From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [1]

The etymology of the Greek word εἰρήνη is variously given as from εἴρειν (= Lat. serere), ‘to fasten together,’ or from εἴρειν (cf. Lat. sermo), ‘to speak.’ Besides the noun the following forms of the root occur in the writings of the Apostolic Age: εἰρηνεύειν, ‘to keep the peace’ (never transitive, ‘to reconcile’) ( Mark 9:50,  Romans 12:18,  2 Corinthians 13:11,  1 Thessalonians 5:13); εἰρηνοποιός, ‘peacemaker’ ( Matthew 5:9), on which see below; εἰρηνοποιεῖν, ‘to make peace’ ( Colossians 1:20), εἰρηνικός, ‘peaceable’ ( James 3:17); for the meaning in  Hebrews 12:11 see below.

The noun εἰρήνη occurs in all the NT writings except John, but the preponderant and most characteristic use is in the Pauline Epistles. It derives its peculiar significance from the OT שלום and cognate forms. In extra-biblical Greek εἰρήνη is strictly limited to its ordinary political and military significance, meaning simply the cessation or absence of war. It does not even cover the idea of ‘treaty,’ ‘truce,’ for which σπονδαί is used. The LXX_ puts εἰρήνη for six other words besides שלום (cf. שעס in  1 Chronicles 4:40). It is of prime importance to notice that in Hebrew and the cognate languages שלום is not a word formed for or originally associated with the cessation of hostilities. The root שלסcovers a wide range of ideas, many of which have nothing to do with war and peace. The use of the word with a political or military reference is a later development. From this it must be explained that ‘peace’ in the OT has frequently a positive content, and that it is applied in many connexions to which it could scarcely have been transferred from its military use. Thus the idea of ‘health’ is not a metaphor transferring the notion of political soundness to the bodily, organism. Nor is the meaning of ‘prosperity’ the product of the experience that political peace is indispensable to economic welfare. The root denotes originally ‘wholeness,’ ‘integrity.’ This is applied to inorganic things, e.g. unhewn stones ( Deuteronomy 27:6), also metaphorically to such things as labour ( 1 Kings 7:51), wages ( Ruth 2:12), and spiritually to disposition ( Isaiah 38:3) and sin ( Genesis 15:18). Further, it is used of artificially produced objects in the sense of being unbroken, uninjured ( Deuteronomy 25:15,  Proverbs 11:1). In relation to organic processes it stands for health ( Genesis 29:6), and this, in part at least, gives rise to the employment of the word in the formula of salutation, although the wider sense of security of one’s actions and interests in general enters likewise into this usage ( Genesis 41:16). The Piël species of the verb has two main significations-the religious one of performing a ritual obligation ( Deuteronomy 23:22), and the forensic one of recompensing, sensu malo of punishment ( Jeremiah 25:14) or of trade-exchange ( Psalms 37:21). In both respects the transaction is viewed as an integrating process, the payment rounding off, rendering complete the votive state or the compensatory relationship. In dependence on the ritual usage the name for one class of sacrifice will probably have to be explained, for these offerings were either votive offerings or sacrifices for thanksgiving in general. The Hiphil and Hophal forms of the verb are largely denominatives from the noun in its specialized meaning ‘peace,’ but they, also signify ‘to give execution to a plan or purpose’-again the idea of integration ( Deuteronomy 20:12,  Job 5:23;  Job 23:14,  Isaiah 44:26;  Isaiah 44:28). The political notion of peace itself goes back to the same idea, inasmuch as two parties become a unit in their relations towards outsiders or in mutual intercourse. Peace is not always the sequel of war; it may be in the form of alliance, the preventative of war ( 1 Samuel 7:14).

From the foregoing it appears that there was a wide, only partly political or military, basis in the secular usage for the positive religious application of the word. The peace which God gives or maintains for His people is ‘integrity,’ ‘soundness,’ ‘prosperity’ in the widest sense ( Isaiah 45:7,  Jeremiah 29:7). Even when ‘peace’ occurs in antithesis to war the associations are not purely negative. The positive blessings consequent upon the cessation of war are included ( Jeremiah 4:10,  Zechariah 8:10 ff.). Peace as a religious bonum applies to the sphere of nature as well as of politics, and the former as well as the latter plays an important part in eschatological prophecy ( Hosea 2:20 ff.,  Isaiah 2:1-4 [=  Micah 4:1-5]  Isaiah 9:5-6,  Micah 5:5;  Micah 5:10-15,  Zechariah 9:9-10). The idea of peace in relation to God Himself, in distinction from peace in other relations, given or guaranteed by God, seems to occur in the OT only in  Psalms 85:8 (but cf.  Isaiah 48:22;  Isaiah 57:21).

In the NT εἰρήνη has a two-fold religious application. On the one hand the military-political usage is transferred to the religious sphere. This is done in two directions: firstly, with reference to God; and secondly, as between believers mutually. Peace is the antithesis to the warfare that exists between God and the sinner. As this warfare (‘enmity’) is an objective state and not a mere figure for hostile disposition towards God on man’s part, so the peace is an objectively established and maintained footing, on which God and the believer associate together. St. Paul has with doctrinal precision correlated the ideas of ‘enmity’ ( Romans 5:10;  Romans 11:28,  Colossians 1:21), ‘reconciliation’ ( Romans 5:10-11;  Romans 11:15,  2 Corinthians 5:18-20,  Colossians 1:21), and ‘peace’ ( Romans 5:1;  Romans 8:6;  Romans 14:17). Although the subjective, emotional experience of an inner state of peace is inseparable from this εἰρήνη πρὸς θεόν, yet the word itself does not in these contexts express it, but stands simply for the state of justification. This remains true, even if the correct reading in  Romans 5:1 is the subjunctive εἰρήνην ἔχωμεν, ‘let us have peace,’ for this cannot, any more than the καταλλάγητε τῷ θεῷ of  2 Corinthians 5:19, relate to the cultivation of a peaceful disposition towards God; it must refer in both cases to the subjective appropriation through faith of the objective peace which God establishes in Christ. It is doubtful whether any Pauline passage has εἰρήνη in the purely subjective sense either of disposition or of experience (cf.  Romans 15:13 with  Romans 14:17). In  Philippians 4:7,  Colossians 3:15 peace is represented as guarding the hearts and thoughts and ruling in the hearts. This must be understood of objective peace personified, and the result ascribed to this influence exercised by peace covers far more than a feeling of tranquillity. As applied to the fellowship between believers mutually, peace is a social conception, including the elements of harmony and organic co-operation ( Romans 14:19,  1 Corinthians 7:15;  1 Corinthians 14:33,  Galatians 5:22,  Ephesians 4:3 [‘the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace’],  Hebrews 12:14,  James 3:18;  1 Peter 3:11,  2 Peter 3:14). In regard to  Ephesians 2:14-22 there is a difference of opinion among exegetes as to whether the reference of the peace embodied in Christ is to Jewish and Gentile believers mutually considered, or fundamentally to God, so as to include only as a corollary peace between the two component parts of the body of the Church. E. Haupt (Die Gefangenschaftsbriefe, in Meyer’s Kommentar über das NT, 1897, pp. 78-99) has advocated the former view, but the other interpretation seems more in keeping with the trend of the passage and the expressions used. By being reconciled to God, each for their own part, Gentiles and Jews have now become reconciled together. In  Ephesians 2:14-15 peace denotes the fellowship between Jews and Gentiles, but in  Ephesians 2:17 ( Isaiah 57:19) the peace proclaimed by the gospel is the peace with God, and the same idea is implied in  Isaiah 57:16.

The other branch of the NT idea of religious peace ramifies from the main OT stem. It denotes the spiritualized, Christian form of ‘prosperity,’ ‘security,’ ‘soundness,’ ‘salvation,’ associated with the word from its very earliest use. No doubt this was coloured, to the mind of St. Paul at least, by the consciousness of the peace of reconciliation existing with God, but its content is too rich and too positive to be exhausted by it. In this sense we find the word in the salutations at the beginning or close of the Epistles, usually associated with χάρις ( Romans 1:7,  1 Corinthians 1:3,  2 Corinthians 1:2;  2 Corinthians 13:11,  Galatians 1:3;  Galatians 6:16,  Ephesians 1:2;  Ephesians 6:23 [‘peace and love with faith’],  Philippians 1:2,  Colossians 1:2,  1 Thessalonians 1:1,  2 Thessalonians 1:2;  2 Thessalonians 3:16,  1 Timothy 1:2,  2 Timothy 1:2,  Titus 1:4,  Philemon 1:3,  1 Peter 1:2;  1 Peter 5:14,  2 Peter 1:2,  2 John 1:3,  3 John 1:14,  Revelation 1:4). This goes back in the last analysis to the use of the word in ordinary social salutation, which in the OT already refers not exclusively to friendly intercourse, but also to positive well-being, including health and general security. In a profound spiritualization of this conception the formula had already been addressed by Christ to the disciples after the Resurrection ( Luke 24:36,  John 20:19;  John 20:21;  John 20:26; cf. also  Matthew 10:13,  Luke 2:29;  Luke 7:50;  Luke 8:48;  Luke 10:5-6,  Acts 15:33;  Acts 16:36,  1 Corinthians 16:11). The rich, positive content becomes apparent in such passages as the following:  Luke 1:79 (opposite ‘darkness’ and ‘shadow of death’)  Luke 2:14 (= the complete Messianic salvation, because ‘peace on earth’ is parallel to ‘glory in the highest,’ which has Messianic significance, and because the men who receive the peace are characterized as objects of the Divine εὐδοκία; cf. also  Luke 19:42),  John 14:27;  John 16:33,  Acts 9:31;  Acts 10:36 (= the object of the gospel-proclamation),  Romans 2:10 (associated with δόξα and τιμή as the eschatological reward for working good)  Romans 14:17,  Romans 15:13;  Romans 15:33,  Romans 16:20 (the result of the conquest of Satan),  Galatians 6:16 (‘mercy and peace’),  Ephesians 2:17 (content of the gospel-message)  Ephesians 6:15 (‘the gospel of peace’),  Philippians 4:7,  Colossians 3:15,  1 Thessalonians 5:3 (the opposite of eschatological peril = ἀσφαλεία),  Hebrews 7:2 (Christ, like Melchizedek, King of Peace)  Hebrews 12:11 (the fruit of righteousness consisting in peace; cf.  Isaiah 32:17 and  James 3:18). The general soteriological reference is also favoured by the fact that God is called ‘the God of peace’ ( Romans 15:33;  Romans 16:20,  1 Corinthians 14:33,  2 Corinthians 13:11,  Philippians 4:9,  Hebrews 13:20), as conversely the peace is also called ‘the peace of God’ ( Philippians 4:7). In the light of this wider, positive conception it becomes probable that the εἰρηνοποιοί of  Matthew 5:9 are not merely promoters of peace in the sense of reconcilers between man and man, but those who actively procure and produce peace (= salvation) for others.

It will be noticed that the prophetic picture of political peace among the nations is not reproduced in the NT. No doubt this is largely due to the elevation of its eschatology to a higher, transcendental plane. Pre-Christian Judaism, while making considerable use of the idea of peace, remains at bottom particularistic, whilst Christianity is thoroughly universalistic, although the programme of political peace is not explicitly enunciated in its writings.

The NT conception of peace offers no real point of contact with the Stoic ἀπάθεια and the Epicurean άταραξἰα (cf.  1 Corinthians 7:15,  Philippians 4:7,  Colossians 3:1;  Colossians 3:15). It is not psychologically conceived as in these systems, but soteriologically. The peace of the NT is not independence of outside conditions in the citadel of man’s subjectivity, but the fruit of an objective real salvation with God.

Literature.-Cremer-Kögel, Bibl.-theol. Wörterbuch der neutest. Gräzitat10, 1912 ff., pp. 414-418; W. Caspari, ‘Vorstellung und Wort “Friede” im AT_’ in Beiträge zur Förderung christlicher Theologie, xiv. 4 [1910]; A. Titius, Die neutest. Lehre von der Seligkeit, pt. ii.: ‘Der Paulinismus,’ 1900, pp. 90, 91; J. H. Thom, Laws of Life after the Mind of Christ, 2nd ser., 1901, pp. 9, 159, 172; R. C. Moberly, Christ our Life, 1902, p. 1; R. W. Church, The Message of Peace, 1895, p. 7; C. G. Moutefiore, Truth in Religion, 1906, p. 147; W. M. Macgregor, Jesus Christ the Son of God, 1907, pp. 77, 165; H. W. Clark, Meanings and Methods of the Spiritual Life2, 1906, p. 82.

Geerhardus Vos.

Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology [2]

The Meaning of Peace . In English, the word "peace" conjures up a passive picture, one showing an absence of civil disturbance or hostilities, or a personality free from internal and external strife. The biblical concept of peace is larger than that and rests heavily on the Hebrew root slm , which means "to be complete" or "to be sound." The verb conveys both a dynamic and a static meaning—"to be complete or whole" or "to live well." The noun had many nuances, but can be grouped into four categories: (1) salom [   Numbers 25:12-13;  Isaiah 54:10;  Ezekiel 34:25-26 ) and, when related to Yahweh, the covenant was renewed or maintained with a "peace offering"; (3) salom [   Leviticus 26:3-9 ); and (4) salom [שָׁלֵם] as victory over one's enemies or absence of war. Salom [שָׁלֵם] was used in both greetings and farewells. It was meant to act as a blessing on the one to whom it was spoken: "May your life be filled with health, prosperity, and victory." As an adjective, it expressed completeness and safety. In the New Testament, the Greek word eirene [Εἰρηνεύω] is the word most often translated by the word "peace." Although there is some overlap in their meanings, the Hebrew word salom [שָׁלֵם] is broader in its usage, and, in fact, has greatly influenced the New Testament's use of eirene [Εἰρηνεύω].

God as the Source of Peace . God alone is the source of peace, for he is "Yahweh Shalom" (see  Judges 6:24 ). The Lord came to sinful humankind, historically first to the Jews and then to the Gentiles, desiring to enter into a relationship with them. He established with them a covenant of peace, which was sealed with his presence (see  Numbers 6:24-26 ). Participants were given perfect peace ( salom salom [   Isaiah 26:3;  2 Thessalonians 3:16 ).

The Old Testament anticipated, and the New Testament confirmed, that God's peace would be mediated through a messiah (see  Isaiah 9:6-7;  Micah 5:4-5 ). Peace with God came through the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ ( Romans 5:1;  Ephesians 2:14-17;  Colossians 1:19-20; see  Hebrews 13:20 ). Peter declared to Cornelius: "You now the message God sent to the people of Israel, telling the good news of peace through Jesus Christ, who is Lord of all" ( Acts 10:36 ).

The Relationship of Righteousness to Peace . The Lord established a covenant, which resulted in the participants receiving his salom [   Isaiah 48:18 ). However, peace could be disturbed if one did not live before the Lord and others in righteousness; in fact, peace is one of the fruits of righteousness ( Isaiah 32:17-18 ). The psalmist poetically describes the relationship between the two as righteousness and peace kissing each other ( Psalm 85:10 ). The God of peace and the peace of God sanctify the child of God (see  1 Thessalonians 5:23 ). On the other hand, Scripture specifically states that there can be no peace for the wicked ( Isaiah 48:22;  57:21 ). Paul described the difference as follows: "There will be trouble and distress for every human being who does evil: first for the Jew, then for the Gentile; but glory, honor and peace for everyone who does good: first for the Jew, then for the Gentile" ( Romans 2:9-10 ).

One of the key issues among the prophets was the doctrine of "peace." The false prophets proclaimed "peace, peace" and in that announcement hoped to create peace for their constituency. The true prophets argued that peace could never be achieved apart from righteousness and justice. In this light, one can better understand what Jesus meant when he declared, "Do not suppose that I have come to bring peace to the earth. I did not come to bring peace, but a sword" ( Matthew 10:34 ). And Paul wrote, "The God of peace will soon crush Satan under your feet" ( Romans 16:20 ). Judgment on sin, historically and eschatologically, must come prior to peace.

Peace in the Age to Come . In the age to come the animal kingdom will be restored to its paradisiacal tranquility. The image in  Isaiah 11:6-11 is among the most picturesque in Scripture. Animals are paired off in a strange and wonderful way: the wolf and the lamb, the leopard with the kid, the calf with the lion, the cow with the bear, the lion with the ox. They shall be led by a little child. The emphasis is on the harmony, the salom [שָׁלֵם] between the animals and the animal kingdom with man. Children shall, in that day, be able to play with snakes and they will not be hurt.

In addition, the curse of the ground will be removed and the land will again be characterized by salom [   Amos 9:13-15 ). The desert will become a fertile field ( Isaiah 32:15 ), while the cultivated lands will drip with "new wine" and the "ravines of Judah will run with water" ( Joel 3:18 ).

The nations of the world will come under the dominion of the "Prince of Peace" and in so doing, "will beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks" ( Isaiah 2:4;  Micah 4:3 ). Isaiah poetically characterizes it as a time when "You shall go out with joy and be led forth in peace; the mountains and hills will burst into song before you, and all the trees of the field will clap their hands" ( Isaiah 55:12 ).

One cannot overlook the fact that this harmony will never happen until man has a right relationship ( salom [   Isaiah 9:6; see  Jeremiah 33:8-9 ).

Glenn E. Schaefer

See also Fruit Of The Spirit

Bibliography . H. Beck and C. Brown, DNTT, 2:776-83; J. I. Durham, Proclamation and Presence: Old Testament Essays in Honor of Gwynne Henton Davies  ; W. Eichrodt, Theology of the Old Testament  ; W. Foerster, TDNT, 2:400-420; D. J. Harris, Shalom!: The Biblical Concept of Peace  ; P. B. Yoder, Shalom: The Bible's Word for Salvation, Justice, and Peace .

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary [3]

In the original languages of the Bible, the word ‘peace’ had a meaning far wider and richer than that which people commonly associate with the word today. In the Old Testament, peace (Heb. shalom) included a range of ideas, such as completeness, wholeness and well-being. The New Testament, though using the Greek word for ‘peace’, retained the breadth of ideas found in the Old Testament and so gave the word a richer meaning.

Wide-ranging blessings

According to the Hebrews’ understanding, peace was a state of well-being that included good health, prosperity, contentment, security and harmonious relationships ( Psalms 29:11;  Psalms 37:37;  Psalms 85:8-9;  Isaiah 26:1-4;  Isaiah 32:17-18;  Isaiah 60:17;  Lamentations 3:17;  Zechariah 6:13;  Zechariah 8:12;  Luke 11:21;  1 Corinthians 14:33;  Ephesians 4:3). A prayer for God’s peace upon a person, nation or church was a prayer for the wide-ranging blessing of God ( Numbers 6:26;  Psalms 122:6;  Luke 2:14;  Romans 15:33). The greeting of ‘Peace!’ with which people greeted each other was both an enquiry after and a wish for a person’s well-being ( Judges 6:23;  Judges 18:6;  Judges 19:20;  1 Samuel 25:6;  1 Samuel 25:35;  Matthew 10:13;  John 20:21;  1 Corinthians 1:3;  Ephesians 1:2;  Ephesians 6:23;  1 Peter 1:2;  1 Peter 5:14).

Since peace was often linked with the blessing of God, it became linked also with God’s salvation ( Isaiah 26:11-13;  Luke 1:79;  Luke 19:42;  Acts 10:36;  Romans 5:1;  Romans 16:20). When God’s prophets warned the Old Testament Israelites of certain judgment if they continued in their sin, false prophets comforted the rebellious people with false assurances of salvation ( Jeremiah 8:10-11;  Jeremiah 8:15;  Jeremiah 14:19;  Ezekiel 13:10). But there could be no salvation, no peace, for the wicked ( Isaiah 48:22). After the years of exile in Babylon, however, the good news of peace would prepare a repentant people for salvation from captivity and return to their homeland ( Isaiah 52:7-10; cf.  Ephesians 6:15).

Peace with God through Jesus Christ

No matter what expressions of salvation people of Old Testament times experienced, the fulness of salvation awaited the coming of Jesus Christ, the Prince of Peace ( Isaiah 9:6;  Luke 1:79). The peace he brought is an everlasting peace ( Luke 2:14 John 14:27 16:33 Isaiah 9:7;  Isaiah 65:17-25;  Revelation 21:1-5;  Revelation 21:22-24).

This complete restoration to peace, fulness, wholeness and well-being is possible only because Jesus, by his death, dealt with the cause of the world’s trouble, sin. He bore God’s judgment on sin, so that the divine hostility against sin might be removed and repentant sinners might have peace with God ( Isaiah 53:5-6;  Romans 5:1-2;  Colossians 1:20-22; see Propitiation ).

When people, through God’s grace, have peace with God, they also have peace with one another. They become members of the kingdom of God, where all disharmony and injustice are removed, whether in matters of race, age, sex or status ( Romans 14:17;  Romans 14:19;  Ephesians 2:14-17;  Ephesians 4:3; see Reconciliation ).

Christians preach this gospel of peace to others ( Matthew 10:13;  John 20:21;  Acts 10:36;  Ephesians 6:15), though they realize that at times it may cause division; for while some will gladly accept it, others will violently oppose it ( Matthew 10:34-36). In spite of this, Christians must do all they can to help people in general to live together peacefully ( Matthew 5:9;  Romans 12:18;  Hebrews 12:14).

Not only do Christians have peace with God through Christ, they also have the peace of God through Christ. That peace does not mean that they will have a trouble-free life. Rather it means that they now enjoy a state of spiritual wholeness and well-being that gives them strength and calmness even in the midst of suffering and trials ( John 14:27;  John 16:33;  Galatians 5:22;  Colossians 3:15;  Philippians 4:7).

Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words [4]

A. Nouns.

Shâlôm ( שָׁלֹם , Strong'S #7965), “peace; completeness; welfare; health.” The root is a common Semitic root with the meaning “peace” in Akkadian, Ugaritic, Phoenician, Aramaic, Syriac, Arabic, and Ethiopic.

Shâlôm is a very important term in the Old Testament and has maintained its place in Mishnaic, rabbinic, and modern Hebrew. In Israel today, people greet the newcomer and each other with the words mah shlomka , (“what is your peace,” “how are you doing,”) and they ask about the “peace” (“well-being”) of one’s family. The use of shâlôm is frequent (237 times) and varied in its semantic range. The first two occurrences in Genesis already indicate the changes in meaning: “And thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace [ shâlôm in the sense of “in tranquility,” “at ease,” “unconcerned”]; thou shalt be buried in a good old age” (Gen. 15:15); and “that thou wilt do us no hurt, as we have not touched thee, and as we have done unto thee nothing but good, and have sent thee away in peace [ shâlôm with the meaning of “unharmed” and “unhurt”] …” (Gen. 26:29). Yet, both uses are essentially the same, as they express the root meaning of “to be whole.” The phrase |ish shelomi(“friend of my peace”) in Ps. 41:9, “Yea, mine own familiar friend [literally, “friend of my peace”], in whom I trusted, which did eat of my bread, hath lifted up his heel against me” (cf. Jer. 20:10), signifies a state in which one can feel at ease, comfortable with someone. The relationship is one of harmony and wholeness, which is the opposite of the state of strife and war: “I am for peace: but when I speak, they are for war” (Ps. 120:7). Shâlôm as a harmonious state of the soul and mind encourages the development of the faculties and powers. The state of being at ease is experienced both externally and internally. In Hebrew it finds expression in the phrase beshâlôm (“in peace”): “I will both lay me down in peace [ beshâlôm ], and sleep: for thou, Lord, only makest me dwell in safety” (Ps. 4:8).

Closely associated to the above is the meaning “welfare,” specifically personal “welfare” or “health.” This meaning is found in questions: “And Joab said to Amasa, Art thou in health, my brother? And Joab took Amasa by the beard with the right hand to kiss him” (2 Sam. 20:9), or in the prepositional phrase leshâlôm with the verb “to ask”: “And he asked them of their welfare, and said, Is your father well, the old man of whom ye spake? Is he yet alive?” (Gen. 43:27).

Shâlôm also signifies “peace,” indicative of a prosperous relationship between two or more parties. Shâlôm in this sense finds expression in speech: “Their tongue is as an arrow shot out; it speaketh deceit: one speaketh peaceably [literally, “in peace”] to his neighbor with his mouth, but in heart he layeth his wait” (Jer. 9:8); in diplomacy: “Howbeit Sisera fled away on his feet to the tent of Jael the wife of Heber the Kenite: for there was peace between Jabin the king of Hazor and the house of Heber the Kenite” (Judg. 4:17); and in warfare: “… If it make thee answer of peace, and open unto thee, then it shall be, that all the people that is found therein shall be tributaries unto thee, and they shall serve thee” (Deut. 20:11).

Isaiah prophesied concerning the “prince of peace” (Isa. 9:6), whose kingdom was to introduce a government of “peace” (Isa. 9:7). Ezekiel spoke about the new covenant as one of “peace”: “Moreover I will make a covenant of peace with them; it shall be an everlasting covenant with them: and I will place them, and multiply them, and will set my sanctuary in the midst of them for evermore” (Ezek. 37:26). Psalm 122 is one of those great psalms in celebration of and in prayer for the “peace of Jerusalem”: “Pray for the peace of Jerusalem: they shall prosper that love thee” (Ps. 122:6). In benedictions God’s peace was granted to His people: “… Peace shall be upon Israel” (Ps. 125:5).

The Septuagint gives the following translations: eirene (“peace; welfare; health”); eirenikos (“peaceable; peaceful”); soteria (“deliverance; preservation; salvation”); and hugiainein (“be in good health; sound”).

Another related noun is shelem which occurs 87 times, and means “peace offering”: “And he sent young men of the children of Israel, which offered burnt offerings, and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen unto the Lord” (Exod. 24:5).

B. Verbs.

Shâlam ( שָׁלֵם , Strong'S #7999), “to be complete, be sound.” This verb occurs 103 times. The word signifies “to be complete” in 1 Kings 9:25: “So he finished the house.” Another verb, shâlam , means “to make peace”: “When a man’s ways please the Lord, he maketh even his enemies to be at peace with him” (Prov. 16:7).

C. Adjective.

Shâlêm ( שָׁלֵם , Strong'S #8003), “complete; perfect.” This word is found in Gen. 15:16 with the meaning of not quite “complete”: “But in the fourth generation they shall come hither again: for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full.” The word means “perfect” in Deut. 25:15.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [5]

Peace . From Latin pax , through French. 1 . Except in   Daniel 8:25;   Daniel 11:21;   Daniel 11:24 (where RV [Note: Revised Version.] corrects to ‘security’), the OT ‘peace’ represents uniformly the Heb. shâlôm (Eastern salaam ), the fundamental sense of which always more or less distinctly implied is welfare (as in   Genesis 43:27 ,   Psalms 73:3 etc.); of well-being, in the old turbulent times, peace was the prime condition. The word has the following specific religious uses: (1) it is the common formula of courteous well-wishing, employed both at meeting and at parting (see Gen 43:23 ,   1 Samuel 1:17 ,   Psalms 122:7 f.; cf.   Matthew 10:12 f.); (2) ‘peace’ constituted the most conspicuous blessing of the Messianic Kingdom of God (wh. see; cf.   Psalms 72:3;   Psalms 72:7 ,   Isaiah 2:4;   Isaiah 9:5-7;   Isaiah 11:5-9 ,   Haggai 2:9 ,   Zechariah 9:10 ); and (3) it signified a sound and settled understanding between J″ [Note: Jahweh.] and His people (  Numbers 6:26 ,   Psalms 29:11;   Psalms 85:8 ff;   Psalms 122:6 ,   Jeremiah 16:5 etc.) hence J″ [Note: Jahweh.] ’s ‘covenant of peace ’ is lodged with His priests (  Numbers 25:12 ,   Malachi 2:4 f.). In this last and richest use the word approximates to its subjective NT signification, implying tranquillity of heart, as in   Psalms 4:8;   Psalms 119:155 ,   Isaiah 48:18;   Isaiah 48:22 .

2 . The transition, from OT to NT usage strikingly illustrates the inwardness of Christianity. Out of some 90 NT instances of ‘peace’ there are not more than 8 or 9 which do not refer to heart-peace. The Greek eirçnç in its proper sense signified peace strictly, as the opposite of conflict  ; but it took over, first in the LXX [Note: Septuagint.] and then in the NT, the broader import of shâlôm , which is conspicuous in the (Hebraistic) Benedictions (see   Mark 5:34 ,   Luke 7:30;   Luke 24:36 ,   John 14:27 ,   James 2:16 etc.) and in the epistolary Salutations. In the latter formulæ, ‘peace’ comprehends the sum of blessing experienced, as ‘grace’ the sum of blessing bestowed, from God in Christ. The Messianic peace (1 (2), above) reappears in   Luke 1:79;   Luke 2:14 ,   Matthew 10:34; and the peace of harmony with God (1 (3)) in   John 16:33 ,   Acts 10:36 ,   Romans 8:6;   Romans 15:33 ,   Philippians 4:7 etc. The uses just named are gathered up, with a deepened sense, into the specific NT doctrine of peace, of which Paul is the exponent, and   Romans 5:1 the classical text (cf. v. 10, also   2 Corinthians 5:18-21 ,   Ephesians 2:13-18 ,   Colossians 1:20; see article on Justification): ‘peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ’ is the state and the experience of those who have been ‘reconciled’ to the Father through the sacrifice offered by the Son of His love, whose ‘trespasses’ are ‘forgiven’ and in whose heart ‘the spirit of adoption’ dwells. Reconciled to God, men are reconciled to life and the world; by His cross Christ ‘has slain’ at a blow ‘the enmity’ between God and man and between race and race (  Ephesians 2:18 ). ‘Peace on earth’ is to flow from ‘the peace of Christ’ that ‘rules in’ Christian ‘hearts’ (  Colossians 3:15 ).

G. G. Findlay.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [6]

1: Σιγάω (Strong'S #4601 — Verb — sigao — see-gah'-o )

signifies (a), used intransitively, "to be silent" (from sige, "silence"), translated "to hold one's peace," in  Luke 9:36;  18:39;  20:26;  Acts 12:17;  15:13 (in   Acts 15:12 , "kept silence;" similarly rendered in  1—Corinthians 14:28,30 , AV, "hold his peace,"  1—Corinthians 14:34 ); (b) used transitively, "to keep secret;" in the Passive Voice, "to be kept secret,"  Romans 16:25 , RV, "hath been kept in silence." See Secret , Silence.

2: Σιωπάω (Strong'S #4623 — Verb — siopao — see-o-pah'-o )

"to be silent or still, to keep silence" (from siope, "silence"), is translated "to hold one's peace," in  Matthew 20:31;  26:63;  Mark 3:4;  9:34;  10:48;  14:61;  Luke 19:40;  Acts 18:9; in the Lord's command to the sea, in  Mark 4:39 , it is translated "peace" (for the next word "be still" see No. 4); in  Luke 1:20 , RV, "thou shalt be silent" (AV, "dumb"). See Dumb , B.

3: Ἡσυχάζω (Strong'S #2270 — Verb — hesuchazo — hay-soo-khad'-zo )

signifies "to be still;" it is used of "holding one's peace," being "silent,"  Luke 14:4;  Acts 11:18;  21:14 , "we ceased." See Cease , A, No. 3, Quiet

4: Φιμόω (Strong'S #5392 — Verb — phimoo — fee-mo'-o )

"to muzzle," is used metaphorically in the Passive Voice, in  Mark 1:25;  Luke 4:35 , "hold thy peace;" in  Mark 4:39 , "be still." See Muzzle.

Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [7]

It would have been perfectly unnecessary to have noticed this word, in order to have explained its general sense and meaning in reference to the use of it among men, had that been all. The peace and war of nations, or among houses or families, or kingdoms, are terms with which every one is familiar. But the Scripture sense of the word peace, and more especially the gospel signification of it, in respect to that peace believers have with God in Christ makes it well worth attention in a work of this kind.

It may not perhaps have struck an ordinary reader, that the word peace carries with it the idea that the breach then said to be made up presupposes that there had been a state of amity existing before the breach came in to interrupt it; and this is indeed the blessedness of the gospel. Hence it is called the "ministry of reconciliation." ( 2 Corinthians 5:18) So that to reconcile God and man in Christ, which is the grand object of the gospel, is to bring together again those who had before been friends, but were then at enmity; and hence is clearly proved, what the word of God all along is setting forth, that the present state is not the first, neither will it be the final state of man: it is but intermediate and preparatory. There was a period in the annals of eternity when God and man, in the person of the Glory-man, set up before all worlds, were in perfect amity and friendship. And there is another period to come when, from the reconciliation now made between God and man in the blood of the cross, this amity and friendship will continue uninterrupted and unbroken to all eternity. And there is another sweet thought connected with the gospel meaning of the word peace, namely, that all the overturns for a reconciliation began on the part of God, the injured party; and all the peace that follows becomes the sole result of his divine operation. Jehovah it is that first publisheth his royal intentions of being reconciled to his offending creature man. It is JEHOVAH that points out and provides the means, and accomplisheth the end, in the attainment of it. Nothing on the part of the sinner could be found even helpful towards it; yea, so totally incapable of putting forth the least aiding hand upon this business is the transgressor, that when proposed to him he must be made willing to accept it; and before proposed to him, he is unconscious of the want of it. Blessedly therefore is it said by the apostle, under the authority of the Holy Ghost, ( 2 Corinthians 5:19) that "God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself." And blessedly doth he open his commission, when acting as the servant of his royal master, he adds,"Now then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech you by us we pray you in Christ's stead, be ye reconciled to God."

Such then is the Scripture sense of that peace of God and peace with God, in the blood and righteousness of God's dear Son, "which passeth all understanding, keeping the heart and mind, in Jesus Christ." ( Philippians 4:7) And so truly great and glorious was the first promulgation of it, when the news broke out in heaven, that the holy angels delighted to be the first preachers of it upon earth. The multitude of them that came flying, down to the Jewish shepherds at Bethlehem in the morning of Christ's nativity, hailed them with this joyful sound. "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace and good-will toward men." ( Luke 2:13-14) And the prophet in ages before, looking into gospel times, was so struck with the contemplation of the work in the exercise of the ministry of reconciliation, that he declared the very feet of them that preached it became beautiful to the view of broken-hearted sinners. "How beautiful (said Isaiah) upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace, that bringeth good tidings of good, that publisheth salvation, that saith unto Zion. Thy God reigneth!" ( Isaiah 52:7)

Morrish Bible Dictionary [8]

This term is used to express the present attitude and testimony of God toward man consequent on the declaration of God's righteousness in the death of Christ. The state of man which was obnoxious to the holiness of God by reason of sin has been removed in the cross. Hence the believer is justified by faith, and has peace (peace of conscience) with God through the Lord Jesus Christ.  Romans 5:1 . Christ made peace through the blood of the cross,  Colossians 1:20 and to the Christian God is 'the God of peace,' and the Lord Jesus is 'the Lord of peace.' He also is peace between believers, having on the cross broken down the barrier between Jew and Gentile.   Ephesians 2:14,15 .

When the Lord Jesus left the earth He left to the disciples peace, and said, "My peace I give unto you." Peace is also spoken of as the state of heart in which a believer is kept in regard of circumstances. The record in the O.T. is, "Thou wilt keep him in perfect peace (peace, peace, margin ) whose mind is stayed on thee, because he trusteth in thee."  Isaiah 26:3 . The Christian makes his requests known unto God, and the peace of God that passeth all understanding keeps his heart and mind through Christ Jesus (peace of heart).  Philippians 4:6,7 . Blessed privilege! and what a contrast to "There is no peace, saith my God, to the wicked."  Isaiah 57:21 The Lord Jesus will, in the future, among His other titles, be hailed as Prince Of PEACE.  Isaiah 9:6 .

Charles Buck Theological Dictionary [9]

That state of mind in which persons are exposed to no open violence to interrupt their tranquillity.

1. Social peace is mutual agreement one with another, whereby we forbear injuring one another,  Psalms 34:14 .  Psalms 132:1-18 :

2. Ecclesiastical peace is freedom from contentions, and rest from persecutions,  Isaiah 11:13 .  Isaiah 32:17 .  Revelation 12:14 .

3. Spiritual peace is deliverance from sin, by which we were at enmity with God,  Romans 5:1; the result of which is peace, in the conscience,  Hebrews 10:1-39 . This peace is the gift of God through Jesus Christ,  2 Thessalonians 3:16 . It is a blessing of great importance,  Psalms 119:165 . It is denominated perfect,  Isaiah 26:3 . inexpressible,  Philippians 4:7 . permanent,  Job 34:22 .  John 16:22 . eternal,  Isaiah 57:2 .  Hebrews 4:9 .

See Happiness

King James Dictionary [10]

PEACE, n. L. pax, paco, to appease.

1. In a general sense, a state of quiet or tranquillity freedom from disturbance or agitation applicable to society, to individuals, or to the temper of the mind. 2. Freedom from war with a foreign nation public quiet. 3. Freedom from internal commotion or war. 4. Freedom from private quarrels, suits or disturbance. 5. Freedom from agitation or disturbance by the passions, as from fear, terror, anger, anxiety or the like quietness of mind tranquillity calmness quiet of conscience.

Great peace have they that love the law.  Psalms 119

6. Heavenly rest the happiness of heaven. 7. Harmony concord a state of reconciliation between parties at variance. 8. Public tranquillity that quiet,order and security which is guaranteed by the laws as, to keep the peace to break the peace.

This word is used in commanding silence or quiet as, peace to this troubled soul.

Peace, the lovers are asleep.

To be at peace, to be reconciled to live in harmony.

To make peace, to reconcile, as parties at variance.

To hold the peace, to be silent to suppress one's thoughts not to speak.

Webster's Dictionary [11]

(1): ( v.) Reconciliation; agreement after variance; harmony; concord.

(2): ( v.) Exemption from, or subjection of, agitating passions; tranquillity of mind or conscience.

(3): ( v.) Exemption from, or cessation of, war with public enemies.

(4): ( v. t. & i.) To make or become quiet; to be silent; to stop.

(5): ( v.) A state of quiet or tranquillity; freedom from disturbance or agitation; calm; repose

(6): ( v.) Public quiet, order, and contentment in obedience to law.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [12]

pēs ( שׁלום , shālōm  ; εἰρήνη , eirḗne ):

1. In the Old Testament:

Is a condition of freedom from disturbance, whether outwardly, as of a nation from war or enemies, or inwardly, within the soul. The Hebrew word is shālōm (both adjective and substantive), meaning, primarily, "soundness," "health," but coming also to signify "prosperity," well-being in general, all good in relation to both man and God. In early times, to a people harassed by foes, peace was the primary blessing. In   Psalm 122:7 , we have "peace" and "prosperity," and in  Psalm 35:27;  Psalm 73:3 , shālōm is translated "prosperity." In  2 Samuel 11:7 the King James Version, David asked of Uriah "how Joab did" (margin "of the peace of Joab"), "and how the people did (the Revised Version (British and American) "fared," literally, "of the peace of the people"), and how the war prospered" (literally, "and of the peace (welfare) of the war").

(1) Shālōm was the common friendly greeting, used in asking after the health of anyone; also in farewells (  Genesis 29:6 , "Is it well with him?" ("Is there peace to him?");   Genesis 43:23 , "Peace be to you";  Genesis 43:27 , "He asked them of their welfare (of their peace )";  Judges 6:23 , "Yahweh said unto him, Peace be unto thee";  Judges 18:15 (the King James Version "saluted him," margin "Hebrew asked him of peace," the Revised Version (British and American) "of his welfare");   Judges 19:20 , etc.). See also Greeting . (2) Peace from enemies (implying prosperity) was the great desire of the nation and was the gift of God to the people if they walked in His ways ( Leviticus 26:6;  Numbers 6:26 , "Yahweh lift up his countenance upon thee, and give thee peace";  Psalm 29:11;  Isaiah 26:12 , etc.). To "die in peace" was greatly to be desired ( Genesis 15:15;  1 Kings 2:6;  2 Chronicles 34:28 , etc.). (3) Inward peace was the portion of the righteous who trusted in God ( Job 22:21 , "Acquaint now thyself with him, and be at peace ( shālōm )";  Psalm 4:8;  Psalm 85:8 , "He will speak peace unto his people, and to his saints";  Psalm 119:165;  Proverbs 3:2 ,  Proverbs 3:17;  Isaiah 26:3 , "Thou wilt keep him in perfect peace (Hebrew "peace, peace"), whose mind is stayed on thee; because he trusteth in thee";  Malachi 2:5 ); also outward peace ( Job 5:23 ,  Job 5:24;  Proverbs 16:7 , etc.). (4) Peace was to be sought and followed by the righteous ( Psalm 34:14 , "Seek peace, and pursue it";  Zechariah 8:16 ,  Zechariah 8:19 , "Love truth and peace"). (5) Peace should be a prominent feature of the Messianic times ( Isaiah 2:4;  Isaiah 9:6 , "Prince of Peace";  Isaiah 11:6;  Ezekiel 34:25;  Micah 4:2-4;  Zechariah 9:10 ).

In the New Testament, where eirēnē has much the same meaning and usage as shālōm (for which it is employed in the Septuagint; compare   Luke 19:42 , the Revised Version (British and American) "If thou hadst known ... the things which belong unto peace"), we have still the expectation of "peace" through the coming of the Christ ( Luke 1:74 ,  Luke 1:79;  Luke 12:51 ) and also its fulfillment in the higher spiritual sense.

2. In the New Testament:

(1) The gospel in Christ is a message of peace from God to men ( Luke 2:14;  Acts 10:36 , "preaching ... peace by Jesus Christ"). It is "peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ," in  Romans 5:1; the King James Version  Romans 10:15; peace between Jew and Gentile ( Ephesians 2:14 ,  Ephesians 2:15 ); an essential element in the spiritual kingdom of God ( Romans 14:17 ). (2) It is to be cherished and followed by Christians. Jesus exhorted His disciples, "Have salt in yourselves, and be at peace one with another" ( Mark 9:50 ); Paul exhorts, "Live in peace: and the God of love and peace shall be with you" ( 2 Corinthians 13:11; compare  Romans 12:18;  1 Corinthians 7:15 ). (3) God is therefore "the God of peace," the Author and Giver of all good ("peace" including every blessing) very frequently (e.g.  Romans 15:33;  Romans 16:20;  2 Thessalonians 3:16 , etc., "the Lord of peace"). "Peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ" is a common apostolic wish or salutation (compare  1 Corinthians 1:3;  2 Corinthians 1:2 , etc.). (4) We have also "peace" as a greeting ( Matthew 10:13;  Luke 10:5 ); "a son of peace" ( Luke 10:6 ) is one worthy of it, in sympathy with it; the Lord's own greeting to His disciples was "Peace be unto you" ( Luke 24:36;  John 20:19 ,  John 20:21 ,  John 20:26 ), and ere He left them He gave them specially His blessing of "Peace" ( John 14:27 ); we have also frequently "Go in peace" ( Mark 5:34;  Luke 7:50 ). In  Luke 19:38 , we have "peace in heaven" (in the acclamation of Jesus on His Messianic entry of Jerusalem). (5) The peace that Christ brought is primarily spiritual peace from and with God, peace in the heart, peace as the disposition or spirit. He said that He did not come "to send peace on the earth, but a sword," referring to the searching nature of His call and the divisions and clearances it would create. But, of course, the spirit of the gospel and of the Christian is one of peace, and it is a Christian duty to seek to bring war and strife everywhere to an end. This is represented as the ultimate result of the gospel and Spirit of Christ; universal and permanent peace can come only as that Spirit rules in men's hearts.

"Peace" in the sense of silence, to hold one's peace, etc., is in the Old Testament generally the translation of ḥārash , "to be still, or silent" (  Genesis 24:21;  Genesis 34:5;  Job 11:3 ); also of ḥāshāh , "to hush," "to be silent" ( 2 Kings 2:3 ,  2 Kings 2:5;  Psalm 39:2 ), and of other words. In  Job 29:10 ("The nobles held their peace," the King James Version), it is ḳōl , "voice."

In the New Testament we have siōpáō , "to be silent," "to cease speaking" (  Matthew 20:31;  Matthew 26:63;  Acts 18:9 , etc.); sigáō , "to be silent," "not to speak" ( Luke 20:26;  Acts 12:17 ); hēsucházo , "to be quiet" ( Luke 14:4;  Acts 11:18 ); phimóō , "to muzzle or gag" ( Mark 1:25;  Luke 4:35 ).

In Apocrypha eirēnē is frequent, mostly in the sense of peace from war or strife (  Tobit 13:14;  Judith 3:1;  Sirach 13:18;  1 Maccabees 5:54;  6:49;  2 Maccabees 14:6 , eustátheia = "tranquillity").

The Revised Version (British and American) has "peace" for "tongue" ( Esther 7:4;  Job 6:24;  Amos 6:10;  Habakkuk 1:13 ); "at peace with me" for "perfect" ( Isaiah 42:19 , margin "made perfect" or "recompensed"); "security" instead of "peaceably" and "peace" ( Daniel 8:25;  Daniel 11:21 ,  Daniel 11:24 ); "came in peace to the city," for "came to Shalem, a city" ( Genesis 33:18 ); "it was for my peace" instead of "for peace" ( Isaiah 38:17 ); "when they are in peace," for "and that which should have been for their welfare" ( Psalm 69:22 ).

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [13]

The Hebrew word שָׁלוֹב , Shalom, usually translated Peace, means, properly, Health, Prosperity, Welfare. It is the same as the Salam of the modern Arabs, and is in like manner used in salutations (q.v.). The Greek Εἰρήνη from having been frequently used as a rendering of the Heb. word, naturally passed over in the same sense into the N.T.

Accordingly "peace" is a word used in Scripture in different senses. Generally it denotes quiet and tranquillity, public or private; but often prosperity and happiness of life; as to "go in peace;" to "die in peace;" "God give you peace;" "Peace be within this house;" "Pray for the peace of Jerusalem." Paul in the titles of his Epistles generally wishes grace and peace to the faithful, to whom he writes. Our Savior recommends to his disciples to have peace with all men, and with each other. God promises his people to water them as with a river of peace ( Isaiah 66:12), and to make with them a covenant of peace ( Ezekiel 34:25).

Peace, properly, is that state of mind in which persons are exposed to no open violence to interrupt their tranquillity.

1. Social peace is mutual agreement one with another, whereby we forbear injuring one another ( Psalms 34:14; Psalms 132).

2. Ecclesiastical peace is freedom from contentions, and rest from persecutions ( Isaiah 11:13;  Isaiah 32:17;  Revelation 12:14).

3. Spiritual peace is deliverance from sin, by which we were at enmity with God ( Romans 5:1); the result is peace in the conscience ( Hebrews 10:22). This peace is the gift of God through Jesus Christ ( 2 Thessalonians 3:16). It is a blessing of great importance ( Psalms 119:165). It is denominated perfect ( Isaiah 26:3); inexpressible ( Philippians 4:7); permanent ( Job 34:29;  John 16:22); eternal ( Isaiah 57:2;  Hebrews 4:9). (See Happiness).