke 8:14).

 Romans 1:13 (b) This symbol represents the salvation of souls, the upbuilding of Christians, the restoration of the backslider, and the teaching of GOD's people.

 2 Corinthians 9:10 (a) This type indicates the good results of the labors and the efforts of Christians. By their prayers, their activities, their gifts, and their influence, they bring glory to GOD, and blessing to men. (See also  Philippians 1:11).

 Galatians 5:22 (a) Here we find a type of the results which are manifest in the Spirit-filled life wherein the Holy Spirit has His place as the Lord of the life. Thereby He is permitted to produce the results GOD desires to have manifested.

 Hebrews 12:11 (a) This type represents the results of godliness and godly living. It is pleasing to GOD, it brings glory to His Name, and brings blessing to our fellowmen. (See also  Colossians 1:6).

 Judges 1:12 (a) The type is used here to represent the evil results of the life lived by the ungodly, who care not for the instructions of GOD's Word. These evil men produce no good results in the sight of GOD.

Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology [3]

Terms and Meaning . Among the number of Hebrew words for fruit, fruit-producing, is peri, to bear fruit, be fruitful. The basic Greek word for fruit is karpos [   Luke 8:15 ); and akarpos [   Matthew 13:22 ).

Physical Fruits and Their Spiritual Application . In his original creation God commanded the land to produce "vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds" ( Genesis 1:11 ). Scripture refers to a number of the Near East plants, trees/bushes, and spices to teach or enhance a spiritual lesson (e.g., the grain seeds sown,  Matthew 13:1-9; the fig tree cursed,  Matthew 21:18-22; the grape vine likened to God's people,  Jeremiah 2:21;  John 15:1-7 ). To make the spiritual point that God's disobedient people needed his mercy and saving power to heal them, Jeremiah effectively refers to the healing effect of the balm or gum oil of a well-known bush/small tree growing in Gilead.

Spices and unguents, the fruit of exotic plants, trees, and small bushes in the Middle East, frequently played an important role in enhancing one's social position or indicating one's respect, adoration, and devotion, particularly to God. Examples include myrrh (aromatic gum of the tree/bush of Arabia, Ethiopia, and Somalia), cinnamon (of the cinnamon tree), and olive oil for the sacred oil for the tabernacle ( Exodus 30:22-33 ); the fragrant spices of gum resin (the aromatic myrrh gum), onycha (made from mollusk shells), galbanum (resin from plant roots), and frankincense (resin from a small tree/bush from Ubar, Oman) for the sacred fragrant tabernacle incense ( Exodus 30:34-38 ); frankincense and myrrh given by the magi in their worship of Jesus ( Matthew 2:11 ); the nard (perfume made from a Middle East plant) Mary poured out in worship on the feet of Jesus ( John 12:3 ); the seventy-five-pound mixture of myrrh and aloes (aromatic resin of a Near Eastern tree) Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus used in wrapping up the body of Jesus ( John 19:39-40 ) and the spices and perfumes the women took to the tomb to anoint the body of Jesus ( Mark 16:1;  Luke 23:56-24:1 ).

Man, the Special Fruit of God's Creation . When God created man and woman ( Genesis 1:26 ), endowing them with moral, intellectual, and spiritual power (cf.  Ephesians 4:24;  Colossians 3:10 ), he said to them, "Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it" ( Genesis 1:28 ). This implies that Adam and Eve's progeny were not only to be the physical fruit of the pair but also to be endowed with moral, intellectual, and spiritual power, since they too, as descendants of the God-created pair, were made in "the image of God" ( Genesis 1:27; cf.  Genesis 9:6;  2 Corinthians 4:4 ). The offspring of the human pair is called, from the woman's viewpoint, "the fruit of the womb" ( Deuteronomy 7:13;  28:4,11 ,  18,53;  30:9;  Luke 1:42 ), and from the husband's standpoint, "fruit of his loins" ( Psalm 131:11 ,; LXX  Acts 2:30 ,; Greek text cf. "the fruit of my body, "  Micah 6:7 ).

A Figurative Meaning . Scripture speaks of eating "the fruit of your labor" ( Psalm 128:2 ), and defines the activities of the godly as "the fruit of the righteous" ( Proverbs 11:30 ). Those who reject God's wisdom are described as eating "the fruit of their ways . . filled with the fruit of their schemes" ( Proverbs 1:31; cf.  Jeremiah 6:19 ). "The fruit of the lips, " the blessing of one's speech, adds blessing to one's daily life ( Proverbs 12:14;  13:2;  18:20-21 ). John the Baptist and Jesus teach that the disciple is to produce fruit (good works) as evidence of true repentance ( Matthew 3:8;  Luke 3:8 ), and they explain that a good tree (the repentant individual) cannot produce bad fruit, that is, a life filled with wicked Acts, and a bad tree (an unrepentant person) cannot produce good fruit, that is, a life of godly works ( Matthew 3:10;  7:16-20;  Luke 3:9;  6:43 ).

To aid Christians in their walk before the Lord, God-given wisdom is made available to them, wisdom whose "fruit is better than fine gold" ( Proverbs 8:19 ), and the Holy Spirit develops within Christians the fruit of "love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness and self control" ( Galatians 5:22-23 ). Thus, with the enablement of the Holy Spirit, the Christian can flourish "like a tree planted by streams of water, which yields its fruit in season" ( Psalm 1:3 ).

W. Harold Mare

Bibliography . D. J. Burke, ISBE, 2:364-66; W. E. Shewell-Cooper, ZPED, 2:614-16.

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [4]

the product of the earth, as trees, plants, &c. "Blessed shall be the fruit of thy ground and cattle." The fruit of the body signifies children: "Blessed shall be the fruit of thy body." By fruit is sometimes meant reward: "They shall eat of the fruit of their own ways,"  Proverbs 1:31; they shall receive the reward of their bad conduct, and punishment answerable to their sins. The fruit of the lips is the sacrifice of praise or thanksgiving,  Hebrews 13:15 . The fruit of the righteous, that is, the counsel, example, instruction, and reproof of the righteous, is a tree of life, is a means of much good, both temporal and eternal; and that not only to himself, but to others also,  Proverbs 11:30 . Solomon says, in  Proverbs 12:14 , "A man shall be satisfied with good by the fruit of his mouth;" that is, he shall receive abundant blessings from God as the reward of that good he has done, by his pious and profitable discourses. "Fruits meet for repentance,"  Matthew 3:8 , is such a conduct as befits the profession of penitence.

2. The fruits of the Spirit are those gracious habits which the Holy Spirit of God produces in those in whom he dwelleth and worketh, with those acts which flow from them, as naturally as the tree produces its fruit. The Apostle enumerates these fruits in   Galatians 5:22-23 . The same Apostle, in  Ephesians 5:9 , comprehends the fruits of the sanctifying Spirit in these three things; namely, goodness, righteousness, and truth.

The fruits of righteousness are such good works and holy actions as spring from a gracious frame of heart: "Being filled with the fruits of righteousness," Php_1:11 . Fruit is taken for a charitable contribution, which is the fruit or effect of faith and love: "When I have sealed unto them this fruit,"  Romans 15:28; when I have safely delivered this contribution. When fruit is spoken of good men, then it is to be understood of the fruits or works of holiness and righteousness; but when of evil men, then are meant the fruits of sin, immorality, and wickedness. This is our Saviour's doctrine,  Matthew 7:16-18 .

3. Uncircumcised fruit, or impure, of which there is mention in   Leviticus 19:23 , is the fruit for the first three years of a tree newly planted; it was reputed unclean, and no one was permitted to eat of it in all that time. In the fourth year it was offered to the Lord; after which it was common, and generally eaten. Various reasons are assigned for this precept. As

(1.) Because the first-fruits were to be offered to God, who required the best: but in this time the fruit was not come to perfection.

(2.) It was serviceable to the trees themselves, which grew the better and faster; being early stripped of those fruits which otherwise would have derived to themselves, and drawn away, much of the strength from the root and tree.

(3.) It tended to the advantage of men, both because the fruit was then waterish, undigestible, and unwholesome; and because hereby men were taught to bridle their appetites, a lesson of great use and absolute necessity in a godly life.

Holman Bible Dictionary [5]

Literal uses Various types of fruit are mentioned frequently in Scripture. Among the most common are grapes, figs, olives, pomegranates, and apples (perhaps to be identified with apricots or quince). Israel, in contrast to her neighbors, recognized the process by which trees reproduce by means of seeds carried in fruit to be a part of God's good plan at creation ( Genesis 1:12 ,Genesis 1:12, 1:29 ). The continuing fruitfulness of Israel's trees was dependent on faithfulness to the covenant ( Deuteronomy 28:4 ,Deuteronomy 28:4, 28:11 ,Deuteronomy 28:11, 28:18 ). The first fruit to ripen was offered to God ( Exodus 23:16;  Nehemiah 10:35 ).

Figurative uses The fruit of the womb is a common expression for descendants ( Genesis 30:2;  Deuteronomy 7:13;  Psalm 127:3;  Isaiah 13:18 ). Fruit often indicates a thought close to our word results. The fruit of the Spirit is the results of the Spirit's workings in the lives of believers ( Galatians 5:22-23 ). Similar is the use of fruit where we would speak of manifestations or expressions. The fruits of righteousness ( Philippians 1:11;  James 3:18 ), of repentance ( Matthew 3:8 ), of light ( Ephesians 5:9 ) are expressions of righteousness, repentance, and moral purity. Jesus cautioned that false prophets could be identified by the fruit they produced ( Matthew 7:15-20 ), that is, by the qualities manifested in their lives. Jesus similarly warned of the necessity of bearing fruit that was compatible with citizenship in the kingdom of God ( Matthew 21:43 ). Fruit sometimes has the sense of reward ( Isaiah 3:10;  John 4:36;  Philippians 4:17 ). Fruit is also used as a picture for Christian converts ( Romans 1:13;  1 Corinthians 16:15 ).

Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words [6]

A. Noun.

Perı̂y ( פְּרִי , Strong'S #6529), “fruit; reward; price; earnings; product; result.” Cognates of this word appear in Ugaritic and Egyptian. Perı̂y appears about 120 times in biblical Hebrew and in every period.

First, perı̂y represents the mature edible product of a plant, which is its “fruit.” This broad meaning is evident in Deut. 7:13: “He will also bless the fruit of thy womb, and the fruit of thy land, thy corn, and thy wine, and thine oil, the increase of thy kine and the flocks of thy sheep.…” In its first biblical appearance, the word is used to signify both “trees” and the “fruit” of trees: “And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind …” (Gen. 1:11). In Ps. 107:34, the word is used as a modifier of land. The resulting term is “a fruitful land” in the sense of a “land of fruit.”

Second, perı̂y means “offspring,” or the “fruit of a womb.” In Deut. 7:13, the word represents “human offspring,” but it can also be used of animal “offspring” (Gen. 1:22).

Third, the “product” or “result” of an action is, in poetry, sometimes called its “fruit”: “A man shall say, Verily there is a reward for the righteous: verily he is a God that judgeth in the earth” (Ps. 58:11). Isa. 27:9 speaks of “the full price of the pardoning of his sin” (KJV, “all the fruit to take away his sin”), i.e., the result of God’s purifying acts toward Israel. The wise woman buys and plants a field with her earnings or the “fruit of her hands” (Prov. 31:16). In other words, she is to be rewarded by receiving the “product” of her hands (Prov. 31:31). The righteous will be rewarded “according to his ways, according to the results of his deeds” (Jer. 17:10, NASB; cf. 21:14). In most passages similar to these, the NASB renders perı̂y “fruit” (cf. Prov. 18:21).

B. Verb.

Pârad ( פָּרַד , Strong'S #6504), “to be fruitful, bear fruit.” This verb appears 29 times in the Old Testament. Its first occurrence is in Gen. 1:22: “And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, …”

Easton's Bible Dictionary [7]

  • "Orchard-fruits" (Heb. yitshar), as dates, figs, citrons, etc.

    Injunctions concerning offerings and tithes were expressed by these Hebrew terms alone ( Numbers 18:12;  Deuteronomy 14:23 ). This word "fruit" is also used of children or offspring ( Genesis 30:2;  Deuteronomy 7:13;  Luke 1:42;  Psalm 21:10;  132:11 ); also of the progeny of beasts ( Deuteronomy 28:51;  Isaiah 14:29 ).

    It is used metaphorically in a variety of forms ( Psalm 104:13;  Proverbs 1:31;  11:30;  31:16;  Isaiah 3:10;  10:12;  Matthew 3:8;  21:41;  26:29;  Hebrews 13:15;  Romans 7:4,5;  15:28 ).

    The fruits of the Spirit ( Galatians 5:22,23;  Ephesians 5:9;  James 3:17,18 ) are those gracious dispositions and habits which the Spirit produces in those in whom he dwells and works.

    Copyright Statement These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., DD Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain.

    Bibliography Information Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Fruit'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. 1897.

  • King James Dictionary [8]

    FRUIT, n. L. fructus. The Latin word is the participle of fruor, contracted from frugor, or frucor, to use, to take the profit of.

    1. In a general sense, whatever the earth produces for the nourishment of animals, or for clothing or profit. Among the fruits of the earth are included not only corn of all kinds, but grass, cotton, flax, grapes and all cultivated plants. In this comprehensive sense, the word is generally used in the plural. 2. In a more limited sense, the produce of a tree or other plant the last production for the propagation or multiplication of its kind the seed of plants, or the part that contains the seeds as wheat, rye, oats, apples, quinces, pears, cherries, acorns, melons, &c. 3. In botany, the seed of a plant, or the seed with the pericarp. 4. Production that which is produced.

    The fruit of the spirit is in all goodness, and righteousness, and truth.  Ephesians 5 .

    5. The produce of animals offspring young as the fruit of the womb, of the loins, of the body. 6. Effect or consequence.

    They shall eat the fruit of their doings.  Isaiah 3 .

    7. Advantage profit good derived.

    What fruit had ye then in those things whereof ye are now ashamed?  Romans 6 .

    8. Production, effect or consequence in an sense as the fruits of sin the fruits of intemperance.

    FRUIT, To produce fruit. Not well authorized.

    Webster's Dictionary [9]

    (1): ( v. t.) Whatever is produced for the nourishment or enjoyment of man or animals by the processes of vegetable growth, as corn, grass, cotton, flax, etc.; - commonly used in the plural.

    (2): ( v. t.) The pulpy, edible seed vessels of certain plants, especially those grown on branches above ground, as apples, oranges, grapes, melons, berries, etc. See 3.

    (3): ( v. t.) The ripened ovary of a flowering plant, with its contents and whatever parts are consolidated with it.

    (4): ( v. t.) The produce of animals; offspring; young; as, the fruit of the womb, of the loins, of the body.

    (5): ( v. t.) That which is produced; the effect or consequence of any action; advantageous or desirable product or result; disadvantageous or evil consequence or effect; as, the fruits of labor, of self-denial, of intemperance.

    (6): ( v. i.) To bear fruit.

    (7): ( v. t.) The spore cases or conceptacles of flowerless plants, as of ferns, mosses, algae, etc., with the spores contained in them.

    Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [10]

    Fruit, Fruits

    In addition to what hath been already offered under the title of First Fruits (which see,) it may not be amiss to observe, that the holy Scriptures are full of expressions to denote the blessedness of the fruits of the Spirit. The Lord in the Old Testament Scripture gave exceeding great and precious promises of blessings, which were to be expected in the fruits and effects under the New Testament dispensation; and in the gospel the Lord Jesus confirmed the whole, when promising to send the Holy Ghost, and testified of his manifold gifts which should follow. ( Isaiah 44:3-5;  John 14:1-31;  John 15:1-27 and  John 16:1-33 chapters throughout;  1 Corinthians 12:1-31 throughout.)

    Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [11]

    FRUIT . See Food, § 4 .

    Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [12]

    (properly פְּרַי , Peri', Καρπός ), an extensive term, denoting produce in general, whether vegetable or animal, and also used in a figurative sense (see Gesenius's Heb. Lex. and Robinson's Greek Lex.). The Hebrews had three generic terms designating three great classes of the fruits of the land, closely corresponding to what may be expressed in English as, 1. Corn- Fruit, or field produce; 2. Vintage-Fruit; 3. Orchard-Fruit. The term קִיַוֹ , Ka'Yits, "summer-fruits," appears to denote those less important species of fruit which were adapted only to immediate consumption, or could not easily or conveniently be conserved for winter use ( Jeremiah 40:10;  Jeremiah 40:12). The three terms spoken of as being so frequently associated in the Scriptures, and expressive of a most comprehensive triad of blessings, are thefollowing: 1. דָּגָז , Dagan', "fruit of the field," or agricultural produce. Under this term the Hebrews classed almost every object of field-culture (See Agriculture). Jahn says, "The word is of general signification, and comprehends in itself different kinds of grain and pulse, such as wheat, millet, spelt, wall-barley, barley, beans, lentils, meadow-cumin, pepper- wort, flax, cotton, various species of the cucumber, and perhaps rice" (Bib. Archaeol. § 58). There is now no doubt among scholars that Dagan comprehends the largest and most valuable species of vegetable produce, and therefore it will be allowed that the rendering of the word in the common version by "Corn," and sometimes by " Wheat," instead of " Every Species Of Corn" or field produce, tends to limit our conceptions of the divine bounty, as well as to impair the beauty of the passages where it occurs. (See Corn).

    2.' תַּירוֹשׁ , Tirosh', "the fruit of the vine" in its natural or its solid state, comprehending grapes, moist or dried, and the fruit in general, whether in the early cluster or the mature and ripened condition ( Isaiah 65:8, which is rendered by Βότρυς , grape, in the Sept., refers to the young grape; while  Judges 9:13, where "the Vine said, Shall I leave my Tirosh [fruit], which cheereth God and man?" as evidently refers to the ripened produce which was placed on the altar as a first-fruit offering in grateful acknowledgment of the divine goodness). "Sometimes," says Jahn, "the grapes were dried in the sun, and preserved in masses, which were called עֲנָבַים , Anabim', אֲשַׁישַׁים , ashishim', and צַמּוּקַים , Tsimmukim ( 1 Samuel 25:18;  2 Samuel 16:1;  1 Chronicles 12:40;  Hosea 3:1)" (Bib. Archol. § 69). It is also distinctly referred to as the Yielder of wine, and therefore was not wine itself, but the raw material from which it was expressed or prepared, as is evident from its distinctive contrast with wine in Amos 6:15, last clause. (See Wine).

    3. יַצְהִר , Yitshar', "orchard-fruits," especially winter or keeping fruits, as dates, figs, olives, pomegranates, citrons, nuts, etc. As we distinguish Dagan from חַטָח (wheat), and Tirosh from עָסַיס and יִיַן , so must we Yitshar from שֶׁמֶן (oil), which are unfortunately confounded together in the common version. Shemen, beyond question, is the proper word for Oil, not Yitshar; hence, being a specific thing, we find it in connection with a great variety of specific purposes, as sacrificial and holy uses, edibles, traffic, vessels, and used in illustration of taste, smoothness, plumpness, insinuation, condition, fertility, and luxury. Yitshar, as to the mode of its use, presents a complete contrast to shemen. It is not, even in a single passage, employed either by way of comparison or in illustration of any particular quality common to it with other specific articles. In one passage only is it joined with זִיַת , Zayith, "olive," the oil of which it has erroneously been supposed to signify, and even here ( 2 Kings 18:32) it retains as an adjective the generic sense of the noun, "Preserving-Fruit." It should be read, "a land of Preserving -olives (Zeyth-Yitshas) and dates (Debash)." Cato has a similar expression, Oleam Conditivam, "preserving-olive tree" (De Re Rust. 6). It may be observed that the Latin terms Ma'Um and Pomumn had an extended meaning very analogous to the Hebrew Yitshar. Thus Varro asks, "Is not Italy so planted with fruit-trees as to seem one entire Pomarium ?" i.e., orchard (De Re Rust. 1:2). (See Olive); (See Oil).

    Thus the triad of terms we have been considering would comprehend every vegetable substance of necessity and luxury commonly consumed by the Hebrews of which first-fruits were presented or tithes paid, and this view of their meaning will also explain why the injunctions concerning offerings and tithes were sufficiently expressed by these terms alone ( Numbers 18:12;  Deuteronomy 14:23). (See Orchard).

    On the terms rendered in our version "fruitful field," "fruitful place," etc., (See Carmel).

    The term "fruit" is also used of persons ( 2 Kings 19:30;  Jeremiah 12:2), and of offspring, children ( Psalms 21:10;  Hosea 9:16;  Exodus 21:22), so in the phrases "fruit of the womb" ( Genesis 30:2;  Deuteronomy 7:13;  Isaiah 13:18;  Luke 1:42), "fruit of the loins" ( Acts 2:30), "fruit of the body" ( Psalms 132:13;  Micah 6:7), and also for the Progeny of beasts ( Deuteronomy 28:51;  Isaiah 14:29). This word is also used metaphorically in a variety of forms, the figure being often preserved: "They shall eat the fruit of their doings," i.e., experience the consequences ( Isaiah 3:10;  Proverbs 1:31;  Jeremiah 6:19;  Jeremiah 17:10); "with the fruit of thy works (of God) is the earth satisfied," i.e., is watered with rain, which is the fruit of the clouds ( Psalms 104:13); "fruit of the hands," i.e., gain, profits ( Proverbs 31:16); " fruit of a proud heart," i.e., boasting ( Isaiah 10:12); "fruit of the mouth," i.e., what a man says, or his words ( Proverbs 12:14;  Proverbs 18:20); "fruit of the righteous," i.e., counsel and example ( Proverbs 11:30); " to pay over the fruits," i.e., produce as rent ( Matthew 21:41); "fruit of the vine," i.e., wine ( Matthew 26:29;  Mark 14:25;  Luke 22:18); "fruits meet for repentance," i.e., conduct becoming a profession of penitence ( Matthew 3:8); " fruit of the lips," i.e., what the lips utter ( Hebrews 13:15;  Hosea 14:3); "fruits of righteousness," i.e., holy actions springing from a renewed heart ( Philippians 1:11). "Fruit," in  Romans 15:28, is the contribution produced by benevolence and zeal. "Fruit unto God," and "fruit unto death," i.e., to live worthy of God or of death ( Romans 7:4-5). The "fruits of the Spirit" are enumerated in  Galatians 5:22-23;  Ephesians 5:9;  James 3:17-18. Fruitfulness in the divine life stands opposed to an empty, barren, and unproductive profession of religion ( John 15:2-8;  Colossians 1:10;  2 Peter 1:5-8;  Matthew 7:16-20). (See Garden).

    FRUIT, "the product of the earth, as trees, plants, etc.

    1. 'Blessed shall be the fruit of thy ground and cattle.' The fruit of the body signifies children: 'Blessed shall be the fruit of thy body.' By fruit is sometimes meant reward: 'They shall eat of the fruit of their own ways' ( Proverbs 1:31); they shall receive the reward of their bad conduct, and punishment answerable to their sins. The fruit of the lips is the sacrifice of praise or thanksgiving ( Hebrews 13:15). The fruit of the righteous that is, the counsel, example, instruction, and reproof of the righteous is a tree of life, is a means of much good, both temporal and eternal, and that not only to himself, but to others also ( Proverbs 11:30). Solomon says, in  Proverbs 12:14, 'A man shall be satisfied with good by the fruit of his mouth;' that is he shall receive abundant blessings from God as the reward of that good he has done by his pious and profitable discourses. 'Fruits meet for repentance' ( Matthew 3:8) is such a conduct as befits the profession of penitence.

    2. "The fruits of the Spirit are those gracious habits which the Holy Spirit of God produces in those in whom he dwelleth and worketh, with those acts which flow from them, as naturally as the tree produces its fruit. The apostle enumerates these fruits in  Galatians 1:22-23. The same apostle, in  Ephesians 5:9, comprehends the fruits of the sanctifying Spirit in these three things, namely, goodness, righteousness, and truth. The fruits of righteousness are such good works and holy actions as spring from a gracious frame of heart: 'Being filled with the fruits of righteousness,'  Philippians 1:11. Fruit is taken for a charitable contribution, which is the fruit or effect of faith and love: 'When I have sealed unto them this fruit,'  Romans 15:28; when I have safely delivered this contribution. When fruit is spoken of good men, then it is to be understood of the fruits or works of holiness and righteousness; but when of evil men, then are mefant the fruits of sin, immorality, and wickedness. This is our Savior's doctrine,  Matthew 7:16-18."

    FRUIT-TREE ( עֵצ פְּרַי , Ets-Peri',  Genesis 1:11, etc.). From the frequent mention of fruit in the Scriptures, we may infer that fruit-bearing trees of various sorts abounded in Palestine. Among the number are specially noticed the vine, olive, pomegranate, fig, sycamore, palm, pear, almond, quince, citron, orange, mulberry, carob, pistacia, and walnut. Other trees and plants also abounded, which yielded their produce in the form of odorous resins and oils, as the balsam, galbanum, frankincense, ladanum, balm, myrrh, spikenard, storax gum, and tragacanth gum. (See Palestine). The ancient Egyptians bestowed great care upon fruit-trees, which are frequently delineated upon the monuments (Wilkinson, 1:36, 55, 57, abridgment). The Mosaic law contains the following prescriptions respecting fruit-trees:

    1. The fruit of newly-planted trees was not to be plucked for the first four years ( Leviticus 19:23 sq.). The economical effect of this provision was observed by Philo (Opp. 2:402). Michaelis remarks (Laws Of Moses, art. 221), "Every gardener will teach us not to let fruit-trees bear in their earliest years, but to pluck off the blossoms; and for this reason, that they will thus thrive the better, and bear more abundantly afterwards. The very expression, 'to regard them as uncircumcised,' suggests the propriety of pinching them off." Another object of this law may have been to exclude from use crude, immature, and therefore unwholesome fruits. When fruits are in season the Orientals consume great quantities of them. Chardin says the Persians and Turks are not only fond of almonds, plums, and melons in a mature state, but they are remarkable for eating them before they are ripe. But there was also a higher moral object in the Mosaic regulation. Trees were not regarded as full-grown until the fifth year, and all products were deemed immature ( Ἀτελεῖς ) and unfit for use until consecrated to Jehovah (Josephu,.Ant. 4: 8,19). (See Foreskin). The Talmud gives minute rules and many puerile distinctions on the subject (Orlah, 1:10). (See Firstfruits).

    2. In besieging fortified places fruit-trees were not to be cut down for fuel (q.v.) nor for military purposes ( Deuteronomy 20:19; compare Josephus, Ant. 4:8, 42; Philo, Opp. 2:400). (See Siege). This humane prohibition, however, was not always observed ( 2 Kings 2:25). (See Tree).

    International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [13]

    froot . See Food; Botany , and special articles on Apple; Fig; Vine , etc.