From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [1]

There were many kings of this name in Syria, much celebrated in the Greek, Roman, and Jewish histories, after the time of Seleucus Nicanor, the father of Antiochus Soter, and reckoned the first king of Syria after Alexander the Great.

1. Antiochus Soter was the son of Seleucus Nicanor, and obtained the surname of Soter, or Saviour, from having hindered the invasion of Asia by the Gauls. Some think that it was on the following occasion: The Galatians having marched to attack the Jews in Babylon, whose army consisted only of eight thousand men, reinforced with four thousand Macedonians, the Jews defended themselves with so much bravery, that they killed one hundred and twenty thousand men, 2Ma_8:20 . It was perhaps, too, on this occasion, that Antiochus Soter made the Jews of Asia free of the cities belonging to the Gentiles, and permitted them to live according to their own laws.

2. Antiochus Theos or, the God, was the son and successor of Antiochus Soter. He married Berenice, daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt. Laodice, his first wife, seeing herself despised, poisoned Antiochus, Berenice, and their son, who was intended to succeed in the kingdom. After this, Laodice procured Seleucus Callinicus, her son by Antiochus, to be acknowledged king of Syria. These events were foretold by Daniel: "And in the end of years," the king of Egypt, or of the south, and the king of Syria, or of the north, "shall join themselves together; for the king's daughter of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement: but she shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he stand, nor his arm: but she shall be given up, and they that brought her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened her in these times,"

 Daniel 11:6 .

3. Antiochus The Great was the son of Seleucus Callinicus, and brother to Seleucus Ceraunus, whom he succeeded in the year of the world 3781. and before Jesus Christ 223. He made war against Ptolemy Philopator, king of Egypt, but was defeated near Raphia, 3 Maccabees 1. Thirteen years after, Ptolemy Philopator being dead, Antiochus resolved to become master of Egypt. He immediately seized Coelo-Syria, Phenicia, and Judea; but Scopas, general of the Egyptian army, entered Judea while Antiochus was occupied by the war against Attalus, and retook those places. However, he soon lost them again to Antiochus. On this occasion happened what Josephus relates of this prince's journey to Jerusalem. After a victory which he had obtained over Scopas, near the springs of Jordan, he became master of the strong places in Coelo-Syria and Samaria; and the Jews submitted freely to him, received him into their city and furnished his army plentifully with provisions. In reward for their affection, Antiochus granted them, according to Josephus, twenty thousand pieces of silver, to purchase beasts for sacrifice, one thousand four hundred and sixty measures of meal, and three hundred and seventy-five measures of salt to be offered with the sacrifices, and timber to rebuild the porches of the Lord's house. He exempted the senators, scribes, and singing men of the temple, from the capitation tax; and he permitted the Jews to live according to their own laws in every part of his dominions. He also remitted the third part of their tribute, to indemnify them for their losses in the war; he forbade the Heathens to enter the temple without being purified, and to bring into the city the flesh of mules, asses, and horses to sell, under a severe penalty.

In the year of the world 3815, Antiochus was overcome by the Romans, and obliged to cede all his possessions beyond Mount Taurus, to give twenty hostages, among whom was his own son Antiochus, afterward surnamed Epiphanes, and to pay a tribute of twelve thousand Euboic talents, each fourteen Roman pounds in weight. To defray these charges, he resolved to seize the treasures of the temple of Belus, at Elymais; but the people of that country, informed of his design, surprised and destroyed him, with all his army, in the year of the world 3817, and before Jesus Christ 187. He left two sons, Seleucus Philopator, and Antiochus Epiphanes, who succeeded him.

4. Antiochus Epiphanes the son of Antiochus the Great, having continued a hostage at Rome fourteen years, his brother Seleucus resolved to procure his return to Syria, and sent his own son Demetrius to Rome in the place of Antiochus. Whilst Antiochus was on his journey to Syria, Seleucus died, in the year of the world 3829. When, therefore, Antiochus landed, the people received him as some propitious deity come to assume the government, and to oppose the enterprises of Ptolemy, king of Egypt, who threatened to invade Syria. For this reason Antiochus obtained the surname of Epiphanes, the illustrious, or of one appearing like a god.

Antiochus quickly turned his attention to the possession of Egypt, which was then enjoyed by Ptolemy Philometor, his nephew, son to his sister Cleopatra, whom Antiochus the Great had married to Ptolemy Epiphanes, king of Egypt. He sent Apollonius, one of his officers, into Egypt, apparently to honour Ptolemy's coronation, but in reality to obtain intelligence whether the great men of the kingdom were inclined to place the government of Egypt in his hands during the minority of the king his nephew, 2Ma_4:21 , &c. Apollonius, however, found them not disposed to favour his master; and this obliged Antiochus to make war against Philometor. He came to Jerusalem in 3831, and was received there by Jason, to whom he had sold the high priesthood. He designed to attack Egypt, but returned without effecting any thing. The ambition of those Jews who sought the high priesthood, and bought it of Antiochus, was the beginning of those calamities which overwhelmed their nation under this prince. Jason procured himself to be constituted in this dignity in the stead of Onias III; but Menelaus offering a greater price, Jason was deprived, and Menelaus appointed in his place. These usurpers of the high priesthood, to gratify the Syrians, assumed the manners of the Greeks, their games and exercises, and neglected the worship of the Lord, and the temple service.

War broke out between Antiochus Epiphanes and Ptolemy Philometor. Antiochus entered Egypt in the year of the world 3833, and reduced almost the whole of it to his obedience, 2Ma_5:3-5 . The next year he returned; and whilst he was engaged in the siege of Alexandria, a false report was spread of his death. The inhabitants of Jerusalem testifying their joy at this news, Antiochus, when returning from Egypt, entered this city by force, treated the Jews as rebels, and commanded his troops to slay all they met. Eighty thousand were killed, made captives, or sold on this occasion. Antiochus, conducted by the corrupt high priest Menelaus, entered into the holy of holies, whence he took and carried off the most precious vessels of that holy place, to the value of one thousand eight hundred talents. In the year 3835, Antiochus made a third expedition against Egypt, which he entirely subdued. The year following, he sent Apollonius into Judea, with an army of twenty-two thousand men, and commanded him to kill all the Jews who were of full age, and to sell the women and young men, 2Ma_5:24-25 . These orders were too punctually executed. It was on this occasion that Judas Maccabaeus retired into the wilderness with his father and his brethren, 2 Mac. 5:29. These misfortunes were only preludes of what they were to suffer; for Antiochus, apprehending that the Jews would never be constant in their obedience to him, unless he obliged them to change their religion, and to embrace that of the Greeks, issued an edict, enjoining them to conform to the laws of other nations, and forbidding their usual sacrifices in the temple, their festivals and their Sabbath. The statue of Jupiter Olympus was placed upon the altar of the temple, and thus the abomination of desolation was seen in the temple of God. Many corrupt Jews complied with these orders; but others resisted them.

Mattathias and his sons retired to the mountains. Old Eleazar, and the seven brethren, suffered death with great courage at Antioch, 2 Maccabees 7. Mattathias being dead, Judas Maccabaeus headed those Jews who continued faithful, and opposed with success the generals whom king Antiochus sent into Judea. The king, informed of the valour and resistance of Judas, sent new forces; and, finding his treasures exhausted, he resolved to go into Persia to levy tributes, and to collect large sums which he had agreed to pay to the Romans, 1Ma_3:5-31; 2Ma_9:1 , &c; 1Ma_6:1 , &c. Knowing that very great riches were lodged in the temple of Elymais, he determined to carry it off; but the inhabitants of the country made so vigorous a resistance, that he was forced to retreat toward Babylonia. When he was come to Ecbatana, he was informed of the defeat of Nicanor and Timotheus, and that Judas Maccabaeus had retaken the temple of Jerusalem, and restored the worship of the Lord, and the usual sacrifices. On receiving this intelligence, the king was transported with indignation; and, threatening to make Jerusalem a grave for the Jews, commanded the driver of his chariot to urge the horses forward, and to hasten his journey. However, divine vengeance soon overtook him: he fell from his chariot, and bruised all his limbs. He was also tormented with such pains in his bowels, as allowed him no rest; and his disease was aggravated by grief and vexation. In this condition he wrote to the Jews very humbly, promised them many things, and engaged even to turn Jew, if God would restore him to health. He earnestly recommended to them his son Antiochus, who was to succeed him, and entreated them to favour the young prince, and to continue faithful to him. He died, overwhelmed with pain and grief, in the mountains of Paratacene, in the little town of Tabes, in the year of the world 3840, and before Jesus Christ 164.

5. Antiochus Eupator son of Antiochus Epiphanes, was only nine years old when his father died and left him the kingdom of Syria. Lysias, who governed the kingdom in the name of the young prince, led against Judea an army of one hundred thousand foot, twenty thousand horse, and thirty elephants, 1 Maccabees 6; 2 Maccabees 13. He besieged and took the fortress of Bethsura, and thence marched against Jerusalem. The city was ready to fall into his hands when Lysias received the news that Philip, whom Antiochus Epiphanes had entrusted with the regency of the kingdom, had come to Antioch to take the government, according to the disposition of the late king. He therefore proposed an accommodation with the Jews, that he might return speedily to Antioch and oppose Philip. After concluding a peace, he immediately returned into Syria, with the young king and his army.

In the meantime, Demetrius Soter, son of Seleucus Philopator, and nephew to Antiochus Epiphanes, to whom by right the kingdom belonged, having escaped from Rome, came into Syria. Finding the people disposed for revolt, Demetrius headed an army, and marched directly to Antioch, against Antiochus and Lysias. However, the inhabitants did not wait till he besieged the city; but opened the gates, and delivered to him Lysias and the young king Antiochus Eupator, whom Demetrius caused to be put to death, without suffering them to appear in his presence. Antiochus Eupator reigned only two years, and died in the year of the world 3842, and before Jesus Christ 162.

6. Antiochus Theos or the Divine, the son of Alexander Balas, king of Syria, was brought up by the Arabian prince Elmachuel, or, as he is called in the Greek, Simalcue, 1Ma_11:39-40 , &c. Demetrius Nicanor, king of Syria, having rendered himself odious to his troops, one Diodotus, otherwise called Tryphon, came to Zabdiel, a king in Arabia, and desired him to entrust him with young Antiochus, whom he promised to place on the throne of Syria, which was then possessed by Demetrius Nicanor. After some hesitation, Zabdiel complied with the request; and Tryphon carried Antiochus into Syria, and put the crown on his head. The troops dismissed by Demetrius, came and joined Tryphon, who, having formed a powerful army, defeated Demetrius, and forced him to retreat to Seleucia. Tryphon seized his elephants, and rendered himself master of Antioch, in the year of the world 3859, and before Jesus Christ 145. Antiochus Theos, to strengthen himself in his new acquisition, sent letters to Jonathan Maccabaeus, high priest and prince of the Jews, confirming him in the high priesthood, and granting him four toparchies, or four considerable places, in Judea. He also received Jonathan into the number of his friends, sent him vessels of gold, permitted him to use a gold cup, to wear purple, and a golden buckle; and he gave his brother, Simon Maccabaeus, the command of all his troops on the coast of the Mediterranean, from Tyre to Egypt. Jonathan, engaged by so many favours, declared resolutely for Antiochus, or rather for Tryphon, who reigned under the name of this young prince; and on several occasions he attacked the generals of Demetrius, who still, possessed many places beyond Jordan and in Galilee, 1Ma_11:63 , &c; 1Ma_12:24; 1Ma_12:34 . Tryphon, seeing young Antiochus in peaceable possession of the kingdom of Syria, resolved to usurp his crown. He thought it necessary, in the first place, to secure Jonathan Maccabaeus, who was one of the most powerful supporters of Antiochus's throne. He came, therefore, with troops into Judea, invited Jonathan to Ptolemais, and there, on frivolous pretences, made him prisoner. However, Simon, Jonathan's brother, headed the troops of Judea, and opposed Tryphon, who. intended, to take Jerusalem. Tryphon, being disappointed, put Jonathan to death at Bassa or Bascama, and returned into Syria, where, without delay, he executed his design of killing Antiochus. He corrupted the royal physicians, who, having published that Antiochus was tormented with the stone, murdered him, by cutting him without any necessity. Thus Tryphon was left master of Syria, in the year of the world 3861, and before Jesus Christ 143.

7. Antiochus Sidetes or Soter the Saviour, or Eusebes the pious, was the son of Demetrius Soter, and brother to Demetrius Nicanor. Tryphon, the usurper of the kingdom of Syria, having rendered himself odious to his troops, they deserted him, and offered their services to Cleopatra, the wife of Demetrius Nicanor. She lived in the city of Seleucia, shut up with her children, while her husband Demetrius was a prisoner in Persia, where he had married Rodeguna, the daughter of Arsaces, king of Persia. Cleopatra, therefore, sent to Antiochus Sidetes, her brother-in-law, and offered him the crown of Syria, if he would marry her; to which Antiochus consented. This prince was then at Cnidus, where his father, Demetrius Soter had placed him with one of his friends. He came into Syria, and wrote to Simon Maccabaeus, to engage him against Tryphon, 1Ma_15:1-3 , &c. He confirmed the privileges which the king of Syria had granted to Simon, permitted him to coin money with his own stamp, declared Jerusalem and the temple exempt from royal jurisdiction, and promised other favours as soon as he should obtain peaceable possession of the kingdom which had belonged to his ancestors. Antiochus Sidetes having married his sister-in- law, Cleopatra, in the year of the world 3865, the troops of Tryphon resorted to him in crowds. Tryphon, thus abandoned, retired to Dora, in Phoenicia, whither Antiochus pursued him with an army of 120,000 foot, 800 horse, and a powerful fleet. Simon Maccabaeus sent Antiochus two thousand chosen men, but the latter refused them, and revoked all his promises. He also sent Athenobius to Jerusalem to oblige Simon to restore to him Gazara and Joppa, with the citadel of Jerusalem; and to demand of him five hundred talents more, as reparation for injuries the king had suffered, and as tribute for his own cities. At the same time he threatened to make war upon him, if he did not comply. Simon showed Athenobius all the lustre of his wealth and power, told him he had in his possession no place which belonged to Antiochus, and said that the cities of Gazara and Joppa had greatly injured his people, and he would give the king for the property of them one hundred talents. Athenobius returned with great indignation to Antiochus, who was extremely offended at Simon's answer. In the meantime, Tryphon having escaped privately from Dora, embarked in a vessel and fled. Antiochus pursued him, and sent Cendebeus with troops into the maritime parts of Palestine, and commanded him to rebuild Cedron, and fight the Jews. John Hircanus, son of Simon Maccabaeus, was then at Gaza, and gave notice to his father of the coming of Cendebeus. Simon furnished his sons, John Hircanus and Judas, with troops, and sent them against Cendebeus, whom they routed in the plain and pursued to Azotus.

Antiochus followed Tryphon, till he forced him to kill himself, in the year of the world 3869. After this, Antiochus thought only of reducing to his obedience those cities which, in the beginning of his father's reign, had shaken off their subjection. Simon Maccabaeus, prince and high priest of the Jews, being treacherously murdered by Ptolemy, his son-in-law, in the castle of Docus, near Jericho, the murderer immediately sent to Antiochus Sidetes to demand troops, that he might recover for him the country and cities of the Jews. Antiochus came in person with an army, and besieged Jerusalem, which was bravely defended by John Hircanus. The siege was long protracted; and the king divided his army into seven parts, and guarded all the avenues of the city. It being the time for celebrating the feast of tabernacles, the Jews desired of Antiochus a truce for seven days. The king not only granted this request, but sent them bulls with gilded horns, and vessels of gold and silver filled with incense, to be offered in the temple. He also ordered such provisions as they wanted, to be given to the Jewish soldiers. This courtesy of the king so won the hearts of the Jews, that they sent ambassadors to treat of peace, and to desire that they might live according to their own laws. Antiochus required that they should surrender their arms, demolish the city walls, pay tribute for Joppa and the other cities they possessed out of Judea, and receive a garrison into Jerusalem. To these conditions, except the last, the Jews consented; for they could not be induced to see an army of strangers in their capital, and chose rather to give hostages and five hundred talents of silver. The king entered the city, beat down the breast work above the walls, and returned to Syria, in the year of the world 3870, and before Jesus Christ 134. Three years after, Antiochus marched against the Persians, or Parthians, and demanded the liberty of his brother Demetrius Nicanor, who had been made prisoner long before by Arsaces, and was detained for the purpose of being employed in exciting a war against Antiochus. This war, therefore, Antiochus thought proper to prevent. With an army of eighty thousand, or, as Orosius says, of one hundred thousand men, he marched toward Persia, and no sooner appeared on the frontiers of that country, than several eastern princes, detesting the pride and avarice of the Persians, came and surrendered. Antiochus defeated his enemies in three engagements, and took Babylon. He was accompanied in these expeditions by John Hircanus, high priest of the Jews, who, it is supposed, obtained the surname of Hircanus from some gallant action which he performed.

As the army of Antiochus was too numerous to continue assembled in any one place, he was obliged to divide it, to put it into winter quarters. These troops behaved with so much insolence, that they alienated the minds of all men. The cities in which they were, privately surrendered to the Persians; and all resolved to attack, in one day, the garrisons they contained, that the troops being separated might not assist each other. Antiochus at Babylon obtained intelligence of this design, and, with the few soldiers about him, endeavoured to succour his people. He was attacked in the way by Phraates, king of Persia, whom he fought with great bravery; but being at length deserted by his own forces, according to the generality of historians, he was overpowered and killed by the Persians or Parthians. Appian, however, says that he killed himself, and AElian, that he threw himself headlong from a precipice. This event took place in the year of the world 3874, and before Jesus Christ 130. After the death of Sidetes, Demetrius Nicanor, or Nicetor, reascended the throne of Syria.

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [2]

1. Theus," King of the N." ( Daniel 11:6.) Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, to end the war with him, give Berenice his daughter to Antiochus, who divorced Laodice to marry Berenice. But Ptolemy having died, Betentre aid "not retain the power of the arm," i.e., she was unable to be the mainstay of peace; for on Ptolemy's death Antiochus took back Laodice, who then poisoned him and caused Berenice and her son to be slain. "But out of a branch other roots stood up" in the place of Philadelphus (margin) Ptolemy Euergetes, Berenice's brother, who avenged her, overran Syria, and slew Laodice, "carrying captives into Egypt their gods, princes, and vessels of silver and gold." He restored to Egypt many of the idols carried away formerly by the Persian Cambyses, whence the idolatrous Egyptians surnamed him Euergetes (benefactor). He "continued Four more years than the king of the N.," Antiochus.

2. Antiochus the Great, the grandson of Antiochus Theus, and son of Seleucus Callinicus, "came and overflowed and passed through," recovering all the parts of Syria taken by Euergetes, and reached "even to his (border) fortress," Raphia, near Gaza. Here "the king of the S.," Ptolemy Philopator, Euergetes' son, "shall fight with" Antiochus, and Antiochus's "multitude (70,000 Infantry And 500 Cavalry) shall be given into his hand." 10,000 were slain and 4,000 made captive. Ptolemy's "heart was lifted up" by the victory, so that though he "cast down many ten thousands, he was not strengthened by it" through his luxurious indulgence. For Antiochus "returned after certain years" (14 after his defeat at Raphia) against Philopator's son, Ptolemy Epiphanes.

"In those times many stood against the king of the S.," Epiphanes, namely, Philip of Macedon and "robbers of the people," factious Jews, who, revolting from Ptolemy, helped Antiochus unconsciously, "establishing the vision," i.e. fulfilling God's purpose of bringing trials on Judaea, "but falling," i.e. failing in their aim to make Judaea independent. So Antiochus, overcoming the Egyptian general Scopas at Paneas, near the Jordan's sources, forced him to surrender at Zidon, a "fenced city." Thus Antiochus "did according to his own will, standing in the glorious land (Judaea) which by his hand was consumed," Hebrew perfected, i.e. perfectly brought under his sway, or else desolated by being the arena of conflict between Syria and Egypt. The "upright ones with him" were Israelites, so called from their high privileges, though their practice of violence in support of a pagan king is reprobated.

Next he thought, by wedding his "daughter" Cleopatra to Ptolemy Epiphanes, ultimately to gain Cilicia, Lycia, and even Egypt itself; "corrupting her," i.e. making her his tool; but "she did not stand on his side, but on that of her husband." Then he "took many of the isles'" in the AEgean in his war with the Romans. But Scipio Asiaticus routed him at Magnesia 190 B.C., and so "caused the reproach Offered by him (To Rome'S Allies) to cease."

Then, compelled to cede his territory W. of Taurus, "he turned his face toward the fort of his own land," i.e. garrisoned the cities left to him. Finally, trying to plunder Jupiter's temple at Elymais, he "fell" in an insurrection of the inhabitants. Selenens succeeded," raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom," or, as Maurer explains, "one who shall cause the taxgatherer to pass through the glorious kingdom," Judaea; i.e. inheriting it by hereditary right. "Within a few days (12 Years, "Few" In Comparison With Antiochus'S 37 Years) he was destroyed, neither in anger nor in battle," but poisoned by Heliodorus.

3. Antiochus IV. succeeded, surnamed Epiphanes, "the Illustrious," for establishing the royal line against Heliodorus. Nicknamed Epimanes, "madman," for his great unkingly freaks, carousing with the lowest, bathing with them in public, and throwing stones at passers by. Hence, and because of his craftily supplanting Demetrius, the rightful heir, he is called in Daniel 11: "a vile person." He "came into the kingdom by flatteries" to Eumenes and to Attalus of Pergamus, and to the Syrians high and low. With his "flood" like hosts the Egyptians and Ptolemy Philometer, "the prince of the covenant," were "overflown from before him." Philometor was in covenant with him by right, being son of Cleopatra, Antiochus's sister, to whom Antiochus the Great had promised, as dowry in marrying Ptolemy Epiphanes, Coelosyria and Palestine.

Philometor's generals in trying to obtain these covenanted promises were defeated, and Pehsium, the key of Egypt, was taken 171 B.C. Antiochus Epiphanes "worked deceitfully," feigning friendship to young Philometor, and" with a small people" or force, "peaceably" in pretense, he took Memphis and "the fattest places," and seized Philometer. Thus he" did that which his fathers had not done," namely, gained Egypt, and "scattered among (his dependents) the prey." "He forecast his devices against the strongholds" of Egypt. He gained all except Alexandria. Retiring Judaea, where the Jews in joy at the report of his death had revolted, he took Jerusalem. He then "stirred up his power with a great army against the king of the S.," Ptolemy Physcon (the gross), made king by the Egyptians because Philometer was in Antiochus's hands. The Egyptian king did "not stand," for his own nobles "forecast devices against him."

At last Antiochus, when checked at Alexandria, met the Egyptian king at Memphis, and "both spoke lies at one table," trying to deceive one another. In his capture of Jerusalem, guided by Menelaus the high priest "against the holy covenant," he took away the golden altar, candlestick, vessels of gold and silver from the temple, sacrificed swine on the altar, and sprinkled swine broth through the temple; his spoils from it amounted 1800 talents. A second time he openly invaded Egypt, but his invasion was not successful "as the former," Popilius. Laenas, the Roman ambassador, arriving in Graeco Macedonian ships ("of Chittim") and compelling him to return. Finding that God's worship had been restored at Jerusalem, "he had indignation against the holy covenant." He "had intelligence (correspondence) with them that forsook the holy covenant," Menelaus and others, who had cast off circumcision and treated all religions as equally good for keeping the masses in check, and adopted Greek customs and philosophy.

Antiochus's general, Apollonius, dismantled Jerusalem, and from a high fortress slew the temple worshippers. Antiochus commanded all on pain of death to conform to the Greek religion, and consecrated the temple to Jupiter Olympius or Capitolinus. Identifying himself with that god "whom his fathers knew not," and whose worship he imported from Rome, he wished to make his own worship universal. The Jews were constrained to profane the sabbath and monthly on the king's birthday to eat of the idol sacrifices, and to go in procession to Bacchus, carrying ivy. This was the gravest peril that ever betel the theocratic nation; hence arose the need of a prediction so detailed as Daniel 8; 11. Porphyry the opponent of Christianity, had to admit the accurate correspondence of the facts to the prediction, but explained it away by alleging the latter to have been written after the events.

But as Messianic events are foretold in Daniel, Jesus' adversaries, the Jews, would never have forged the prophecies which confirm His claims. Daniel 9 would comfort the faithful Jews amidst the "abominations" against "the covenant," with the prospect of Messiah, who would confirm it. Bringing salvation, yet abolishing sacrifices, He would show that the temple services which they so missed were not indispensable to real worship. Language is used ( Daniel 11:31-45) which only in type applies to Antiochus, but exhaustively to Antichrist. Antiochus "took away the daily sacrifice, and placed (On The 15Th Day Of Cisleu, On Jehovah'S Altar) the abomination (Idol, Jupiter Olympius' Image) that maketh desolate," i.e. that pollutes the temple.

The Maccabees (see 1 and 2 Maccabees in Apocrypha), "who knew their God, were strong" in their determination not to deny Him, and "did exploits." Judas, son of the patriot Mattathias, took as his motto the initials of Mi Camokah Baelim Jehovah ( Exodus 15:11), "Who is like unto Thee, O Lord, among the gods?" Allusion occurs to the martyrs under Antiochus in  Hebrews 11:35-37; "others were tortured, not accepting deliverance, that they might obtain a better resurrection." Seven brothers and their mother submitted to a torturing death rather than deny their faith, the third saying, "Thou takest us out of this present life, but the King of the world shall raise us up who have died for His laws unto everlasting life" (compare  Daniel 12:2). Two women who circumcised their infant boys were cast down with them headlong from the wall. Eleazar when forced to eat swine's flesh spit it out, choosing to suffer death at fourscore and ten rather than deny the faith (compare the apocryphal 2 Maccabees 6 and 2 Maccabees 7).

Some were roasted alive "by flame" in caves, whither they had fled to keep the sabbath. The first of the seven brothers, after his tongue was cut off, was fried to death in a heated pan. The persecution lasted three years; then, by the Maccabees, who defeated Antiochus's troops under Lysias, the Jews were "holpen with a little help," i.e. saved from extinction until the times of the Romans. Antiochus, while invading Egypt, hearing "tidings out of the E. and out of the N. of a revolt of his vassal Artaxias, king of Armenia, in the N., and Arsaces of Parthid in the E., went forth with great fury, on the way took Arad in Judah, devastated Phoenicia (according to Porphyry), "planting the tabernacles of his palace between the seas" (the Dead Sea and the Mediterranean), attacked the temple of Nanae at Elymais, ("the desire of women," the Syrian Venus; but the antitypical reference is to Messiah, whom Antichrist shall try to supplant,) to replenish his treasury, so as to renew the war with the Jews.

But, failing, "he came to his end" at Tabes, and "none helped him" ( 1 Maccabees 3:10-37;  1 Maccabees 6:1-16;  2 Maccabees 9:5). "The Lord Almighty, the God of Israel, smote him with an incurable plague; for as soon as he had spoken these words (that he would make Jerusalem a common burying place of the Jews) a remediless pain of the bowels came upon him," etc., 164 B.C. The prominence given to Antiochus in Daniel is because it was the turning point in Jewish history, deciding whether Greek worldly refinements were to stifle Israel's true faith. Persecution was God's appointed way to save His people from seductions which had wellnigh made them compromise their witness for His truth.

Antiochus was the unconscious instrument. At first he followed the liberal policy of his predecessors; but when it suited his purpose to plunder the Jews and destroy their polity, he did not hesitate, and the corruptions prevalent and the rivalries of Jason and Menelaus for the high priesthood afforded him the occasion. Disregarding his hereditary gods himself ( Daniel 11:37-39), and only recognizing the Roman war god or "god of forces," he regarded "fortresses" as the true temples (the Hebrew for "forces" may be translated "fortresses"), and was incapable of appreciating the power which true religion can call forth. Thus he is the vivid type of the last Antichrist, whose terrible, though short, persecutions shall drive Israel to their Savior, and so usher in their coming glory (Zechariah 11; 12; 13; 14; Daniel 12; Ezekiel 37; 38; 39).

Morrish Bible Dictionary [3]

There were several kings bearing this name who ruled over Syria,and though they are not mentioned by name in scripture, some of their actionsare specified. These are so clear and definite that sceptics have foolishly said that at least this part of the prophecy of Daniel must have been written after the events! The Greek kingdom, the third of the four great empires, was, on the death of Alexander the Great, divided amonghis four generals, and this resulted principally in a series of kings who ruled in Egypt bearing the general name of PTOLEMY, and are called in scripture 'Kings of the South;' and another series, called 'Kings of the North,' who bore the general name of either SELEUCUS or ANTIOCHUS. Both the Ptolemies and the Seleucidae began eras of their own, and some of the kings of each era had to do with Palestine and the Jews. The following is a list of the kings, with the dates when they began to reign, noticing the principal events that were prophesied of them in  Daniel 11 .


320 Ptolemy I, Soter. He takes Jerusalem. Era of the Ptolemies begins.

312 Seleucus I Nicator. He re-takes Palestine. Era of the Seleucidae begins.

283 Ptolemy II, Philadelphus. The O.T. translated into Greek.

280 ANTIOCHUSI, Soter.

261 Antiochus Ii Theos. He was at war with Ptolemy, but peace was restored on

condition that Antiochus should put away his wife Laodice and marry Berenice the

daughter of Ptolemy. This was done, but on the death of Philadelphus he restored

Laodice; but she, fearing another divorce, poisoned her husband, and then caused the

death of Berenice and her son. See  Daniel 11:6 .

247 Ptolemy III, Euergetes. He revenged his sister's death, being 'a branch of her roots;'

and carried off 40,000 talents of silver, etc. 'Shall enter into the fortress of the king of

the north,' and carry away their precious vessels of silver and gold.  Daniel 11:7-9 .

246 Seleucus Ii Callinicus.

226 Seleucus Iii Ceraunus.

223 Antiochus Iii the Great.

222 Ptolemy IV, Philopater. War between Ptolemy and Antiochus. Ptolemy recovers

Palestine.  Daniel 11:10-12 .

205 Ptolemy V , Epiphanes (5 years old). Antiochus seized the opportunity of the minority of

the king to regain the country.  Daniel 11:16 . He also joined with Philip of Macedonia to

capture other portions of the dominions of Ptolemy. But Rome was now growing in

power, and on being appealed to by Egypt for protection, Antiochus was told he must

let Egypt alone. In the meantime an army from Egypt had re-taken Palestine; but

Antiochus, on his return, again obtained the mastery there. Wishing to extend his

dominions in the west he proposed that Ptolemy should marry his daughter Cleopatra,

that she might serve her father's ends; but she was faithful to her husband. Daniel thus

speaks of it: "He shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her, but she shall not

stand on his side, neither be for him."  Daniel 11:17 . Antiochus took many maritime

towns, but after many encounters he was compelled by Rome to quit all Asia on that

side of Mount Taurus, give up his elephants and ships of war and pay a heavy fine.

Antiochus had great difficulty in raising the money, and on attempting to rob a temple

at Elymais he was killed.  Daniel 11:18,19 .

187 Seleucus Iv Philopator, succeeded. His principal work was the raising of money to

pay the war-tax to Rome. He ordered Heliodorus to plunder the temple; but

Heliodorus poisoned him. He was thus 'a raiser of taxes,' and was 'destroyed neither

in anger, nor in battle.'  Daniel 11:20 . Heliodorus seized the crown but was destroyed

by Antiochus IV.

181 Ptolemy VI, Philometor. He was a minor, under his mother and tutors.

175 Antiochus Iv Epiphanes. He was not the rightful heir. He 'obtained the kingdom

by flatteries.' He called himself Epiphanes, which is 'illustrious;' but he was such 'a vile

person' that people called him Epimanes, 'madman.'  Daniel 11:21-24 . He invaded

Egypt and was at first successful: cf.  Daniel 11:25,26 . The two kings entered into

negotiations, though neither of them was sincere in what they agreed to: their hearts

were to do mischief, and they 'tell lies at one table.'  Daniel 11:27 . Then Antiochus

returned to his land with great riches: his heart was 'against the holy covenant,' and he

entered Jerusalem and even into the sanctuary and took away the golden altar, the

candlestick, the table of showbread, the censers of gold, and the other holy vessels

and departed. 'At the appointed time he shall return and come toward the South,'

 Daniel 11:29; but he was stopped by Rome; 'ships of Chittim,' ships from Macedonia,

came against him; and in great anger he returned and vented his wrath on Jerusalem.

He sent an army there with orders to slay all the men and sell the women and

children for slaves. This was to a certain extent carried out. The walls were also

thrown down and the city pillaged and then set on fire. He then decreed that the Jews

should forsake their religion, and all should worship the heathen gods. To ensure this

at Jerusalem with the few that still clung to the place, an image of Jupiter Olympius was

erected in the temple and on an altar sacrifices were offered to this god. This was in

B.C. 168 on the 25th of the month Chisleu. Daniel relates "They shall pollute the

sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the

abomination that maketh desolate."  Daniel 11:31 : cf. also  Daniel 8:9-12 where the 'little

horn' refers to Antiochus Epiphanes.

Bleek, Delitzsch, and others consider that in  Daniel 8:14 , the 2,300 'evening,

morning,' margin , refer to the daily sacrifice, which is spoken of in  Daniel 8:11,12,13;

and that by 2,300 is meant 1,150 days  : cf. also  Daniel 8:26 . The dedication of the

temple was on the 25th of Chisleu, B.C. 165, and the desecration began some time in

the year 168.

 Daniel 11:32 b,  33-35 refer to the change that soon took place under Judas

Maccabeus and his brothers, commencing B.C. 166, and in 165 the temple was

re-dedicated. In B.C. 164 Antiochus V Eupator succeeded to the throne; and

in 162 Demetrius Soter; but they were not powerful against Judaea, and in B.C.

161 an alliance was made by Judaea with Rome. The historical notices in Daniel end

at  Daniel 11:35 .

It will be seen by the above that the records of history agree perfectly with the prophecy, as faith would expect them to do. It is only unbelief that has any difficulty in God foretelling future events. Without doubt some of the acts of Antiochus Epiphanes are types of the deeds of the future king of the North — referred to in other prophecies as 'the Assyrian' — in respect to the Jews and Jerusalem.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [4]

ANTIOCHUS . A name borne by a number of the kings of Syria subsequent to the period of Alexander the Great.

1. Antiochus I . (b.c. 280 261) was the son of Seleucus Nikator, the chiliarch under Perdiccas who was regent immediately after the death of Alexander. On the murder of his father he came into possession of practically the entire region of Asia Minor as far east as the provinces beyond Mesopotamia. The most important fact of his reign was his defeat of the Celts, who, after devastating Macedonia and Thrace, swarmed into Asia Minor and established a kingdom which was subsequently known as Galatia. The date and place of the victory are unknown, but it won him the name of Soter (‘Saviour’). His capital was Antioch in Syria, but he was never able to bring his vast empire into complete subjection. He was a friend of literature and art, and it is possible that under him the beginning was made for the Greek translation of the Pentateuch.

2. Antiochus II ., Theos (b.c. 261 246). Son of the foregoing, essentially a warrior, carrying on interminable struggles both with the free Greek cities of his own territory, to which he finally gave something like democratic rights, and with Ptolemy Philadelphus of Egypt. Under him, however, the Jews of Asia Minor gained many civic rights.

3. Antiochus III ., the Great . He ascended the throne when only 15 years of age, and he reigned from b.c. 223 to 187. Along with Antiochus I. and Antiochus II. he may be referred to in the early portions of   Daniel 11:1-45 . His reign, like that of most of his contemporaries, was one of constant war, particularly with Egypt. In the course of these wars he gained possession of Palestine through the battle of Banias (b.c. 198), and established the Syrian administration over Judæa, although for a time he ruled the province jointly with Ptolemy Epiphanes of Egypt. Like Antiochus I., he was a great colonizer, and induced 2000 Jewish families to go from Mesopotamia into Lydia and Phrygia, thus laying the foundation for the influential Jewish Dispersion in those regions. So warlike a monarch could not fail to come into conflict sooner or later with Rome. He was defeated in the battle of Magnesia in b.c. 190, and three years later was killed, according to some authorities, while plundering a temple at Elymais.

4. Antiochus IV ., Epiphanes (‘the Illustrious’; also nicknamed Epimanes , ‘the Madman’). The son of the preceding, who had been sent as a hostage to Rome. In b.c. 175 he seized the Syrian throne, and began a series of conquests which bade fair to rival his father’s. While in Egypt, however, he was ordered by the Romans to leave that country, and thus found himself forced to limit his energies to Syria. In the course of his conflict with Egypt he had become suspicious of Judæa, and determined to force that country into complete subjection to his will. His motives were probably more political than religious, but as a part of his programme he undertook to compel the Jews to worship heathen gods as well as, if not in place of, Jehovah. His plans were first put into active operation probably towards the end of b.c. 170, when he returned from Egypt, although the chronology at this point is very obscure and it may have been a couple of years later. He plundered the Temple of some of its treasures, including the seven-branch candlestick, the altar of incense, and the table of shewbread. He also placed a garrison in the citadel of Jerusalem, and set about the complete Hellenizing of Judæa. Circumcision and the observance of the Sabbath were forbidden under penalty of death. Pagan sacrifices were ordered in every town in Judæa, and every month a search was made to discover whether any Jew possessed a copy of the Law or had circumcised his children. In December 168 b.c. a pagan altar, probably to Olympian Zeus, was erected on the altar of burnt-offering, and the entire Jewish worship seemed threatened with extinction. This probability was increased by the apostasy of the high priest.

This excess of zeal on the part of Antiochus led to the reaction, which, under the Chasidim and Mattathias, the founder of the Maccabæan house, ultimately brought about the release of Judæa from Syrian control. The events of this period of persecution are related in detail, though with a large element of legend, in 2 Maccabees, and reference is to be found to them also in   Daniel 11:21-45 . Antiochus finally died on an expedition against the Parthians in b.c. 164. (For an account of the struggle of Mattathias and Judas against Antiochus, see Maccabees).

5. Antiochus V ., Eupator . Son of the preceding; began to reign at the death of his father, when a mere boy of 9 (or 12) years. He was left by his father under the control of Lysias, his chief representative in Palestine, and with him was present at the victory of Beth-zacharias, b.c. 163, when Judas Maccabæus was defeated ( 1Ma 6:32-47 ). The complete conquest of Judæa was prevented by the rise of the pretender Philip, who, however, was conquered. In the midst of their success, both young Antiochus and Lysias were assassinated by Demetrius I. (b.c. 162). Their death reacted favourably on the circumstances surrounding the rising Maccabæan house.

6. Antiochus VI ., Son of Alexander Balas. Trypho, one of the generals of Alexander Balas, at first championed the cause of this boy after his father had been killed in Arabia. After a few months, however, he caused the assassination of Antiochus by the physicians of the court, and reigned in his stead ( 1Ma 13:31 f.).

7. Antiochus VII ., Sidetes (b.c. 138 128), the last of the energetic Syrian monarchs, came to the throne during the imprisonment of Demetrius II. After defeating Trypho, he undertook to establish his sovereignty over the Jews. Simon partially won his favour by presents and by furnishing auxiliary troops, but at last refused to meet his excessive demands for permitting such independence as Judæa had come to enjoy under the weak predecessor of Antiochus. Thereupon Antiochus sent his generals into Judæa, but they were defeated by the sons of Simon ( 1Ma 15:1-41; 1Ma 16:1-24 ). He himself came during the first year of John Hyrcanus (135 134), and after devastating Judæa shut up Hyrcanus in Jerusalem. He was about to capture the city through starvation when he unexpectedly made terms with Hyrcanus, probably because of the interference of the Romans. These terms laid very heavy demands upon the Jews, and included the destruction of the fortifications of the city. Until b.c. 129 128 Judæa was again subject to the Syrian State, but at the end of that year Antiochus was killed in a campaign against the Parthians, and Hyrcanus was enabled to reassert his independence. See Maccabees.

Shailer Mathews.

Easton's Bible Dictionary [5]

  • Antiochus IV., surnamed "Epiphanes" i.e., the Illustrious, succeeded his brother Seleucus (B.C. 175). His career and character are prophetically described by ( Daniel 11:21-32 ). He was a "vile person." In a spirit of revenge he organized an expedition against Jerusalem, which he destroyed, putting vast multitudes of its inhabitants to death in the most cruel manner. From this time the Jews began the great war of independence under their heroic Maccabean leaders with marked success, defeating the armies of Antiochus that were sent against them. Enraged at this, Antiochus marched against them in person, threatening utterly to exterminate the nation; but on the way he was suddenly arrested by the hand of death (B.C. 164).

    Copyright Statement These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., DD Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain.

    Bibliography Information Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Antiochus'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. 1897.

  • Smith's Bible Dictionary [6]

    Anti'ochus. (An Opponent). The name of a number of kings of Syria who lived during the interval between the Old and New Testaments, and had frequent connection with the Jews during that period. They are referred to in the Apocrypha especially in the books of the Maccabees.

    Holman Bible Dictionary [7]

    DanielMaccabean War Maccabees

    Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [8]

    Anti´ochus, a name which may be interpreted he who withstands, or lasts out; and denotes military prowess, as do many other of the Greek names. It was borne by one of the generals of Philippians whose son, Seleucus, by the help of the first Ptolemy, established himself (B.C. 312) as ruler of Babylon. For eleven years more the contest in Asia continued, while Antigonus was grasping at universal supremacy. At length, in 301, he was defeated and slain in the decisive battle of Ipsus, in Phrygia. Ptolemy, son of Lagos, had meanwhile become master of southern Syria; and Seleucus was too much indebted to him to be disposed to eject him by force from this possession. In fact, the three first Ptolemies (B.C. 323-222) looked on their extra-Egyptian possessions as their sole guarantee for the safety of Egypt itself against their formidable neighbor, and succeeded in keeping the mastery, not only of Palestine and Cœle-Syria, and of many towns on that coast, but of Cyrene and other parts of Libya, of Cyprus, and other islands, with numerous maritime posts all round Asia Minor. A permanent fleet was probably kept up at Samos, so that their arms reached to the Hellespont; and for some time they ruled over Thrace. Thus Syria was divided between two great powers, the northern half falling to Seleucus and his successors, the southern to the Ptolemies; and this explains the titles 'king of the north and 'king of the south,' in Daniel 11. The line dividing them was drawn somewhat to the north of Damascus, the capital of Coele-Syria.

    The first Seleucus built a prodigious number of cities with Greek institutions, not, like Alexander, from military or commercial policy, but to gratify ostentation, or his love for Greece. To people his new cities was often a difficult matter; and this led to the bestowal of premiums on those who were willing to become citizens. Hence we may account for the extraordinary privileges which the Jews enjoyed in them all, having equal rights with Macedonians. But there was still another cause which recommended the Jews to the Syrian kings. A nation thus diffused through their ill-compacted empire, formed a band most useful to gird its parts together. To win the hearts of the Jews, was to win the allegiance of a brave brotherhood, who would be devoted to their protector, and who could never make common cause with any spirit of local independence. For this reason Antiochus the Great, and doubtless his predecessors also, put peculiar trust in Jewish garrisons.

    Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [9]

    ( Ἀντίοχος , Opponent ) , the name especially of several of the Syrian kings, whose history, so relates to Jewish affairs, is contained particularly in the Books of the Maccabees, and is predicted with remarkable minuteness in the 11th chapter of Daniel. The name was first borne by one of the generals of Philip, whose son Seleucus, by the help of the first Ptolemy, established himself (B.C. 312) as ruler of Babylon. The year 312 is, in consequence, the era from which, under that monarchy, time was computed, as, for instance, in the Books of Maccabees. For eleven years more the Asia continued, while Antigonus (the "one-eyed") was grasping at universal supremacy. At length, in 301, he was defeated and slain in the decisive battle of Ipsus, in Phrygia. Ptolemy, son of Lagus, had meanwhile become master of Southern Syria, and Seleucus was too much indebted to him to be disposed to eject him by force from this possession. In fact, the first three Ptolemies (B.C. 323-222) looked on their extra- Egyptian possessions as their sole guarantee for the safety of Egypt itself against their formidable neighbor, and succeeded in keeping the mastery, not only of Palestine and Coele-Syria, and of many towns on that coast, but of Cyrene and other parts of Libya, of Cyprus, and other islands, with numerous maritime posts all round Asia Minor. A permanent fleet was probably kept up at Samos (Polyb. 5, 35, 11), so that their arms reached to the Hellespont (5, 34, 7); and for some time they ruled over Thrace (18, 34, 5). Thus Syria was divided between, two great powers, the northern half falling to Seleucus and his successors, the southern to the Ptolemies; and this explains the titles "king of the north" and "king of the south," in the 11th chapter of Daniel. The line dividing them was drawn somewhat to the north of Damascus, the capital of Coele-Syria.

    The most compact and unbroken account of the kings of this, the Seleucid or Syrian, dynasty is to be found in Appian's book (De Rebus Syriacis), at the end. A sufficiently detailed statement of the reign of each may be found in Smith's Dict. of Class. Biog. s.v. On the dates, see Clinton's Fasti Hellenici, vol. 3, Appendix, ch. 3 The reigns are as follows:

    1. Seleucus I, Nicator, B.C. 312-280.

    2. Antiochus I, Soter, his son, 280-261.

    3. Antiochus II, Theos, his son, 261-246.

    4. Seleucus II, Callinicus, his son, 246-226.

    5. (Alexander, or) Seleucus III, Ceraunus, his son, 226-223.

    6. Antiochus III, the Great, his brother, 223-187.

    7. Sleucus IV, Philopator, his son, 187-176.

    8. Antiochus IV, Epiphanes, his brother, 176-164.

    9. Antiochus V, Eupator, his son (a minor), 164-162.

    10. Demetrius I, Soter, son of Seleucus Philopator, 162-150.

    11. Alexander Balas, A Usurper, who pretended to be son of Antiochus Epiphanes, and was acknowledged by the Romans, 152-146.

    12. Antiochus VI, Dionysus (a minor), son of the preceding. He was murdered by the usurper Trypho, who contested the kingdom till 137.

    13. Demetrius II, Nicator, son of Demetrius Soter, reigned 146 - 141, when he was captured by the Parthians.

    14. Antiochus VII, Sidetes, his brother, 141-128.

    15. Demetrius II, Nicator, a second time, after his release from Parthia, 128-125.

    16. Seleucus V, his son, assassinated immediately by his mother, 125.

    17. Antiochus VIII, Grypus, his brother, shared his kingdom with the following, 125-96.

    18. Antiochus IX, Cyzicenus, his half-brother, 111- 95.

    19. Seleucus VI, Epiphanes, eldest son of Antiochus Grypus, kills Antiochus Cyzicenus, 96 - 95.

    20. Antiochus X, Eusebes, son of Antiochus Cyzicenus, asserts his claims to his father's share of the dominions, kills Seleucus Epiphanes, and prevails over the successors of the latter, but gives way to Tigranes, 95 -83.

    21. Philip, second son of Antiochus Grypus, succeeds to the claims of his brother Seleucus against Antiochus Eusebes, until the accession of Tigranes, cir. 94 - 83.

    22. Antiochus XI, Epiphanes II, his brother, associated with him in the contest in which he lost his life, cir. 94.

    23. Demetrius III, Eucerus, his brother, likewise associated with Philip till their rupture, when he was taken prisoner by the Parthians, 94 - 88.

    24. Antiochus XII, Dionysius II, his brother, whose cause he took up against Philip, till slain by the Arabians, cir. 88 - 86.

    25. Tigranes, king of Armenia, invited to the throne by the Syrians over all the rival claimants, and held it till his overthrow by the Roman general Lucullus, 83 - 69.

    26. Antiochus XIII, Asiaticus, son of Antiochus Eusebes, allowed by Lucullus to hold the throne of the Seleucidae till its entire abolition by Pompey, 69 - 65.

    The following (Nos. 3; 6, 8, 9, 12, 14, 17, 18, 20, 22, 24, of the above) are the only ones of the name of Antiochus that are important in sacred literature. (See Frohlich, Annales Syric; Vaillant, Seleucidar. Imp.)

    1. Antiochus (Ii) Theos ( Θεός , god, so surnamed "in the first instance by the Milesians, because he overthrew their tyrant Timarchus," Appian, Syr. 65), the son and successor of Antiochus (I) Soter as king of Syria, B.C. 261. He carried on for several years the war inherited from his father with the Egyptian king, Ptolemy (II) Philadelphus, who subdued most of the districts of Asia Minor, but at length (B.C. 250), in order to secure peace, he married Ptolemy's daughter (Berenice) in place of his wife Laodice, and appointed the succession in the line of his issue by her (Polyb. ep. Athen. 2, 45); yet, on the death of Ptolemy two yeers afterward, Antiochus recalled his former wife Laodice, and Berenice and her son were soon after put to death at Daphne. Antiochus himself died, B.C. 246, in the 40th year of his age (Porphyry, in Euseb. Chronicles Ann. 1, 345), of poison administered by his wife, who could not forget her former divorce (Justin, 27:1; Appian, Syr. 65; Val. Max. 9, 14,1).

    The above alliance of Antiochus with Ptolemy, by the marriage of Berenice to the former, is prophetically referred to in  Daniel 11:6, as "the joining of themselves together" by "the king of the south and the king of the north," through "the king's daughter;" and its failure is there distinctly characterized, through the triumph of Laodice over "him that strengthened her," i.e. her husband Antiochus (see Jerome, Comment. in loc.). After the death of Antiochus, Ptolemy Evergetes, the brother of Berenice ("out of a branch of her root"), who succeeded his father Ptol. Philadelphus, exacted vengeance for his sister's death by an invasion of Syria, in which Laodice was killed, her son Seleucus Callinicus driven for a time from the throne, and the whole country plundered ( Daniel 11:7-9; hence his surname "the benefactor"). The hostilities thus renewed continued for many years; and on the death of Seleucus, B.C. 226, after his "return into his own land" ( Daniel 11:9), his sons Alexander (Seleucus) Ceraunos and Antiochus "assembled a great multitude of forces" against Ptol. Philopator, the son of Evergetes, and "one of them" (Antiochus) threatened to overthrow the power of Egypt ( Daniel 11:10).

    International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [10]

    an - tı̄´o - kus ( Ἀντίοχος , Antı́ochos  ; A, Ἀντίμαχος , Antı́machos (1 Macc 12:16)): The father of Numenius, who in company with Antipater, son of Jason, was sent by Jonathan on an embassy to the Romans and Spartans to renew "the friendship" and "former confederacy" made by Judas (1 Macc 12:16; 14:22; Ant , Xiii , vi; 8).