From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [1]

This verb (θριαμβεύειν) is used in later Greek as the equivalent of the Latin triumphare , to which it seems to be etymologically akin. It occurs twice in the NT- 2 Corinthians 2:14,  Colossians 2:15. In  Colossians 2:15 the Crucifixion is represented as the triumph which crowns the Holy War of redemption. As the Roman conqueror led the vanquished captives in triumphal procession up to the Capitol and offered them to the supreme God, so in exalting to His right hand the Crucified Christ, by whom He has reconciled us unto Himself in the body of His flesh through death, God led in triumph the ‘principalities and powers,’ the world-governing spirits who are unfriendly to man, and to whose dominion man in the state of nature is subjected. The thought of the passage is similar to that of  1 Corinthians 2:8, where the spirit-rulers of this world are represented as ignorantly bringing about that crucifixion through which their own power is brought to naught ( 1 Corinthians 15:24). In  2 Corinthians 2:14 the general meaning is clear. ‘In a magnificent figure Paul represents himself as by God’s ordinance sharing, in his travels through the world, the triumph Christ is celebrating over all that has withstood His cause’ (A. Menzies, The Second Epistle to the Corinthians , 1912, p. 17). But in what capacity-as conqueror or as captive? The only meaning which the known usage of the word justifies is that St. Paul himself is the most auspicious trophy of the conquering power of Christ (Heinrici, Bousset). Many modern commentators, however (Schmiedel, Menzies, etc.), give the verb an active sense, ‘maketh us to triumph’ (Authorized Version), on the ground that, though no lexical parallel is found, the sense of the passage requires it. Others (Theodoret, Lietzmann) take the word in the more general sense of ‘to lead about in a conspicuous manner,’ for which Lietzmann quotes corroborative instances from Suidas. The Revised Version‘leadeth us in triumph’ is felicitously ambiguous.

Robert Law.

King James Dictionary [2]

TRI'UMPH, n. L. triumphus.

1. Among the ancient Romans, a pompous ceremony performed in honor of a victorious general, who was allowed to enter the city crowned, originally with laurel, but in later times with gold, bearing a truncheon in one hand and a branch of laurel in the other, riding in a chariot drawn by two white horses, and followed by the kings, princes and generals whom he had vanquished, loaded with chains and insulted by mimics and buffoons. The triumph was of two kinds, the greater and the less. The lesser triumph was granted for a victory over enemies of less considerable power, and was called an ovation. 2. State of being victorious.

Hercules from Spain

Arriv'd in triumph, from Geryon slain.

3. Victory conquest.

The vain coquets the trifling triumphs boast.

4. Joy or exultation for success.

Great triumph and rejoicing was in heav'n.

5. A card that takes all others now written trump, which see.

TRI'UMPH, To celebrate victory with pomp to rejoice for victory.

How long shall the wicked triumph?  Psalms 94

1. To obtain victory.

There fix thy faith, and triumph o'er the world.

Attir'd with stars, we shall forever sit

Triumphing over death.

2. In insult upon an advantage gained.

Let not my enemies triumph over me.  Psalms 25

Sorrow on all the pack of you

That triumph thus upon my misery.

3. To be prosperous to flourish.

Where commerce triumph'd on the favoring gales.

triumph over,to succeed in overcoming to surmount as, to triumph over all obstacles.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [3]

1: Θριαμβεύω (Strong'S #2358 — Verb — thriambeuo — three-am-byoo'-o )

denotes (a) "to lead in triumph," used of a conqueror with reference to the vanquished,  2—Corinthians 2:14 . Theodoret paraphrases it "He leads us about here and there and displays us to all the world." This is in agreement with evidences from various sources. Those who are led are not captives exposed to humiliation, but are displayed as the glory and devoted subjects of Him who leads (see the context). This is so even if there is a reference to a Roman "triumph." On such occasions the general's sons, with various officers, rode behind his chariot (Livy, xlv. 40). But there is no necessary reference here to a Roman "triumph" (Field, in Notes on the Trans. of the NT). The main thought is that of the display, "in Christ" being the sphere; its evidences are the effects of gospel testimony.

 Colossians 2:15

Webster's Dictionary [4]

(1): ( n.) To celebrate victory with pomp; to rejoice over success; to exult in an advantage gained; to exhibit exultation.

(2): ( n.) A trump card; also, an old game at cards.

(3): ( n.) Hence, any triumphal procession; a pompous exhibition; a stately show or pageant.

(4): ( n.) A magnificent and imposing ceremonial performed in honor of a general who had gained a decisive victory over a foreign enemy.

(5): ( n.) A state of joy or exultation for success.

(6): ( n.) To obtain victory; to be successful; to prevail.

(7): ( n.) To be prosperous; to flourish.

(8): ( n.) To play a trump card.

(9): ( v. t.) To obtain a victory over; to prevail over; to conquer. Also, to cause to triumph.

(10): ( n.) Success causing exultation; victory; conquest; as, the triumph of knowledge.

Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology [5]

See Victory

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [6]

trı̄´umf ( θριαμβεύω , thriambeúō , "to lead in triumph"): The word is used by Paul to express an idea very familiar to antiquity, and to the churches at Corinth and Colosse: "But thanks be unto God, who always leadeth us in triumph in Christ" (  2 Corinthians 2:14 ); "Having despoiled the principalities and the powers, he made a show of them openly, triumphing over them in it" ( Colossians 2:15 ).

A triumph in Rome was a magnificent procession in honor of a victorious general, and the highest military distinction which he could obtain. It was granted by the senate only to one who had held the office of dictator, consul, or praetor, and after a decisive victory in the complete subjugation of a province. In a Roman triumph the victorious general entered the city in a chariot drawn by four horses. He was crowned with laurel, having a scepter in one hand and a branch of laurel in the other. He was preceded by the senate and magistrates, musicians, the spoils of his victory, and the captives in fetters; and followed by his army on foot, in marching order. The procession thus advanced along the Via Sacra to the Capitol, where a bull was sacrificed to Jupiter, and the laurel wreath deposited in the lap of the god. During the triumphal entry the priests burned incense, and hence, the reference of the apostle: "For we are a sweet savor of Christ unto God, in them that are saved, and in them that perish; to the one a savor from death unto death; to the other a savor from life unto life" ( 2 Corinthians 2:15 ,  2 Corinthians 2:16 ). The incense that was to the victor the "savor" of his triumph would be to the wretched captives the "savor," or intimation, of a rapidly approaching death in the Roman arena or in the damp vaults of the Tullianum. Thus the "incense," or influence, of the apostolic gospel would be to the believer the assurance of redemption through Christ, and to the unbeliever the assurance of spiritual death.

After the suicide of Antony in Alexandria (30 BC) Augustus Caesar succeeded in getting Cleopatra into his power. She had hoped to subdue him by her charms, but without avail. Aware that she was doomed, she revolted against the thought of being led in triumph to Rome, and, as tradition states, took her own life by allowing an asp to bite her, saying, "I will not be led in triumph"; see Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra , V, ii:

"He'll lead me, then, in triumph?...

Thou, an Egyptian puppet, shalt be shown

In Rome as well as I: mechanic slaves,

With greasy aprons, rules, and hammers shall

Uplift us to the view...

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [7]

Bibliography Information McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Triumph'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.