From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [1]

Τirosh is the most general term for "vintage fruit," put in connection with "corn and oil," necessaries ( Dagan , Yitshar , rather more generally the produce of the field and the orchard) and ordinary articles of diet in Palestine. It occurs 38 times, namely, six times by itself, eleven times with Dagan , twice with Yitshar , nineteen times with both Dagan and Yitshar . Besides, it is seven times with "firstfruits," ten times with "tithes" or "offerings" of fruits and grain; very rarely with terms expressing the process of preparing fruits or vegetable produce. Υayin is the proper term for "wine." In  Micah 6:15, "thou shalt tread ... sweet wine ( Tirowsh , vintage fruit), but shalt not drink wine," the vintage fruit, that which is trodden, is distinguished from the manufactured "wine" which it yields.

Τirowh is never combined with Shemen "oil"; nor Yitshar , "orchard produce," with "wine" the manufactured article. In  Deuteronomy 11:14, "gather in thy grain, wine" ( Tirosh ), it is described as a solid thing, eaten in  Deuteronomy 12:7; compare  2 Chronicles 31:5-6. In  Isaiah 65:8 "the Tirowsh (vintage) is found in the cluster";  Isaiah 62:8-9, "the stranger shall not drink thy Tirowsh , but they that have gathered it ... and brought it together (verbs hardly applicable to a liquid) shall drink it."  Proverbs 3:10, "presses ... burst out with Tirowsh "; and  Joel 2:24, "fats shall overflow with Tirowsh (vintage fruit) and Yitshar ."

 Deuteronomy 14:22-26, "tithe of Tirowsh ," not merely of wine but of the vintage fruit. Scripture denounces the abuse of Yayin , "wine."  Hosea 4:11, "whoredom, wine, and Tirowsh take away the heart": the Tirowsh is denounced not as evil in itself, but as associated with whoredom to which wine and grape cakes were stimulants; compare  Hosea 3:1, "love pressed cakes of dried grapes" (not "flagons of wine"):  Ezekiel 16:49. Υayin , from a root "boil up," is the extract from the grape, whether simple grape juice unfermented, or intoxicating wine; related to the Greek Oinos , Latin Vinum . Vinum , Vitis , are thought related to Sanskrit We , "weave," Viere . Chamar is the Chaldee equivalent to Hebrew Yayin , the generic term for grape liquor.

It literally, means "to foam" ( Deuteronomy 32:14, "the blood of the grape, even wine," not "pure"):  Ezra 6:9;  Ezra 7:22;  Daniel 5:1;  Isaiah 27:2. 'Asis , from a root to "tread," the grape juice newly expressed ( Song of Solomon 8:2); "sweet wine" ( Isaiah 49:26;  Amos 9:13); "new wine" ( Joel 1:5;  Joel 3:18). Μesek ;  Psalms 75:8, translated"the wine is fermenting ('foaming with wine,' Hengstenberg), it is full of mixture," i.e. spiced wine, the more intoxicating, expressing the stupefying effect of God's judgments ( Proverbs 9:2;  Proverbs 23:30). Μezeg ( Song of Solomon 8:2), "spiced ... mixed wine," not as KJV "liquor"; compare  Revelation 14:10.

Shekar ( Sikera in  Luke 1:15), "strong wine," "strong drink," ( Numbers 28:7;  Psalms 69:12 drinkers of Shekar ,") including palm wine, pomegranate wine, apple wine, honey wine; our "sugar" may be a cognate word to Shekar , syrup. Sobe' , related to Latin Sapa , "must boiled down" (Lees), rather from a root "soak" or "drink to excess."  Isaiah 1:22, "thy Sobe' is circumcised with water," i.e. diluted (implying that strength rather than sweetness characterized Sobe' ); the prophet glances at their tendency to rely on the outward circumcision without the inward spirit, the true wine of the ordinance. The Latin Sapa answers rather to Hebrew Debash , Arabic Dabs , grape juice boiled down to the consistency of honey ( Genesis 43:11;  Ezekiel 27:17).

 Nahum 1:10, Hebrew "soaked" or "drunken as with their own wine."  Hosea 4:13, Chomets , "vinegar" or sour wine, such as the Posca which the Roman soldiers drank, and such as was offered to Jesus on the cross ( Psalms 69:22). Instead of "flagons," 'Ashishah ought to be translated "grape cakes" ( 2 Samuel 6:19;  Hosea 3:1, etc.). In  Hosea 4:18 "their drink is sour," i.e. they are utterly degenerate ( Isaiah 1:22); else, they are as licentious as drunkards who smell sour with wine. But Maurer,"(no sooner) is their drinking over (than) they commit whoredoms." The effects of Yayin , "red eyes" ( Genesis 49:12); producing "mockers" of God and man ( Proverbs 20:1); causing error of judgment out of the way ( Isaiah 28:7); but a restorative cordial where stimulants are needed ( Proverbs 31:6).

 Judges 9:13, "wine ... cheereth God and man"; the vine represents here the nobler families who promote the nation's prosperity in a way pleasing to God and man ( Psalms 103:15). God is well pleased with the sacrificial oblations of wine ( Leviticus 15:5;  Leviticus 15:7;  Leviticus 15:10) offered in faith. Externally applied to wounds ( Luke 10:34).  1 Timothy 5:23, "use a little wine for thy stomach's sake." Bringing woe to followers of strong drink, which inflames them from early to late day ( Isaiah 5:12;  Acts 2:15;  1 Thessalonians 5:7). Noisy shouting ( Zechariah 9:15;  Zechariah 10:7), rejoicing, taking away the understanding ( Hosea 4:11). Causing indecent exposure of the person, as Noah ( Genesis 9:22;  Habakkuk 2:15-16). Therefore "woe unto him that giveth his neighbour drink, that puttest thy bottle to him."

Producing sickness ( Hosea 7:5), "princes made him sick with bottles (else owing to the heat) of wine." Scripture condemns the abuse, not the use, of wine. In condemnatory passages no hint is given of there being an unfermented wine to which the condemnation does not apply. The bursting of the leather bottles ( Matthew 9:17) implies fermentation of the wine; so also  Job 32:19. The wine was drawn off probably before fermentation was complete. In  Proverbs 23:31 "when it giveth its eye (i.e. sparkle, Hebrew) in the cup," the reference is to the gas bubble in fermentation. The "sweet wine" ( Acts 2:13;  Acts 2:15) was evidently intoxicating; not "new wine," for eight months had elapsed since the previous vintage; its sweet quality was due to its being made of the purest grape juice. In  Genesis 40:11 the pressing of the grape juice into Pharaoh's cup is no proof that fermented wine was unknown then in Egypt; nay, the monuments represent the fermenting process in the earliest times.

Plutarch's statement (Isid. 6) only means that before Psammeticus the priests restricted themselves to the quantity of wine prescribed by their sacerdotal office (Diod. i. 70). Jonadab's prohibition of wine to the Rechabites was in order to keep them as nomads from a settled life such as vine cultivation needed (Jeremiah 35). The wine at the drink offering of the daily sacrifice ( Exodus 29:40), the firstfruits ( Leviticus 23:13), and other offerings ( Numbers 15:5), implies that its use is lawful. The prohibition of wine to officiating priests ( Leviticus 10:9) was to guard against such excess as probably caused Nadab to offer the strange fire ( Ezekiel 44:21). The Nazarites' Vow against wine was voluntary ( Numbers 6:3); it justifies voluntary total abstinence, but does not enjoin it. Wine was used at the Passover. The third cup was called because of the grace "the cup of blessing" ( 1 Corinthians 10:16), "the fruit of the vine" ( Matthew 26:29).

Moderation in wine is made a requisite in candidates for the ministry ( 1 Timothy 3:3;  1 Timothy 3:8;  Titus 2:3). The vintage was in September and was celebrated with great joy ( Isaiah 16:9-10;  Jeremiah 48:33). The ripe fruit was gathered in baskets, and was carried to the winepress, consisting of an upper (Hebrew Gath , Greek Leenos ) and lower vat ( Yekeb , Greek Hupolenion ); the juice flowed from the fruit placed in the upper to the lower. The two vats were usually hewn in the solid rock, the upper broad and shallow, the lower smaller and deeper. The first drops ("the tear," Dema , margin  Exodus 22:29) were consecrated as firstfruits to Jehovah. Wine long settled formed lees at the bottom, which needed straining ( Isaiah 25:6). The wine of Helbon near Damascus was especially prized ( Ezekiel 27:18), and that of Lebanon for its bouquet ( Numbers 14:7).

Jesus' miracle (John 2) justifies the use; still love justifies abstinence for the sake of taking away any stumbling-block from a brother;  Romans 14:21, "it is good neither to drink wine ... whereby thy brother stumbleth." W. Hepworth Dixon (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, May 1878, p. 67) shows that Kefr Kana, not; Kana el Jelil, answers to the Cana of Galilee (so called to distinguish it from the better known Cana of Judaea, John 2), the scene of our Lord's first miracle at the marriage. It is five miles from Nazareth in a N.E. direction, on the main road to Tiberias. Khirbet Kana (Cana) is not on the road from Nazareth to Capernaum; one coming up from Capernaum to Nazareth and Cana as in the Gospel could not have come near Khirbet Kana, which is on the road from Sepphoris to Ptolemais (Acre), not on the road from Sepphoris to Tiberius. (See Cana .)

Jesus came up from Capernaum and the lake district to Cana ( John 2:2;  John 2:12), then went "down" to Capernaum (so  John 3:46;  John 3:49). Cana evidently stood near the ledge of the hill country over the lake. Moreover at Kefr Kana there are remains of old edifices, but at Khirbet Kana nothing older than later Saracenic times. "Wild grapes" ( Isaiah 5:2, Beuwshim , from Baash "to putrefy") express offensive putrefaction answering to the Jews' corruption; so Jerome. Not, as Rosenmuller; the Aconite or nightshade, or as Hasselquist, "the wolf grape."

Smith's Bible Dictionary [2]

Wine. The manufacture of wine is carried back in the Bible to the age of Noah,  Genesis 9:20-21, to whom the discovery of the process is apparently, though not explicitly, attributed. The natural history and culture of the vine are described under a separate heading. See Vine . The only other plant whose fruit is noticed as having been converted into wine was the pomegranate.  Song of Solomon 8:2.

In Palestine, the vintage takes place in September, and is celebrated with great rejoicing. The ripe fruit was gathered in baskets,  Jeremiah 6:9, as represented in Egyptian paintings, and was carried to the wine-press. It was then placed in the upper one of the two vats or receptacles of which the winepress was formed, and was subjected to the process of "treading," which has prevailed in all ages in Oriental and south European countries.  Nehemiah 13:15;  Job 24:11;  Isaiah 18:10;  Jeremiah 25:30;  Jeremiah 48:33;  Amos 9:13;  Revelation 19:15.

A certain amount of juice exuded from the ripe fruit from its own pressure before treading commenced. This appears to have been kept separate from the rest of the juice, and to have formed the "sweet wine" noticed in  Acts 2:13. [See below.] The "treading" was effected by one or more men, according to the size of the vat. They encouraged one another by shouts.  Isaiah 16:9-10;  Jeremiah 25:30;  Jeremiah 248:33.

Their legs and garments were dyed red with the juice.  Genesis 40:11;  Isaiah 63:2-3. The expressed juice escaped by an aperture into the lower vat, or was at once collected in vessels. A hand-press was occasionally used in Egypt, but we have no notice of such an instrument in the Bible.

As to the subsequent treatment of the wine, we have but little information. Sometimes it was preserved in its unfermented state and drunk as Must , but more generally, it was bottled off after fermentation and if it were designed to be kept for some time, a certain amount of lees was added to give it body.  Isaiah 25:6 The wine consequently required to be "refined" or strained previous to being brought to table.  Isaiah 25:6.

To wine, is attributed the "darkly-flashing eye,"  Genesis 40:12, Authorized Version, "red," the unbridled tongue,  Proverbs 20:1;  Isaiah 28:7, the excitement of the spirit,  Proverbs 31:6;  Isaiah 5:11;  Zechariah 9:15;  Zechariah 10:7, the enchained affections of its votaries,  Hosea 4:11, the perverted judgment,  Proverbs 31:5;  Isaiah 28:7, the indecent exposure,  Habakkuk 2:15-16, and the sickness resulting from the heat ( chemah , Authorized Version, "bottles") of wine.  Hosea 7:5.

The allusions to the effects of new wine, tirosh , are confined to a single passage, but this a most decisive one, namely,  Hosea 4:11. "Whoredom and wine ( yayin ) and new wine ( tirosh ) take away the heart," where tirosh appears as the climax of engrossing influences, in immediate connection with yayin .

It has been disputed whether the Hebrew wine was fermented; but the impression produced on the mind by a general review of the above notices is that the Hebrew words indicating wine refer to fermented, intoxicating wine. The notices of fermentation are not very decisive.

A certain amount of fermentation is implied in the distension of the leather bottles when new wine was placed in them, and which was liable to burst old bottles. It is very likely that new wine was preserved in the state of Must by placing it in jars or bottles and then burying it in the earth.

The mingling that we read of, in conjunction with wine, may have been designed either to increase or to diminish the strength of the wine, according as spices or water formed the ingredient that was added. The notices chiefly favor the former view; for mingled liquor was prepared for high festivals,  Proverbs 9:2;  Proverbs 9:5, and occasions of excess.  Proverbs 23:30;  Isaiah 5:22.

At the same time, strength was not the sole object sought; the wine "mingled with myrrh," given to Jesus , was designed to deaden pain,  Mark 15:23, and the spiced pomegranate wine prepared by the bride,  Song of Solomon 8:2, may well have been of a mild character.

In the New Testament, the character of the "sweet wine," noticed in  Acts 2:13, calls for some little remark. It could not be new wine, in the proper sense of the term, inasmuch as about eight months must have elapsed between the vintage and the Feast of Pentecost . The explanations of the ancient lexicographers rather lead us to infer that its luscious qualities were due, not to its being recently made, but to its being produced from the very purest juice of the grape.

There can be little doubt that the wines of Palestine varied in quality, and were named after the localities in which they were made. The only wines of which we have special notice, belonged to Syria, these were the wine of Helbon  Ezekiel 27:18, and the wine of Lebanon, famed for its aroma.  Hosea 14:7.

With regard to the uses of wine in private life, there is little to remark. It was produced on occasions of ordinary hospitality,  Genesis 14:18, and at festivals, such as marriages.  John 2:3.

Under the Mosaic law, wine formed the usual drink offering that accompanied the daily sacrifice,  Exodus 29:40, the presentation of the first-fruits,  Leviticus 23:13, and other offerings.  Numbers 15:5.

Tithe was to be paid of wine, as of other products. The priest was also to receive first-fruits of wine, as of other articles.  Deuteronomy 18:4. Compare  Exodus 22:29. The use of wine at the Paschal Feast was not enjoined by the law, but had become an established custom, at all events in the post-Babylonian period. The wine was mixed with warm water on these occasions.

Hence, in the early Christian Church, it was usual to mix the sacramental wine with water. (The simple wines of antiquity were incomparably less deadly than the stupefying and ardent beverages of our western nations. The wines of antiquity were more like sirups; many of them were not intoxicant; many more intoxicant in a small degree; and all of them, as a rule, taken only when largely diluted with water. They contained, even undiluted, but 4 or 5 percent of alcohol. - Cannon Farrar).

People's Dictionary of the Bible [3]

Wine.  Genesis 9:20-21. In the Bible, wine is spoken of as a blessing to a country.  Genesis 27:28;  Genesis 27:37;  Deuteronomy 7:13;  Deuteronomy 33:28;  Hosea 2:8;  Hosea 2:22. Our Saviour turned water into wine at a marriage feast, and directed it to be used in celebrating the Lord's supper.  John 2:7-10;  Matthew 26:27-29. The Bible represents wine as having intoxicating qualities, and it has many warnings in regard to its use. Noah was made drunk by it, and so was Lot.  Genesis 9:26;  Genesis 19:32-35. The ruler of the wedding feast where Jesus turned water into wine alluded to the intoxicating nature of wine.  John 2:10. Drunkenness is condemned as a sin.  1 Corinthians 5:11;  1 Corinthians 6:10. The common wine required to be "refined" or strained previous to being brought to the table.  Isaiah 25:6. Wine was also made from pomegranate as well as grape.  Song of Solomon 8:2. In Palestine the vintage comes in September, and is celebrated with great rejoicings. The ripe fruit is gathered in baskets,  Jeremiah 6:9, and carried to the wine-press. It is then placed in the upper one or the two vats or receptacles of the wine-press and is subjected to "treading," which has prevailed in all ages in oriental and south-European countries.  Nehemiah 13:15;  Job 24:11;  Isaiah 16:10;  Jeremiah 25:30;  Jeremiah 48:33;  Amos 9:13; Bey. 19:15. A certain amount of juice exuded from the ripe fruit from its own pressure before the treading commenced. This appears to have been kept separate from the rest of the juice, and to have formed the "new" or "sweet wine" noticed in  Acts 2:13. The "treading" was by men. They encouraged one another by shouts.  Isaiah 16:9-10;  Jeremiah 25:30;  Jeremiah 48:33. Their legs and garments were dyed red with the juice.  Genesis 49:11;  Isaiah 63:2-3. The juice ran by an aperture into the lower vat, or was at once collected in vessels. Wine is said to produce different effects: as the "darkly flashing" or "red eye,"  Genesis 49:12, a mocker,  Proverbs 20:1, the unbridled tongue,  Isaiah 28:7, the excitement of the spirit,  Proverbs 31:6;  Isaiah 5:11;  Zechariah 9:15;  Zechariah 10:7, the enchained affections of its votaries,  Hosea 4:11, the perverted judgment,  Proverbs 31:6; tea. 23:7, the indecent exposure,  Habakkuk 2:15-16, and the sickness resulting from the heat ( Chemâh, A. V., "bottles") of wine.  Hosea 7:5. The allusions to the effects of Tîrôsh are confined to a single passage, but this a most decisive one, viz.,  Hosea 4:11, "Whoredom and wine ( Yayin ) and new wine ( Tîrôsh ) takeaway the heart," where Tîrôsh appears as the climax of engrossing influences, in immediate connection with Yayin . It has been disputed whether the Hebrew wine was fermented; but the impression produced by a general review of the above notices is that the Hebrew words indicating wine refer to fermented, intoxicating wine. Mingled liquor was prepared for high festivals,  Proverbs 9:2;  Proverbs 9:5, and occasions of excess.  Proverbs 23:30;  Isaiah 5:22. The wine "mingled with myrrh," given to Jesus, was designed to deaden pain,  Mark 15:23, and the spiced pomegranate wine prepared by the bride,  Song of Solomon 8:2, may well have been of a mild character. In the New Testament the "new" or "sweet wine," noticed in  Acts 2:13, could not be new wine in the proper sense of the term, inasmuch as about eight months must have elapsed between the vintage and the feast of Pentecost. It had also the power to make persons drunk, at least in public estimation. The only wines of which we have special notice belonged to Syria; these were the wine of Helbon,  Ezekiel 27:18, and the wine of Lebanon, famed for its aroma.  Hosea 14:7. Wine was produced on occasions of ordinary hospitality,  Genesis 14:18, and at festivals, such as marriages.  John 2:3. Under the Mosaic law wine formed the usual drink offering that accompanied the daily sacrifice,  Exodus 29:40, the presentation of the first-fruits,  Leviticus 23:13, and other offerings.  Numbers 15:5. Tithe was to be paid of wine, as of other products. The priest was also to receive first-fruits of wine, as of other articles.  Deuteronomy 18:4; comp.  Exodus 22:29. The use of wine at the paschal feast was not enjoined by the law, but became an established custom, in the post-Babylonian period. Some Biblical scholars hold that the Bible mentions two kinds of wine, one unfermented and one fermented and intoxicating.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [4]

The vine being natural to the soil of Canaan and its vicinity, wine was much used as a beverage, especially at festivals,  Esther 1:7   5:6   Daniel 5:1-4   John 2:3 . As one of the staple products of the Holy Land, it was employed for drink-offerings in the temple service,  Exodus 20:26   Numbers 15:4-10; it was included among the "first-fruits,"  Deuteronomy 18:4 , and was used in the celebration of the Passover, and subsequently of the Lord's supper,  Matthew 26:27-29 . Together with corn and oil it denoted all temporal supplies,  Psalm 4:7   Hosea 2:8   Joel 2:19 .

The word "wine" in our Bible is the translation of as many as ten different Hebrew words and two Greek words, most of which occur in but a few instances. The two most frequently used, Yayin and its Greek equivalent Oinos, are general terms for all sorts of wine,  Nehemiah 5:18 . Without minute details on this subject, we may observe that "wine" in Scripture denotes,

1. The pure juice of the grape, fermented, and therefore more or less intoxicating, but free from drugs of any kind, and not strengthened by distilled liquors.

2. Must, the fresh juice of the grape, unfermented or in process of fermentation. For this the Hebrew employs the word tirosh, English version, new wine. Wine, as a product of agriculture, is commonly mentioned by this name along with corn and oil,  Genesis 40:11   Exodus 22:29   Deuteronomy 32:14   Luke 5:37-38

3. Honey of wine, made by boiling down must to one-fourth of its bulk. This commonly goes, in the Old Testament, by the name debhash, honey; and only the context can enable us to determine whether honey of grapes or of bees is to be understood,  Numbers 18:12   Proverbs 9:2,5

4. Spiced wine, made stronger and more inviting to the taste by the admixture of spices and other drugs, Song of  Song of Solomon 8:2   5 . Strong drink, Hebrew shechar. This word sometimes denotes pure strong wine, as  Numbers 28:7; or drugged wine, as  Isaiah 5:22; but more commonly wine made from dates, honey, etc., and generally made more inebriating by being mingled with drugs.

See also, in connection with this article, Flagon, Myrrh and Vinegar .

The "wine of Helbon" was made in the vicinity of Damascus, and sent from that city to Tyre,  Ezekiel 27:19 . It resembled the "wine of Lebanon," famous for its excellence and fragrance,  Hosea 14:7 . See Helbon .

Great efforts have been made to distinguish the harmless from the intoxicating wines of Scripture, and to show that inspiration has in all cases approved the former alone, and condemned the latter, directly or indirectly. It is not necessary, however, to do this in order to demonstrate that so far as the use of wine leads to inebriation it is pointedly condemned by the word of God. Son and shame are connected with the first mention of wine in the Bible, and with many subsequent cases,  Genesis 9:20   19:31-36   1 Samuel 25:36-37   2 Samuel 13:28   1 Kings 20:12-21   Esther 1:10-11   Daniel 5:23   Revelation 17:2 . It is characterized as a deceitful mocker,  Proverbs 21:1; as fruitful in miseries,  Proverbs 23:29-35; in woes,  Isaiah 5:22; in errors,  Isaiah 28:1-7; and in impious folly,  Isaiah 5:11,12   56:12   Hosea 4   11 .

The use of it is in some cases expressly forbidden,  Leviticus 10:9   Numbers 6:3; and in other cases is alluded to as characteristic of the wicked,  Joel 3:3   Amos 6:6 . Numerous cautions to beware of it are given,  1 Samuel 1:14   Proverbs 23:31   31:4-5   1 Timothy 3:3; and to tempt other to use it is in one passage made the occasion of a bitter curse,  Habakkuk 2:15 . On the other hand, whatever approval was given in Palestine to the moderate use of wine, can hardly apply to a country where wine is an imported or manufactured article, often containing not a drop of the juice of the grape; or if genuine and not compounded with drugs, still enforced with distilled spirits. The whole state of the case, moreover, is greatly modified by the discovery of the process of distilling alcohol, and by the prevalence of appalling evils now inseparable from the general use of any intoxicating drinks. Daniel and the Rechabites saw good reason for total abstinence from wine,  Jeremiah 35:14   Daniel 1:8; and the sentiment of Paul, on a mater involving the same principles, is divinely commended to universal adoption,  Romans 14:21   1 Corinthians 8:13 .

For "wine-press," see Press , and Vine .

Easton's Bible Dictionary [5]

  • Mesek, "a mixture," mixed or spiced wine, not diluted with water, but mixed with drugs and spices to increase its strength, or, as some think, mingled with the lees by being shaken (  Psalm 75:8;  Proverbs 23:30 ).

    In  Acts 2:13 the word Gleukos , rendered "new wine," denotes properly "sweet wine." It must have been intoxicating.

    In addition to wine the Hebrews also made use of what they called Debash , Which was obtained by boiling down must to one-half or one-third of its original bulk. In   Genesis 43:11 this word is rendered "honey." It was a kind of syrup, and is called by the Arabs at the present day dibs. This word occurs in the phrase "a land flowing with milk and honey" (debash),   Exodus 3:8,17;  13:5;  33:3;  Leviticus 20:24;  Numbers 13 ::  27 . (See Honey .)

    Our Lord miraculously supplied wine at the marriage feast in Cana of Galilee (  John 2:1-11 ). The Rechabites were forbidden the use of wine ( Jeremiah 35 ). The Nazarites also were to abstain from its use during the period of their vow ( Numbers 6:1-4 ); and those who were dedicated as Nazarites from their birth were perpetually to abstain from it ( Judges 13:4,5;  Luke 1:15;  7:33 ). The priests, too, were forbidden the use of wine and strong drink when engaged in their sacred functions ( Leviticus 10:1,9-11 ). "Wine is little used now in the East, from the fact that Mohammedans are not allowed to taste it, and very few of other creeds touch it. When it is drunk, water is generally mixed with it, and this was the custom in the days of Christ also. The people indeed are everywhere very sober in hot climates; a drunken person, in fact, is never seen", (Geikie's Life of Christ). The sin of drunkenness, however, must have been not uncommon in the olden times, for it is mentioned either metaphorically or literally more than seventy times in the Bible.

    A drink-offering of wine was presented with the daily sacrifice ( Exodus 29:40,41 ), and also with the offering of the first-fruits ( Leviticus 23:13 ), and with various other sacrifices ( Numbers 15:5,7,10 ). Wine was used at the celebration of the Passover. And when the Lord's Supper was instituted, the wine and the unleavened bread then on the paschal table were by our Lord set apart as memorials of his body and blood.

    Several emphatic warnings are given in the New Testament against excess in the use of wine ( Luke 21:34;  Romans 13:13;  Ephesians 5:18;  1 Timothy 3:8;  Titus 1:7 ).

    Copyright Statement These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., DD Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain.

    Bibliography Information Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Wine'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. 1897.

  • Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [6]

    יין ,  Genesis 19:32 , οινος ,  Matthew 9:17 , a liquor expressed from grapes. The art of refining wine upon the lees was known to the Jews. The particular process, as it is now practised in the island of Cyprus, is described in Mariti's Travels. The wine is put immediately from the vat into large vases of potters' ware, pointed at the bottom, till they are nearly full, when they are covered tight and buried. At the end of a year what is designed for sale is drawn into wooden casks. The dregs in the vases are put into wooden casks destined to receive wine, with as much of the liquor as is necessary to prevent them from becoming dry before use. Casks thus prepared are very valuable. When the wine a year old is put in, the dregs rise, and make it appear muddy, but afterward they subside and carry down all the other feculences. The dregs are so much valued that they are not sold with the wine in the vase, unless particularly mentioned.

    The "new wine," or "must," is mentioned,  Isaiah 49:26;  Joel 1:5;  Joel 3:18; and  Amos 9:13 , under the name עסיס . The "mixed wine," ממסד ,  Proverbs 23:30; and in  Isaiah 65:11; rendered "drink- offering," may mean wine made stronger and more inebriating by the addition of higher and more powerful ingredients, such as honey, spices, defrutum, or wine inspissated by boiling it down, myrrh, mandragora, and other strong drugs. Thus the drunkard is properly described as one that seeketh "mixed wine,"   Proverbs 23:30 , and is mighty to "mingle strong drink,"  Isaiah 5:22; and hence the psalmist took that highly poetical and sublime image of the cup of God's wrath, called by  Isaiah 51:17 , "the cup of trembling," containing: as St. John expresses it,  Revelation 14:10 , pure wine made yet stronger by a mixture of powerful ingredients: "In the hand of Jehovah is a cup, and the wine is turbid; it is full of a mixed liquor, and he poureth out of it," or rather, "he poureth it out of one vessel into another," to mix it perfectly; "verily the dregs thereof," the thickest sediment of the strong ingredients mingled with it, "all the ungodly of the earth shall wring them out, and drink them." "Spiced wine,"  Song of Solomon 8:2 , was wine rendered more palatable and fragrant with aromatics. This was considered as a great delicacy. Spiced wines were not peculiar to the Jews. Hafiz speaks of wines "richly bitter, richly sweet."

    The Romans lined their vessels, amphorae, with odorous gums, to give the wine a warm bitter flavour: and the orientals now use the admixture of spices to give their wines a favourite relish. The "wine of Helbon,"

     Ezekiel 27:18 , was an excellent kind of wine, known to the ancients by the name of chalibonium vinum. It was made at Damascus; the Persians had planted vineyards there on purpose, says Posidosius, quoted, by Athenaeus. This author says that the kings of Persia used no other wine.

     Hosea 14:7 , mentions the wine of Lebanon. The wines from the vineyards on that mount are even to this day in repute; but some think that this may mean a sweet-scented wine, or wine flavoured with fragrant gums.

    Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words [7]

    Yayin ( יַיִן , Strong'S #3196), “wine.” Cognates of this word appear in Akkadian, Ugaritic, Aramaic, Arabic, and Ethiopic. It appears about 141 times and in all periods of biblical Hebrew.

    This is the usual Hebrew word for fermented grape. It is usually rendered “wine.” Such “wine” was commonly drunk for refreshment: “And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine …” (Gen. 14:18; cf. 27:25). Passages such as Ezek. 27:18 inform us that “wine” was an article of commerce: “Damascus was thy merchant in the multitude of the wares of thy making, for the multitude of all riches; in the wine of Helbon, and white wool.” Strongholds were supplied with “wine” in case of siege (2 Chron. 11:11). Proverbs recommends that kings avoid “wine” and strong drink but that it be given to those troubled with problems that they might drink and forget their problems (Prov. 31:4-7). “Wine” was used to make merry, to make one feel good without being intoxicated (2 Sam. 13:28).

    Second, “wine” was used in rejoicing before the Lord. Once a year all Israel is to gather in Jerusalem. The money realized from the sale of a tithe of all their harvest was to be spent “for whatsoever thy soul lusteth after, for oxen, or for sheep, or for wine, or for strong drink, or for whatsoever thy soul desireth: and thou shalt eat there before the Lord thy God, and thou shalt rejoice …” (Deut. 14:26). “Wine” was offered to God at His command as part of the prescribed ritual (Exod. 29:40). Thus it was part of the temple supplies available for purchase by pilgrims so that they could offer it to God (1 Chron. 9:29). Pagans used “wine” in their worship, but “their wine is the poison of dragons, and the cruel venom of asps” (Deut. 32:33)

    Yayin clearly represents an intoxicating beverage. This is evident in its first biblical appearance: “And Noah began to be a husbandman, and he planted a vineyard: and he drank of the wine, and was drunken …” (Gen. 9:20-21). The word is used as a synonym of tirosh , “new wine,” in Hos. 4:11, where it is evident that both can be intoxicating. Tirosh is distinguished from yayin —by referring only to new wine not fully fermented; yayin includes “wine” at any stage. In Gen. 27:28 (the first biblical occurrence of the word) Jacob’s blessing includes the divine bestowal of an abundance of new wine. In 1 Sam. 1:15 yayin parallels shekar , “strong drink.” Shekar in early times included wine (Num. 28:7) but meant strong drink made from any fruit or grain (Num. 6:3). People in special states of holiness were forbidden to drink “wine,” such as the Nazarites (Num. 6:3), Samson’s mother (Judg. 13:4), and priests approaching God (Lev. 10:9).

    In Gen. 9:24 yayin means drunkenness: “And Noah awoke from his wine.…”

    Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [8]

    1: Οἶνος (Strong'S #3631 — Noun Masculine — oinos — oy'-nos )

    is the general word for "wine." The mention of the bursting of the wineskins,  Matthew 9:17;  Mark 2:22;  Luke 5:37 , implies fermentation. See also  Ephesians 5:18 (cp.   John 2:10;  1—Timothy 3:8;  Titus 2:3 ). In  Matthew 27:34 , the RV has "wine" (AV, "vinegar," translating the inferior reading oxos).

     Romans 14:21 1—Timothy 5:23 Revelation 14:8 17:2 18:3 Revelation 14:10 16:19 19:15

    2: Γλεῦκος (Strong'S #1098 — Noun Neuter — gleukos — glyoo'-kos )

    denotes sweet "new wine," or must,  Acts 2:13 , where the accusation shows that it was intoxicant and must have been undergoing fermentation some time. In the Sept.,  Job 32:19 .

     Mark 14:25

    Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types [9]

     Genesis 49:11 (b) Jacob used this figure to describe the wonderful wealth that would accrue to Judah. It is similar to the statement by Job when he said "I washed my steps in butter." It is a description of great wealth, comfort and blessing.

     Proverbs 9:2 (b) Probably this is typical of the sweet experiences of those who feel their own weakness, and then partake of the truths of GOD, as revealed in His precious Word.

     Isaiah 55:1 (b) This symbol represents the joy of the Christian life which GOD gives to those who trust Jesus Christ and honor the Holy Spirit.

     Matthew 9:17 (b) This may be taken as a type of the new life which GOD does not put into the old nature. The Lord does not try to fix up "the old man." Instead He gives a new birth so that the new-born soul, with a new life and a new nature may enjoy Heaven's blessings.

     John 2:3 (c) We may take this wine to represent that peculiar joy and peace which only Christ can give to human hearts. The wedding is the sweetest of all human experiences, but even that could not be completely satisfactory unless Christ Jesus came to bring the peculiar blessing of Heaven, which only He can give.

     Revelation 16:19 (a) This wine represents the wrath of GOD which emanates from His own righteous heart, and is given to His enemies to drink. It is the product of the holy anger of the righteous Judge.

     Revelation 17:2 (a) The wine in this case represents the evil practices of the apostate church. The teachings and the practices of this wicked group offers to the rulers of earth and to the great men of the lands pleasures and comforts in their lives of sin and wickedness. The nations receive the false teachings of this evil church which makes it easy to live in every kind of sinfulness, and yet be comforted by the assurance that the church can forgive, and has the power to send the soul to Heaven.

    Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [10]

    Wine in Scripture is frequently put for some choice thing. Thus when Jesus wrought his first miracle in Cana of Galilee, in turning the water into wine; as this set forth the glories of his person and righteousness, it might be truly said the gospel then preached, compared to all former revelations, was keeping the best wine to the last; ( John 2:10-12) and hence the gospel itself is called wine on the lees well refined. ( Isaiah 25:6) But the sweetest commendation of Jesus and his gospel, is that which under the similitude of wine is given by the spouse, ( Song of Song of Solomon 1:2) where she desires to be kissed with the kisses of Jesus's mouth, for, said she, thy love is better than wine. And for this self-evident reason. Wine no doubt is a delightful cordial, and properly used will tend, under the devine blessing, to revive a poor sick and sorrowful heart. But never was it known to do what Christ's love hath done, to raise a sinner dead in trespasses and sins. Oh, precious love of a most precious Saviour! Surely here every one must allow that Jesus's love is better than wine. Here the largest draughts can never injure as the juice of the grape; but as Jesus gives, so may souls receive the largest portions, not only unhurt, but more blessed. His language is: "Eat, O friends: drink, yea, drink abundantly, O beloved!" ( Song of Song of Solomon 5:1)

    Morrish Bible Dictionary [11]

    There are several Hebrew words translated wine, and though various expressions are attached to it as 'sweet,' 'new,' 'strong,' 'good,' 'mixed,' 'spiced,' 'on the lees,' all are wine  ; and the wine was intoxicating, as seen already in the days of Noah.  Genesis 9:21 . Intemperance is the abuse of it, and against such abuse there are abundant protests and warnings in the scripture. Wine is mentioned with corn and oil, among the good gifts wherewith God would bless His earthly people.  Deuteronomy 7:13;  Psalm 104:15 . It was daily offered in the temple as a drink offering.  Numbers 28:7 .

    Wine was created by the Lord in His first recorded miracle.  John 2:3-10 . He was blasphemously spoken of as a wine-bibber; and He said at the last Passover, "I will drink no more of the fruit of the vine, until that day that I drink it new in the kingdom of God."  Mark 14:25 . He also instituted the Lord's Supper with the cup of wine. Paul recommended Timothy to take a little wine for his frequent sickness; and a bishop must not be given to much wine. There is therefore adequate evidence that wine is regarded as a beneficent gift of God, of which man may make a moderate use. If, however, a man has no power over his appetite, doubtless he had better abstain from wine altogether. Drunkards shall not inherit the kingdom of God.   1 Corinthians 6:10 .

    King James Dictionary [12]

    WINE, n. Gr.

    1. The fermented juice of grapes as the wine of the Madeira grape the wine of Burgundy or Oporto. 2. The juice of certain fruits, prepared with sugar, spirits, &c. as currant wine gooseberry wine. 3. Intoxication.

    Noah awoke from his wine.  Genesis 9 .

    4. Drinking.

    They that tarry long at the wine.  Proverbs 23 .

    Corn and wine, in Scripture, are put for all kinds of necessaries for subsistence. Psalm.

    Bread and wine, in the Lords supper, are symbols of the body and blood of Christ.

    Webster's Dictionary [13]

    (1): ( n.) The expressed juice of grapes, esp. when fermented; a beverage or liquor prepared from grapes by squeezing out their juice, and (usually) allowing it to ferment.

    (2): ( n.) A liquor or beverage prepared from the juice of any fruit or plant by a process similar to that for grape wine; as, currant wine; gooseberry wine; palm wine.

    (3): ( n.) The effect of drinking wine in excess; intoxication.

    Holman Bible Dictionary [14]


    David Maltsberger

    Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [15]

    See Abstinence, Drunkenness, Eucharist, Temperance.

    Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology [16]

    See Abstinence Abstain

    Bridgeway Bible Dictionary [17]

    See Grapes .

    Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [18]

    No fewer than thirteen distinct Hebrew and Greek terms are rendered in our common version by the word 'wine.' Besides the pure juice of the grape, frequent mention is made in Scripture of a kind of boiled wine or syrup, the thickness of which rendered it necessary to mingle water with it previously to drinking (; ), and also of a mixed wine, made strong and inebriating by the addition of drugs, such as myrrh, mandragora, and opiates (; ). This custom has prevailed from the earliest ages, and is still extant in the East. We are not, however, to conclude that all mixed wine was pernicious or improper. There were two very opposite purposes sought by the mixture of drinks. While the wicked sought out a drugged mixture, and was 'mighty to mingle strong drink,' Wisdom, on the contrary, mingled her wine with water or with milk (; ) merely to dilute it and make it properly drinkable. Of the latter mixture Wisdom invites the people to drink freely, but on the use of the former an emphatic woe is pronounced. In , mention is made of 'wines on the lees.' The original signifies 'preserves' or 'jellies,' and is supposed to refer to the wine cakes which are esteemed a great delicacy in the East.