Holman Bible Dictionary 
1. One town is referred to in the Bible during the time of Moses, and another was inhabited during the period of the monarchy. Both are located in the dry, semi-desert region known as the Negeb in the southern extreme of Judah's territory.
The Arad of Numbers 21:1-3 (probably Tel Malhata) was a Canaanite city about eleven miles west southwest of Beersheba. Its king attacked the Israelites as they were moving on to Canaan after the wilderness wandering. He was successful temporarily, taking captives; but after vowing to God that they would destroy the city, Israel struck back effectively and renamed the devastated city Hormah. Victory over this king is recorded in Joshua 12:14 . Subsequently the Kenites settled in Arad near the tribe of Judah ( Judges 1:16-17 ).
Another Arad location about seventeen miles west northwest of Beersheba is not mentioned in the Bible, but was an important fortress for Judah from Solomon's time to Josiah, over three hundred years. A temple has been found there with architecture much like the biblical tabernacle and Temple, having similar chambers including a holy of holies. Even the names of priestly families of Israel have been found here, Pashhur ( Ezra 2:38; Ezra 10:22 ) and Meremoth ( Ezra 8:33; Nehemiah 10:5 ). The Temple may well have been destroyed during Josiah's reforms which tolerated only the one Temple in Jerusalem.
Daniel C. Fredericks
Morrish Bible Dictionary 
1. A royal city of the Canaanites, in the south, near Mount Hor, whose king fought against Israel, but who was by the help of God destroyed, both he and his people. Numbers 21:1-3; Numbers 33:40; Joshua 12:14; Judges 1:16 . (In the two passages in Numbers read 'the Canaanite king of Arad.') It is identified with Tell Arad , 35 7' E 31 17' N .
2. Son of Beriah, a descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chronicles 8:15 .
People's Dictionary of the Bible 
Arad ( Â'R Ăd ), To Flee, To Be Wild, Untamed. 1. A Canaanitish city in the south of Judah. The site of this ancient city is a barren-looking eminence rising above the surrounding country, now called Tel Arad. In Numbers 21:1; Numbers 33:40, "king Arad," A. V., to incorrect for "king of Arad." Joshua 12:14; Judges 1:16. 2. A descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chronicles 8:15.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary 
1. 1 Chronicles 8:15.
2. A Canaanite royal city ( Joshua 12:14), N. of the wilderness of Judah ( Judges 1:16). In Numbers 21:1; Numbers 33:40, for "king Arad the Canaanite" translate "the Canaanite king of Arad." Robinson identifies it as on the hill Tel Arad between Moladah and Hebron. A large white mound is all that is left to mark the site of the city of the king who attacked Israel.
Smith's Bible Dictionary 
A'rad. (A Wild Ass).
1. A Benjamite, son of Beriah, who drove out the inhabitants of Gath. 1 Chronicles 8:15. (B.C. 536).
2. A royal city of the Canaanites, named with Hormah and Libnah. Joshua 12:14. The wilderness of Judah was to the south of Arad." Judges 1:16. It may be identified with a hill, Tel 'Arad , an hour and a half northeast by east from Milh (Moladah), and eight hours from Hebron.
Easton's Bible Dictionary 
Bibliography Information Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Arad'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/ebd/a/arad.html. 1897.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible 
ARAD . 1 . A city in the Negeb, the king of which provoked Israel ( Numbers 21:1 ) and was slain by Joshua ( Joshua 12:14 ). In its vicinity the Kenites settled ( Judges 1:16 ). It is probably Tell ‘ArÃ¢d , 16 miles S. of Hebron. 2 . A Benjamite ( 1 Chronicles 8:15 ).
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary 
A Canaanitish city on the extreme south of Judea, the inhabitants of which drove back the Hebrews as they attempted to enter the promised land from Kadesh, Numbers 21:1; it was afterwards subdued, Joshua 10:41; 12:14; Judges 1:16 . Robinson found its site on a hill about fifteen miles south of Hebron.
Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature 
(Heb. Arad', עֲרָד , perh. Flight), the name of a city and of a man.
1. (Sept. Ἀρἀδ , but in Joshua ῎Αδερ . ) An ancient city (so called perhaps from wild Asses in the vicinity, comp. עֲרוֹד , Onager) on the southernmost borders of Palestine, whose inhabitants drove back the Israelites as they attempted to penetrate from Kadesh into Canaan ( Numbers 21:1; Numbers 33:40, where the Auth. Verso has "King Arad," instead of "King of Arad"), but were eventually subdued by Joshua, along with the other southern Canaanites ( Joshua 12:14; also Judges 1:16). It lay within the original limits of the tribe of Judah ( Joshua 12:14) north (north- west) of the desert of Judah ( Judges 1:16). Eusebius ( Ἀραμά ) and Jerome place Arad twenty Roman miles from Hebron, and four from Malatha, in the neighborhood of the desert of Kadesh (see Reland, Palaest. p. 481, 501, 573). This accords well with the situation of a hill called Tell Arad, which Dr. Robinson observed on the road from Petra to Hebron. He describes it as "a barren-looking eminence rising above the country around." He did not examine the spot, but the Arabs said there were no ruins upon or near it, but only a cavern (Researches, 2:472, 622). The same identification is proposed by Schwarz (Palest. p. 86). (See Hormiah). According to Van de Velde (Narrat. 2:83-85) there are fragments of pottery on the top of the Tell, and a ruined reservoir on its south side. It was an episcopal city in Jerome's time (Ritter, Erdk. 14:121).
2. (Sept. Ἀρώδ v. r. ᾿Ωρήδ .) One of the "sons" of Beriah of the tribe of Benjamin ( 1 Chronicles 8:15), B.C. apparently 536.
(See Wild Ass).
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia 
ā´rad ( ערד , ‛ărādh ; Ἀράδ , Arád ):
(1) A city mentioned four times in the Old Testament. In the King James Version it is twice mistakenly rendered as the name of a king ( Numbers 21:1; Numbers 33:40 ). Three times it is spoken of as in the South Country, one mention using the phrase 'the wilderness of Judah which is in the South Country of Arad' ( Judges 1:16 ), that is, the part of the wilderness of Judah which is in the South Country near Arad. It was situated near the frontier of Judah and Simeon, being grouped with Debir, Hormah, Makkedah, etc. ( Joshua 12:14 ). Arad and other cities joined in attacking Israel in the fortieth year of the sojourn in the wilderness ( Numbers 21:1-3 ), and Israel vowed to "make their cities a devoted thing." In the case of Zephath, one of the cities, this vow was fulfilled after the death of Joshua ( Judges 1:17 ). The Kenite relatives of Moses had their inheritance near Arad ( Judges 1:16 ). In the form a - ru - dâ the city is mentioned by Shishak of Egypt as among the places which he conquered in Palestine. The identification of the site with Tel Arad , about 17 miles South of Hebron, seems to be generally accepted.
(2) One of the descendants of Elpaal the son of Shaharaim, mentioned among the descendants of Benjamin ( 1 Chronicles 8:15 ).
Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature 
Arad, an ancient city on the southernmost borders of Palestine, whose inhabitants drove back the Israelites as they attempted to penetrate from Kadesh into Canaan ( Numbers 21:1), but were eventually subdued by Joshua, along with the other southern Canaanites ( Joshua 12:14, comp. 10:41; also Judges 1:16). Eusebius and Jerome place Arad twenty Roman miles from Hebron. This accords well with the situation of a hill called Tell 'Arad, which Dr. Robinson observed on the road from Petra to Hebron. He describes it as 'a barren-looking eminence rising above the country around.' He did not examine the spot, but the Arabs said there were no ruins upon or near it, but only a cavern. The name alone is, however, too decisive to admit a doubt that the hill marks the site of the ancient Arad.
The Nuttall Encyclopedia 
A fortified town in Hungary, seat of a bishop, on the right bank of the Maros; manufactures tobacco, trades in cattle and corn.
- Arad from Holman Bible Dictionary
- Arad from Morrish Bible Dictionary
- Arad from People's Dictionary of the Bible
- Arad from Fausset's Bible Dictionary
- Arad from Smith's Bible Dictionary
- Arad from Easton's Bible Dictionary
- Arad from Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible
- Arad from American Tract Society Bible Dictionary
- Arad from Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature
- Arad from International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
- Arad from Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature
- Arad from The Nuttall Encyclopedia