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Fausset's Bible Dictionary [1]

Shalmaneser  Hosea 10:14 the 'Eser common to Shalman with three other Assyrian kings is omitted, Tiglath Pil-eser, Esar-haddon, and Sharezer. No monuments of Shalman remain, because Sargon his successor, an usurper, destroyed them. The Assyrian canon agrees with Scripture in making Shalman king directly after Tiglath Pileser. Menander of Ephesus spoke of his warring in southern Syria and besieging Tyre five years (Josephus, Ant. 9:14). (See Hoshea ; SARGON.) Hoshea king of Israel revolted; then, on Shalman coming up against him, became his tributary servant, but conspired in dependence on So of Egypt, and withheld tribute. Shalman a second time invaded the Holy Land (723 B.C.). As Sargon claims the capture of Samaria he must have ended what Shalman began. Scripture (  1 Kings 17:3-6 , The General Expression "The King Of Assyria," And  1 Kings 18:9-10 , "They Took It,") accords with this: "Shalman spoiled Beth Arbel in the day of battle." G. Smith states that tablets prove the S.E. palace at Nimrud to be that of Shalmaneser, 860 B.C.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [2]

SHALMAN . This name occurs only in the clause ‘as Shalman spoiled Beth-arbel in the day of battle’ (  Hosea 10:14 ). The person and place referred to are both unknown. Shalman may be a contraction for Shalmaneser , but it is impossible to say which, if any, of the four kings of Assyria bearing that name suits the connexion. It has been suggested that the Moabite king Salmanu (mentioned in Tiglath-pileser’s triumphal inscription, ii Rawl. 67, line 60) may be the person referred to by the prophet. The Vulg. [Note: Vulgate.] version seems to think of the slaughter of Zalmunna by Gideon (  Judges 9:1-57 ). See also art. Beth-arbel.

W. F. Boyd.

Smith's Bible Dictionary [3]

Shal'man. (Fire-Worshipper). A contraction for Shalmaneser , king of Assyria.  Hosea 10:14. Others think it, the name of an obscure Assyrian king, predecessor of Pul. See Shalmaneser .

Easton's Bible Dictionary [4]

 Hosea 10:14 2 Kings 17:3-5 18:9

Morrish Bible Dictionary [5]

One who laid waste Beth-arbel.  Hosea 10:14 . Probably tile same person as SHALMANESER.

Holman Bible Dictionary [6]

 Hosea 10:14

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [7]

(Heb. Shalman שִׁלְמִן , perhaps Persian, Fire-Worshipper ; Sept. Σαλαμάν ; Vulg. Salmana ) , a name occurring but once ( Hosea 10:14, "as Shalman spoiled Beth-arbel in the day of battle"). It appears to be an abbreviated form of Shalmaneser (q.v.). Ewald, however, speaks of Shalman as an unknown king, but probably the predecessor of Pul ( Die Propheten, 1, 157; see Simson, Der Prophet Hosea, p. 287). The Sept. reading כְּשָׂר for כְּשֹׁד , "as he spoiled," renders Ὡς Ἄρχων , and the Vulgate, confounding Shalman with the Zalmunnah of Judges (ch. 8), gives, from another misreading, a Domo Ejus Qui Judicavit Baal, so that Newcome ventures to translate "Like the destruction of Zalmunnah by the hand of Jerubbaal" (Gideon). Indeed, the Vatican edition of the Sept. has Ἐκ Τοῦ Οἴκου Τοῦ ῾Ιεροβοάμ , and the Alexandrian has Ἐκ Τοῦ Οἴκου ῾Ιεροβάαλ . misreadings of the word Beth-arbel. The Targum of Jonathan and Peshito- Syriac both give "Shalma;" the former for בֵּית אִרְבֵּאל reading בְּמִאֲרָב , "by an ambush," the latter בֵּית אֵל , "Beth-el." The Chaldee translator seems to have caught only the first letters of the word "Arbel," while the Syrian only saw the last two. The Targum possibly regards "Shalman" as an appellative, "the peaceable," following in this the traditional interpretation of the verse recorded by Rashi, whose note is as follows: "As spoilers that come upon a people dwelling in peace, suddenly by means of an ambush, who have not been warned against them to flee before them, and destroy all." (See Beth-Arbel).

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [8]

shal´man ( שׁלמן , shalmān ): A name of uncertain meaning, found only once in the Old Testament (  Hosea 10:14 ), in connection with a place-name, equally obscure, "as Shalman destroyed Betharbel." Shalman is most commonly interpreted as a contracted form of Shalmaneser, the name of several Assyrian kings. If this explanation is correct, the king referred to cannot be identified. Some have thought of Shalmaneser IV, who is said to have undertaken expeditions against the West in 775 and in 773-772. Others have proposed Shalmaneser V, who attacked Samaria in 725. This, however, is improbable, because the activity of Hosea ceased before Shalmaneser V became king. Shalman has also been identified with Salamanu, a king of Moab in the days of Hosea, who paid tribute to Tiglath-pileser V of Assyria; and with Shalmah, a North Arabian tribe that invaded the Negeb. The identification of Beth-Arbel (which see) is equally uncertain. From the reference it would seem that the event in question was well known and, therefore, probably one of recent date and considerable importance, but our present historical knowledge does not enable us to connect any of the persons named with the destruction of any of the localities suggested for Beth-arbel. The ancient translations offer no solution; they too seem to have been in the dark.