Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology 
The number of times the word "victory" occurs in the English Bible depends very much on the particular version one uses. For example, "victory" occurs only eleven times in the Authorized Version, while the Revised Standard Version contains forty-four occurrences of the word. This is because a variety of Greek and Hebrew words are used to communicate the concept.
In its Old Testament use, the concept of victory signifies more than just a military conquest, though it includes that. For many of the writers of the Old Testament, victory is ultimately something that comes from the Lord, and it is the Lord who carries on the fight. The Lord will go with the Israelites in their conquest of Canaan. He will fight against their enemies, and he will give them the victory ( Deuteronomy 20:4 ). Jonathan's role in Israel's victory over the Philistines was possible only because he and God fought together against the enemy ( 1 Samuel 14:45 ). David's defeat of Goliath was in fact the Lord's victory wrought for all Israel ( 1 Samuel 19:5 ). David's conquest of the Edomites was a victory that the Lord gave to David ( 2 Samuel 8:6,14 ). Similar victories, wrought by the Lord through human agency, are found in the stories of Eleazar, son of Dodo the Ahohite ( 2 Samuel 23:10,12 ) and many others. All ascription of victory must go to the Lord, for his is the greatness, power, glory, and majesty, as well as victory ( 1 Chronicles 29:11 ). In fact, the prophet Jahaziel on one occasion communicates the word of the Lord to the people of Judah that they need not fight, but simply stand still and see the Lord's salvation ( 2 Chronicles 20:17 ). So complete is God's sovereignty in victory that he even gives victory to Syria through the agency of Naaman, who is called a mighty man of valor, despite being a leper (cf. the angel of the Lord's similar words to Gideon in Judges 6:12 ).
In the Psalter, the psalmist petitions for victory (i.e., salvation, deliverance) through God's co-regent, the Davidic king. Such victory belongs to the king (20:5,9), even though it comes from the right hand and arm of God (44:3). However, such victory is not guaranteed by simply military superiority (33:17), but comes only from God (c.f. 60:5; 98:1-3; 118:15; 144:10; 149:4). Proverbs reminds the reader that, while human preparation is necessary for battle, victory belongs to the Lord (21:31).
The prophets comment very little on the notion of victory. Isaiah reminds the inhabitants of Judah living in the postcaptivity restoration that the victorious Babylonian army completes its conquests only because the Lord gives them nations and kings (41:2). When there is no human agent to intervene, it is the Lord's own arm that brings victory (59:16; 63:5). The Lord, through Jeremiah, promises to avenge himself against arrogant Babylon by sending his own locust-like army to conquer them ( Jeremiah 51:14 ). Zechariah reminds Judah that the Lord himself, as a warrior who gives victory, will restore Judah, renewing his love and exulting over them with loud singing (12:7).
In the New Testament, the noun form "victory" ( nikos [ 1 Corinthians 15:54-55; cf. Isaiah 25:8; Hosea 13:14 ). For John, the victory that triumphs over the world is our faith, and the one that overcomes the world is the one who believes that Jesus is the Son of God ( 1 John 5:4-5 ).
In traditional diatribe style, Paul first asks rhetorically if Israel's unbelief makes God's faithfulness ineffective. Paul rejects such a suggestion outright, instead insisting that even if every man is false, God will be true, insisting that God will triumph in victory when He is judged ( Romans 3:4 ). Likewise, believers are not to be overcome with evil, but are to have the victory over it ( Romans 12:21 ). For Paul, life in Christ is similar to a military battle or an athletic contest, in which it is crucial that one triumph. It is crucial that those who run in this race run so as to obtain the prize ( 1 Corinthians 9:24 ). Paul describes his own life as pressing on toward this same prize, the upward call of God in Christ Jesus ( Philippians 3:14 ). However, believers can be thankful to God, who, in Christ, always leads them in triumph ( 2 Corinthians 2:14 ). In fact, Christ has already publicly triumphed over the hostile principalities and powers ( Colossians 2:15 ).
Revelation makes much of the language of conquest and victory. In each of the letters to the seven churches of Asia Minor there is a reference to him to "overcomes." The Lord will grant to the one who overcomes the following: eating of the tree of life, in the paradise of God (2:7); immunity to the second death (2:11); receipt of the "hidden manna, " a white stone with a new name inscribed on it, known only to the person himself (2:17); power over the nations, to rule over them with a rod of iron (2:26-27); being clad in white garments, name not being blotted out of the book of life, and the confession of his name before the Father and the angels (3:5); made a pillar in the temple of God; and three new names: the name of God, the name of the city of God, the new Jerusalem, and the Lord's own new name (3:12); and sitting on the Lord's throne with him (3:21). The Lord himself, on a white horse, rides forth to conquer (6:2). The beast will conquer the people of God temporarily (11:7; 13:7), but they will eventually conquer the beast (15:2). The Lamb, who is King of kings and Lord of lords, will conquer them (17:14). Finally, the Lord promises that for the one who conquers, the Lord will be his God, and he will be God's son (21:7).
Andrew L. Smith
Bibliography . O. Bauernfeind, TDNT, 4:942-45; 6:502-15; G. Deling, TDNT, 3:159f.; G. von Rad, Studies in Deuteronomy, pp. 45-49; E. Stauffer, TDNT, 1:134-40; L. E. Toombs, IDB, 4:797-801; L. Williamson, Interp 22 (1968): 317ff.; Y. Yadin, The Art of Warfare in Biblical Lands .
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary 
Songs celebrating victory in war were common among ancient people. Israel’s victory songs were marked by great praise to God, because Israelites acknowledged that God was the one who gave them victory ( Exodus 15:1-18; Judges 5; Psalms 18; see also War ).
The New Testament uses the illustration of warfare in giving teaching about the Christian’s conflict with evil, a conflict in which God again is the one who brings victory ( 2 Corinthians 10:3-4; Ephesians 6:10-18; see also Armour ; Weapons ). Satan is the enemy of God’s people, but Christians can be assured of victory over him because of Christ’s victory over him ( Luke 4:1-13; Luke 10:18; Revelation 12:7-11; see Satan ; Temptation ). Because of Satan’s power in the world, Christians have a conflict with the world and its evil ways, but again through faith in Christ they are guaranteed victory ( Romans 8:35-37; James 4:4; 1 John 2:15; 1 John 5:19; see World ).
Within themselves likewise Christians have a conflict. Their old human nature, the flesh, still tries to rule them, but Christ has conquered the flesh so that they may no longer be under its power. By faith Christ’s victory becomes theirs ( Romans 8:1-4; see Flesh ).
The final victory will be the conquest of death at Christ’s return. All God’s people will be raised to new life in glorified spiritual bodies, and will be free for ever from the effects of sin. Having established complete authority over all things, Christ will then deliver his victorious kingdom to the Father ( 1 Corinthians 15:24-28; 1 Corinthians 15:54; see Resurrection ).
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament 
Victory ( νῖκος, Matthew 12:20, 1 Corinthians 15:55; 1 Corinthians 15:57; νίκη, 1 John 5:4; חּֽשׁוּעָה, 1 Samuel 19:5, Proverbs 21:31).— Matthew 12:20 is a quotation from Isaiah 42:3; but in the latter the word used is אֶמָח ‘truth,’ and not ‘victory.’ It is the same word, νενίκηκα (fr. νικάω), which is used by our Lord in John 16:33 ‘I have overcome the world,’ and in many other passages throughout the NT, to express the idea of ‘overcoming.’ To the mind of Jesus there is only one kind of victory. It is not the triumph over social and financial difficulties which issues in worldly success, but that mastery over our lower nature and the powers of evil within and around us which issues in self-control, and the subjection of the whole life to the will of God. This is the one real victory, without which any other is but a fleeting phantom. It was the victory which He Himself gained, and which His true disciples are enabled to achieve through His aid and guidance. This victory brings with it such blessings as forgiveness, deliverance from the dominion of sin and from the fear of death, a deep sense of the moral order of the world, peace with God, and life everlasting.
King James Dictionary 
VIC'TORY, n. L. victoria, from vinco, victus, to conquer.
1. Conquest the defeat of an enemy in battle, or of an antagonist in contest a gaining of the superiority in war or combat. Victory supposes the power of an enemy or an antagonist to prove inferior to that of the victor. Victory however depends not always on superior skill or valor it is often gained by the fault or mistake of the vanquished.
Victory may be honorable to the arms, but shameful to the counsels of a nation.
2. The advantage or superiority gained over spiritual enemies, over passions and appetites, or over temptations, or in any struggle or competition.
Thanks be to God, who giveth us the victory, through our Lord Jesus Christ. 1 Corinthians 15 .
Webster's Dictionary 
(n.) The defeat of an enemy in battle, or of an antagonist in any contest; a gaining of the superiority in any struggle or competition; conquest; triumph; - the opposite of defeat.
Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature 
in Roman mythology, was the daughter of Pallas and Styx. Victory personified (called by the Greeks Νίκη ) was generally represented in connection with other deities, who carry her upon their hands; for instance, Jupiter, Minerva, Venus. She also appears with victors in races, whose horses she guides. She is pictured as a maiden similar to Minerva, with wings, a palm-branch, and a wreath. In the accompanying cut she appears bringing a sacrifice to Minerva.
- Victory from Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology
- Victory from Bridgeway Bible Dictionary
- Victory from Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament
- Victory from King James Dictionary
- Victory from Webster's Dictionary
- Victory from Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature