From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [1]

Brook (  John 18:1; (Revised Version margin) ‘ ravine , Gr. winter torrent ,’ χείμαρρος) is the usual LXX Septuagint equivalent of נַחַל, and seems to correspond in meaning with the Arab. [Note: Arabic.] wâdy = ‘valley,’ but, more particularly, the watercourse in the bottom of the valley. The winter rains, rushing down from the mountain range, have hollowed out great channels westward, towards the Mediterranean. Much deeper are the gullies eastward, where the descent is steeper, towards the Jordan. Most of these are quite dry during the greater part of the year. Although some are called ‘rivers,’ e.g. Nahr el-ʽAujeh , in the Plain of Sharon, and the Kishon, while others, such as el-ʽAmûd , which crosses the Plain of Gennesaret, and el-Yarmuk , which comes down from the eastern uplands, draw abundant supplies from perennial springs, yet ‘brook’ more accurately describes them.

The Kidron contains water only after heavy rains. It is the one ‘brook’ mentioned in the Gospels. Over it Jesus passed from the upper room to Gethsemane on the night of His betrayal.

The name קִרְרוֹן, from קדר, is usually referred to the dark colour of the stream or ravine. The various forms of the name in Gr. are τοῦ κέδρου, τοῦ κεδρών, and τῶν κεδρων. WH [Note: H Westcott and Hort’s text.] in ‘Notes on Select Readings,’ after reviewing the evidence, conclude in favour of τῶν κέδρων. ‘It probably preserves the true etymology of קדרון, which seems to be an archaic (? Canaanite) plural of קדד “the Dark [trees]”; for, though no name from this root is applied to any tree in Bib. Heb., some tree resembling a cedar was called by a similar name in at least the later language (see exx. in Buxtorf, Lex. Talm . 1976); and the Gr. ΚΕΔΡΟ is probably of Phœnician origin.’ They suggest that isolated patches of cedar forests may have survived from prehistoric times. Lightfoot quotes (Chorag. Cent. 40) a Talmudic reference to two gigantic cedars standing on the Mt. of Olives even in the latest days of the Temple (Jerus. [Note: Jerusalem.] Taanith , fol. 69. i), which may be taken as supporting this view.

The valley begins in the wide hollow between the city and Mt. Scopus on the north. Turning southward, and passing under the eastern battlements, by a deep ravine it cuts off Jerusalem from Olivet. It is joined by the Valley of Hinnom, and thence, as Wady en-Nâr , ‘Valley of Fire,’ it winds down an ever deepening gorge, through the Wilderness of Judaea, to the edge of the Dead Sea. The name Wady er-Râhib , ‘Valley of the Monks,’ attaching to part of it, comes from the convent of Mar Saba, built on the right-hand face of the gorge, a sort of reformatory for refractory monks, in the midst of the wilderness.

The modern name of the brook Kidron is Wady Sitti Maryam , ‘Valley of the Lady Mary.’ As early as Eusebius and Jerome it was known as the Valley of Jehoshaphat,  Joel 3:2 [ Hebrews 4:2]. According to a tradition, common to Jews, Moslems, and Christians, this is to be the scene of the final Judgment. As against the Temple, which overlooked it, the valley ranked as an unclean district, and it seems to have afforded burying-ground for people of the humbler orders ( 2 Kings 23:6). To this day the Jews greatly covet a grave in the Kidron valley.

W. Ewing.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [2]

BROOK . The Heb. words thus rendered are 1 . ‘Aphîq , meaning the actual bed of the stream (  Psalms 42:1 ), tr. [Note: translate or translation.] also by ‘stream’ and ‘river.’ 2 . Ye’ôr almost always used of the Nile and water-trenches of Egypt. It is tr. [Note: translate or translation.] ‘brook’ only in   Isaiah 19:6-8 . Once it is used for the water-channel (  Job 28:10 ); once (  Isaiah 33:21 ) it is rendered ‘stream’; while in   Daniel 12:1-13 it stands for the Tigris. 3 . Mîkhal (  2 Samuel 17:20 ), a word of uncertain derivation and meaning. 4 . Nachal is the most usual word for EV [Note: English Version.] ‘brook.’ It is the exact equivalent of the Arab wâdy , which means a valley containing a stream of water. It may be applied to the valley (  Numbers 21:12 etc.), or to the water-course alone (  Deuteronomy 9:21 etc.), which is still ‘the wady,’ even after it has escaped from the valley.

The slopes of the mountain range of Western Palestine are deeply furrowed by a succession of great wadys. The sides of the mountains that dip into the Jordan Valley are far steeper than those to the W., and the streams flowing eastward plunge down through awful chasms, worn deep with the lapse of ages. In the longer descent westward the valleys frequently open into beautiful and fertile glades. For the most part the brooks, fed only by the rain, dry up in the summertime, and the mills along their banks fall silent, waking to fresh activity again only with the music of the rushing storm. There are, however, streams fed by perennial springs, such as el-‘Aujeh and the Kishon, W. of Jordan, and the Yarmuk and the Jabbok on the east.

W. Ewing.

Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types [3]

 1 Samuel 17:40 (c) This may be taken as a figure of the Word of GOD from which we may take portions and passages (stones), to hurl at GOD's enemies.

 1 Kings 17:5 (c) This may be taken as a picture of the temporary character of the pleasures and programs which the world offers to the soul.

 Job 6:15 (b) Here we have an indication of the vacillating character of human relationships. The best of friends separate. The sweetest fellowships often turn to bitter animosities.

 Psalm 42:1 (b) This is a type of the rich blessings found in the Word of GOD, and in His fellowship by those who seek Him with the whole heart.

 Psalm 110:7 (b) Possibly this brook refers to the intimate fellowship that Jesus had with His Father as He communed with Him in prayer, and learned of Him in His study of the Word.

 Proverbs 18:4 (b) Here is described the refreshing, life-giving character of man's helpful counsel to his fellowmen.

 Isaiah 15:7 (c) Possibly this is a reference to the transient character of possessions which will soon be carried away by the stream of time. We too should remember to keep short accounts with GOD. When we fail or falter, when we drift around and wander, let us come back to Calvary and look up to that precious One who is living on the Throne and whose blood cleanseth from all sin. There is no excuse for any Christian remaining out of fellowship with GOD.

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [4]

is distinguished from a river by its flowing only at particular times; for example, after great rains, or the melting of the snow; whereas a river flows constantly at all seasons. However, this distinction is not always observed in the Scripture; and one is not unfrequently taken for the other,—the great rivers, such as the Euphrates, the Nile, the Jordan, and others being called brooks. Thus the Euphrates,  Isaiah 15:7 , is called the brook of willows. It is observed that the Hebrew word, נחל , which signifies a brook, is also the term for a valley, whence the one is often placed for the other, in different translations of the Scriptures. To deal deceitfully "as a brook," and to "pass away as the stream thereof," is to deceive our friend when he most needs and expects our help and comfort,   Job 6:15; because brooks, being temporary streams, are dried up in the heats of summer, when the traveller most needs a supply of water on his journey.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [5]

Four Hebrew words are translated 'brook.'

1. aphiq,  Psalm 42:1 : water held in by banks, translated also 'channel.'

2. yeor ,  Isaiah 19:6-8 , a river, canal, fosse: applied to the Nile in  Exodus 1:22 , etc.

3. mikal,  2 Samuel 17:20 , a small brook.

4. nachal,  Genesis 32:23 , etc., a mountain torrent often dry in summer, and thus often disappointing, as in  Job 6:15 . Such are numerous in Palestine. (This is the word in all the passages where 'brook' occurs in the O.T. except those above enumerated.) The same is called in the N.T. χείμαρρος, 'winter flowing.'  John 18:1 . Its Eastern name is wady.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [6]

1: Χείμαρρος (Strong'S #5493 — Adjective — cheimarrhos — khi'-mar-hros )

lit., "winter-flowing" (from cheima, "winter," and rheo, "to flow"), a stream which runs only in winter or when swollen with rains, a "brook,"  John 18:1 .

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [7]

Aphiquw . A torrent sweeping through a mountain gorge, in the poetical books alone. Yeor, the Nile canals,  Isaiah 19:6-8;  Isaiah 23:3;  Isaiah 23:10, but general in  Daniel 12:5-7. Mical, a rivulet ( 2 Samuel 17:20). Nachal, the torrent bed, and the torrent itself ( Numbers 21:12;  1 Kings 17:3); the Arabic Wady ; Indian Nullah ; Greek Cheimarrous .

Easton's Bible Dictionary [8]

  • In  Isaiah 19:7 the river Nile is meant, as rendered in the Revised Version.

    Copyright Statement These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., DD Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain.

    Bibliography Information Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Brook'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. 1897.

  • King James Dictionary [9]

    BROOK, n. Gr. to rain, to pour, to flow. A small natural stream of water, or a current flowing from a spring or fountain less than a river. In some parts of America, run is used in a like sense but run is also applied to larger streams than brook.

    BROOK, Gr. to eat, to grind the teeth. Literally, to chew or digest, as the Fr. digerir. Hence,

    To bear to endure to support as,young men cannot brook restraint.

    Webster's Dictionary [10]

    (1): (v. t.) To deserve; to earn.

    (2): (v. t.) To bear; to endure; to put up with; to tolerate; as, young men can not brook restraint.

    (3): (v. t.) To use; to enjoy.

    (4): (v. t.) A natural stream of water smaller than a river or creek.

    American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [11]

    See River .

    Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [12]

    See Cedron

    International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [13]

    brook ( נחל , naḥal , אפיק , 'āphı̄ḳ , יאור , ye'ōr , מיכל , mı̄khāl  ; χείμαρῥηος , cheı́marrhos ): In Palestine there are few large streams. Of the smaller ones many flow only during the winter, or after a heavy rain. The commonest Hebrew word for brook is naḥal , which is also used for river and for valley , and it is not always clear whether the valley or the stream in the valley is meant ( Numbers 13:23;  Deuteronomy 2:13;  2 Samuel 15:23 ). The Arabic wādy , which is sometimes referred to in this connection, is not an exact parallel, for while it may be used of a dry valley or of a valley containing a stream, it means the valley and not the stream. 'Āphı̄ḳ and ye'ōr are translated both "brook" and "river," ר , ye'or being generally used of the Nile ( Exodus 1:22 , etc.), though in  Daniel 12:5-7 , of the Tigris. Cheimarrhos , "winter-flowing," is applied in  John 18:1 to the Kidron. Many of the streams of Palestine which are commonly called rivers would in other countries be called brooks, but in such a dry country any perennial stream assumes a peculiar importance.

    Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [14]

    (very generally נִחִל , Nachal'; Sept. and N.T. Χείμῤῥος ), rather A Torrent.-

    It is applied,

    1. to small streams arising from a subterraneous spring and flowing through a deep valley, such as the Arnon, Jabbok, Kidron, Sorek, etc., and also the brook of the willows, mentioned in  Isaiah 15:7;

    2. to winter-torrents arising from rains, and which are soon dried up in the warm season ( Job 6:15;  Job 6:19). Such is the noted river (brook) of Egypt so often mentioned as at the southernmost border of Palestine ( Numbers 34:5;  Joshua 15:4;  Joshua 15:47); and, in fact, such are most of the brooks and streams of Palestine, which are numerous in winter and early spring, but of which very few survive the beginning of the summer.

    3. As this (Heb.) word is applied both to the valley in which a brook runs and to the stream itself, it is sometimes doubtful which is meant (see Gesenius, Thes. p. 873). (See Stream).

    To deal " deceitfully as a brook," and to pass away "as the stream of brooks" ( Job 6:15), is to deceive our friend when he most needs our help and comfort; because brooks, being temporary streams, are dried up in the heats of summer, and thus the hopes of the traveller are disappointed (see Hackett's Illustra. of Scripture, p. 16). (See River).

    Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [15]

    The original word (Nahal) thus translated might better be rendered by torrent. It is applied, 1. to small streams arising from a subterraneous spring, and flowing through a deep valley, such as the Arnon, Jabbok, Kidron, Sorek, etc.; and also the brook of the willows, mentioned in  Isaiah 15:7; Isaiah 2. to winter-torrents, arising from rains, and which are soon dried up in the warm season ( Job 6:15;  Job 6:19). Such is the noted river (brook) of Egypt, so often mentioned as at the southernmost border of Canaan ( Numbers 34:5;  Joshua 15:4;  Joshua 15:47), and, in fact, such are most of the brooks and streams of Palestine, which are numerous in winter and early spring, but of which very few survive the beginning of the summer.