Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible 
TRYPHON . An officer of Alexander Balas, who, after the death of the latter, took advantage of the unpopularity of Demetrius to put forward Antiochus, the son of Balas, as a claimant to the throne ( 1Ma 11:39 ). His real aim, however, was to gain the crown for himself, and this he accomplished after he had murdered in succession Jonathan the Maccabee ( 1Ma 12:39-50 ) and Antiochus ( 1Ma 13:31 f.). His rapacity led Simon to appeal to Demetrius ( 1Ma 13:34 ). The latter was organizing an expedition against Tryphon when he was himself made prisoner by Arsaces ( 1Ma 14:1-3 ). In the end, Antiochus Sidetes, the brother of Demetrius, attacked Tryphon, besieged him in Dor, and pursued him when he escaped thence to Orthesia ( 1Ma 15:10-14; 1Ma 15:37-39 ). Tryphon was finally shut up in Apamea, where he committed suicide (Strabo, p. 668; Jos. [Note: Josephus.] Ant. XIII. vii. 2; App. Syr . 68).
Smith's Bible Dictionary 
Try'phon. A usurper of the Syrian throne. His proper name was Diodotus, and the surname, Tryphon, was given to him, or adopted by him, after his secession to power. He was a native of Cariana. 1 Maccabees 11:39, 1 Maccabees 12:39-50; etc. Tryphon, by treason and successive wars, gained supreme power, killed Antiochus and assumed the throne. The coins bear his head as Antiochus and Trypho.
Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature 
( Τρύφων , a not infrequent Greek name of the later age), a usurper of the Syrian throne. His proper name was Diodotus (Strabo, 16:2, 10; Appian, Syr. 68), and the surname Tryphon was given to him, or, according to Appian, adopted by him, after his accession to power (Livy, Epit. 53, 45). He was a native of Cariana, a fortified place in the district of Apamea, where, he was brought up (Strabo, Loc. Cit. ) . In the time of Alexander Balas he was attached to the court (Appian, Loc. Cit., Δοῦλος Τῶν Βασιλέων ; Diodor. Fr. 21 :ap. M Ü ller, Hist. Gr. Frogm. 2, 17, Στρατηγός ; 1 Maccabees 11:39 , Τῶν Παρὰ Ἀλεξ ); but towards the close of his reign he seems to have joined in the conspiracy which was set on foot to transfer the crown of Syria to Ptolemy Philometor ( 1 Maccabees 11:13; Diodor. loc. cit.). After the death of Alexander Balas he took advantage of the unpopularity of Demetrius II to put forward the claims of Antiochus VI, the young son of Alexander ( 1 Maccabees 11:39), B.C. 145. After a time he obtained the support of Jonathan, who had been alienated from Demetrius by his ingratitude, and the young king was crowned (B.C. 144). Tryphon, however, soon revealed his real designs on the kingdom, and, fearing the opposition of Jonathan, he gained possession of his person by treachery ( 1 Maccabees 12:39-50), and after a short time put him to death ( 1 Maccabees 13:23). As the way now seemed clear, he murdered Antiochus, and seized the supreme power ( 1 Maccabees 11:31-32), which he exercised, as far as he was able, with violence and rapacity ( 1 Maccabees 11:34). His tyranny again encouraged the hopes of Demetrils, who was engaged in preparing an expedition against him (B.C. 141), when he was taken prisoner ( 1 Maccabees 14:1-3), and Tryphon retained the throne (Justin, 36:1; Diodor: Leg. 31), till Antiochus VII, the brother of Demetrius, drove him to Dora, from which he escaped to Orthosia, in Phoenicia ( 1 Maccabees 15:10-14; 1 Maccabees 15:37-39), B.C. 139. Not long afterwards, being hard pressed by Antiochus, he committed suicide, or, according to other accounts, was put to death by Antiochus (Strabo, 14:5, 2; Appian, Syr. 68, Ἀντίοχος - Κτείνει ... Σὺνπόνῳ Πολλῷ ). Josephus ( Ant. 13 :7, 2) adds that he was killed at Apamea, the place which he made his headquarters (Strabo, 16:2, 10). The authority of Tryphon was evidently very partial, as appears from the growth of Jewish independence under Simon Maccabaeus, and Strabo describes him as one of the chief authors of Cilician piracy (14, 3, 2). His name occurs on the coins of Antiochus VI, and he also struck coins in his own name. (See Antiochus); (See Demetrius).
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia 
trı̄´fon ( Τρύφων , Trúphōn ): The surname of Diodotus, a usurper of the Syrian throne. He was a native of Apamea, and had been in the service of Alexander Balas. On the death of Balas (145 BC), Tryphon, taking advantage of the complaints of discontent among the troops of Demetrius 2 (Nicator), set up the younger son of Balas, Antiochus VI, as claimant to the throne against Demetrius ( 1 Maccabees 11:39 ). The Jews under Jonathan came to the assistance of Demetrius in his difficulties against his revolting subjects. But Demetrius, when confirmed on his throne, soon made it apparent that he did not intend to fulfill his promises to his Jewish allies ( 1 Maccabees 11:53 ). Consequently, Jonathan and Simon joined Tryphon and Antiochus VI, securing many advantages for their country ( 1 Maccabees 11:54 ff). Jonathan inflicted a severe defeat on the forces of Demetrius. The successes of the Jewish leaders awakened the jealousy and suspicion of Tryphon, who determined to thwart the further plans of Jonathan and to remove him as an obstacle in the way of his securing the crown for himself. By an act of shrewd treachery, Tryphon captured Jonathan at Ptolemais and butchered all his followers ( 1 Maccabees 12:48 ). Simon, brother of Jonathan, now undertook the conduct of affairs and thwarted Tryphon in his attempts upon Jerusalem, whereupon the latter murdered Jonathan at Bascama ( 1 Maccabees 13:1 ff) in 143 BC. Tryphon next murdered the young Antiochus 6 ( 1 Maccabees 13:31 ) and claimed the throne of Syria for himself (143 BC) (but see the chronology as given in Schurer, Hjp , 4th edition, I, 172). Simon now went over to the side of Demetrius on condition that Judea should be free from tribute to Syria - a privilege that was rather in the power of Tryphon than of Demetrius to give, and so "in the 170th year (143 BC) was the yoke of the heathen taken away from Israel" ( 1 Maccabees 13:41 ). In 138 Bc D emetrius was captured by Mithridates I (Arsaces), king of Parthia ( 1 Maccabees 14:2 ). His brother, Antiochus 7 (Sidetes), continued the struggle against Tryphon, first with the aid of Simon, but later repudiating it. Tryphon was obliged to flee before Sidetes to Dor ( 1 Maccabees 15:11 ), where Antiochus refused the assistance of Simon ( 1 Maccabees 15:26 ). He next escaped to Ptolemais, then to Orthosia, and finally to his native Apamea, where he was driven to suicide (Josephus, Ant. , Xiii , vii, 2; Strabo, 668; Appian, Syriac, 68). (The best account is given in Schurer, 4th edition, I, 172 ff; compare also Speaker's Commentary in the place cited.) See Antiochus; Demetrius .