From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Smith's Bible Dictionary [1]

Zo'bah. (Station). The name of a portion of Syria which formed a separate kingdom in the time of the Jewish monarchs Saul, David and Solomon. It probably was eastward of Coele-Syria, and extended thence northeast and east toward, if not even to, the Euphrates. We first hear of Zobah in the time of Saul, when we find it mentioned as a separate country, governed apparently by a number of kings who owned no common head or chief.  1 Samuel 14:47.

Some forty years later than this, we find Zobah under a single ruler Hadadezer son of Rehob. He had wars with Toi king of Hamath,  2 Samuel 8:10, and held various petty Syrian princes as vassals under his yoke.  2 Samuel 10:19. David,  2 Samuel 8:3, attacked Hadadezer in the early part of his reign, defeated his army, and took from him a thousand chariots, seven hundred (seven thousand,).  1 Chronicles 18:4, horsemen and 20,000 footmen. Hadadezer's allies, the Syrians of Damascus, were defeated in a great battle. The wealth of Zobah is very apparent in the narrative of this campaign.

A man of Zobah, Rezon son of Eliadah, made himself master of Damascus where he proved a fierce adversary to Israel all through the reign of Solomon.  1 Kings 11:23-25. Solomon also was, it would seem engaged in a war with Zobah itself.  2 Chronicles 8:3. This is the last that we hear of Zobah in Scripture. The name however, is found at a later date in the inscriptions of Assyria, where the kingdom of Zobah seems to intervene between Hamath and Damascus.

People's Dictionary of the Bible [2]

Zobah ( Zô'Bah ), Station. A Syrian kingdom, sometimes called Aram Zobah, and also written "Zoba," whose kings made war with Saul,  1 Samuel 14:47; with David,  2 Samuel 8:3;  2 Samuel 10:6;  2 Samuel 10:8;  1 Chronicles 18:5;  1 Chronicles 18:9; and with Solomon,  2 Chronicles 8:3. It was on the north of Damascus.  2 Samuel 8:3;  2 Samuel 23:36;  1 Kings 11:23. Zobah is found on the Assyrian inscriptions.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [3]

ZOBAH . An Aramæan community, the most powerful of the coalition of ‘Syrian’ States which made war upon king David while he was engaged with the Ammonites (  2 Samuel 8:10 ff.). The exact location is uncertain; but this whole group of Aramæan settlements lay between Damascus and the entrance to CÅ“le-Syria. Zobah was certainly east of Jordan, and probably the most southerly of the kindred peoples.   1 Samuel 14:47 , which states that Saul fought against Zobah, is probably based on a confusion with the wars of David.

J. F. McCurdy.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [4]

A country of Syria, whose king carried on war with Saul and David,  1 Samuel 14:47   2 Samuel 8:3   10:6 . It seems to have lain near Damascus, and to have included the city Hamath conquered by Solomon,  2 Chronicles 8:3 , but also to have extended towards the Euphrates,  2 Samuel 8:3 .

Easton's Bible Dictionary [5]

 Psalm 60 1 Samuel 14:47 2 Samuel 8:3 10:6

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [6]

(See Zoba .)

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [7]

zō´ba ( צובה , cōbhāh  ; Σουβά , Soubá ): The name is derived by Halevy from zehōbhāh as referring to its supplies of "bright yellow" brass; but this word might be more appropriately used to contrast its cornfields with white Lebanon. Zobah was an Aramean kingdom of which we have the first notice in Saul's wars (  1 Samuel 14:47 ).

(1) David's First War.

When David sought to extend his boundary to the Euphrates, he came into contact with its king Hadadezer, and a great battle was fought in which David took many prisoners. Damascus, however, came to the rescue and fresh resistance was made, but a complete rout followed and great spoil fell to the victor, as well as access to the rich copper mines of Tebah and Berothai. Toi, king of Hamath, who had suffered in war with Hadadezer, now sent his son on an embassy with greetings and gifts to David ( 2 Samuel 8:3-12;  1 Chronicles 18:3-12 ). See  Psalm 60:1-12 , title.

(2) David's Second War.

During David's Ammonite war, the enemy was strengthened by alliance with Zobah, Maacah and Beth-rehob, and Israel was attacked from both North and South at the same time. The northern confederation was defeated by Joab, but Hadadezer again gathered an army, including levies from beyond the Euphrates. These, under Shobach the captain of the host, were met by David in person at Helam, and a great slaughter ensued, Shobach himself being among the slain ( 2 Samuel 10:6-19 , the King James Version "Zoba"; 1 Ch 19:3-19). Rezon, son of Eliada, now broke away from Hadadezer and, getting possession of Damascus, set up a kingdom hostile to Israel ( 1 Kings 11:23-25 ). Solomon seems ( 2 Chronicles 8:3 ) to have invaded and subdued Hamath-zobah, but the text, especially Septuagint, is obscure.

(3) Geographical Position.

We can now consider the vexed question of the situation and extent of Aram-zobah. (See Syria , 4, (10).) In addition to the Old Testament references we have the Assyrian name lists. In these Subiti is placed between Kui and Zemar, and, where it is otherwise referred to, a position is implied between Hamath and Damascus. It would thus lie along the eastern slopes of Anti-Lebanon extending thence to the desert, and in the north it may have at times included Emesa (modern Homs ) around which Noldeke would locate it. Damascus was probably a tributary state till seized by Rezon. Winckler would identify it with another Cubiti, a place in the Hauran mentioned by Assurbanipal on the Hassam Cylinder vii, lines 110-12. This latter may be the native place of Igal, one of David's "thirty" (  2 Samuel 23:36 ), who is named among eastern Israelites.

The kingdom of Zobah in addition to its mineral wealth must have been rich in vineyards and fruitful fields, and its conquest must have added greatly to the wealth and power of Israel's king.

Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [8]

Zo´bah a Syrian kingdom, whose king made war with Saul (), with David (; ), and with Solomon ().