From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology [1]

Basic Definition . Mission is the divine activity of sending intermediaries, whether supernatural or human, to speak or do God's will so that his purposes for judgment or redemption are furthered. The biblical concept is expressed by the use of verbs meaning "to send, " normally with God as the expressed subject. The Hebrew verb is salah [שָׁלַח] and the Greek is apostello [Ἐμπέμπω Ἀποστέλλω]. These terms emphasize the authoritative, commissioning relationship involved. The Scriptures also employ the cognates apostolos [Ἀπόστολος] ("apostle, " the one sent) and apostole [Ἀποστολή] ("apostleship, " the function of being sent), referring to the one sent and his function.

The biblical concept of "mission" comprehends the authority of the one who sends; the obedience of the one sent; a task to be accomplished; the power to accomplish the task; and a purpose within the moral framework of God's covenantal working of judgment or redemption.

Mission in the Old Testament . The first records in biblical history of God's sending is his banishment of Adam and Even from the garden and the angelic mission to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah ( Genesis 3:23;  19:13 ). The redemption from Egypt and the conquest of the land has its dark side: judgment on the idolatrous nations Israel escapes from or displaces. The emphasis, however, in the Pentateuchal accounts on mission centers on God's positive action. In securing a bride for Isaac and thus keeping the hope of the covenant promise alive for another generation, God sends his angel before Abraham's chief household servant to give him success on his journey ( Genesis 24:7,40 ). And in the fourth generation it is Joseph, as he says to his brothers, whom "God sent ahead of you to preserve for you a remnant on earth and to save your lives by a great deliverance" (45:7; cf. vv. 5,8;  Psalm 105:17 ). In Joseph's case, aside from prescient dreams in his youth ( Genesis 37:5-11 ), there was no specific call to mission. But he could look back on harmful circumstances and discern God's sending of him to Egypt to preserve the nation.

Moses does receive a call from God, who sends him to Pharaoh to bring his people out of Egypt ( Exodus 3:10 ). God has heard their cry under Egyptian oppression, and sends Moses as leader and redeemer ( Acts 7:35 ). So closely are Moses' and God's work identified that in some passages it is Moses who brings the people out ( 1 Samuel 12:8 ) while in other places it is God ( Joshua 24:5;  Psalm 105:43 ,; cf. v. 26;  Micah 6:4 ).

At other points redemption from Egypt is a commissioned angel's work ( Numbers 20:16 ). And an angel, which could well be a Christophany, is sent by God to protect the people in their wilderness wanderings and powerfully fight on their behalf in the conquest of Canaan ( Exodus 23:20-33;  33:2 ).

Signs and wonders are what God sent Moses to do in Egypt and in the sight of Israel ( Deuteronomy 34:11-12 ), as a means of liberation ( Psalm 105:27 ) and validation of his divinely given authority ( Numbers 16:28-29 ). Moses is the quintessential divinely commissioned redeemer in the Old Testament.

During the time of the judges, God's intervention to deliver Israel after a cycle of apostasy, punishment, oppression at the hands of her enemies, and a cry for deliverance involved various missions. Prophets were sent to interpret to Israel the moral and spiritual dimension of her suffering ( Judges 6:8 ). God sent angels to announce to the parents or to the judge himself his role as divinely sent deliverer and to commission him to that task ( Judges 6:11-12,14;  13:8 ).

The line of prophets from Moses to Samuel was sent by God to provide deliverance for Israel ( 1 Samuel 12:11 ). Samuel was sent by God to anoint kings (15:1; 16:1). Samuel communicated to Saul his positive mission of deliverance, which took the form of punishment of the Amalekites (15:18,20). All other missions by the prophets to kings and to Israel involved confronting sin using God's law, calling for repentance, and warning of judgment if the monarch or the nation did not turn back to God ( 2 Samuel 12:1;  1 Kings 14:6;  2 Chronicles 25:15 ). In fact, summaries of the northern kingdom's rebellion leading to Assyrian subjugation and exile and Judah's similar end at the hands of Babylon stress that again and again God in his pity sent prophets to the people ( 2 Kings 17:13;  2 Chronicles 24:19;  36:15;  Jeremiah 29:19;  35:15;  44:4 ).

Of the Old Testament prophets, Isaiah and Jeremiah have the clearest articulation of God's personal call to mission ( Isaiah 6:8;  Jeremiah 1:7 ). Their immediate mission was to announce judgment to a rebellious people who, they were told, would reject their message ( Isaiah 6:9-12;  Jeremiah 26:12,15;  42:5-6;  43:1-2; cf.  Ezekiel 2:3-4; contrast  Haggai 1:12 ). Though their mission would be a failure in terms of a positive response to their message, their commission charged them to be totally obedient ( Isaiah 6:8;  Jeremiah 1:7 ).

When the prophets did speak of a hope for future deliverance "in the last days, " they refer to a mission for God's messenger or Elijah whom God sends to prepare his way ( Malachi 3:1 ); of the Servant-Messiah, anointed to preach good news to the oppressed, whom the Lord sends to bring deliverance ( Isaiah 61:1 ); and of a remnant of survivors who are sent to evangelize the nations: "They will proclaim my glory among the nations" ( Isaiah 66:19 ).

Mission in the Ministry of Jesus . So significant is the redemptive mission of the Messiah, the Son of God, that God sends an angel not only to announce his birth ( Luke 1:26 ), but to announce the birth of John the Baptist, the messenger who will be sent to prepare his way and introduce him (1:19;  Matthew 11:10; cf.  Mark 1:2;  Luke 7:27;  John 1:6,33 ).

Jesus had much to say about his own understanding of his mission. He saw his purpose as being sent by God his Father to proclaim and accomplish spiritual deliverance for humankind ( Luke 4:43;  John 3:34;  8:42;  10:36 ). He consciously appropriates  Isaiah 61:1-2 as the Old Testament passage his ministry fulfills (  Luke 4:18-19 ).

Jesus characterizes his mission as authenticated and sustained by the Father who sent him ( John 5:37;  6:57;  8:18,29 ). More than that—Jesus comes with the full authorization of God, so that he fully, even interchangeably, represents him ( John 12:44-45 ). So he can say to his disciples when he sends them on mission: "He who receives you receives me, and he who receives me receives the one who sent me" ( Matthew 10:40; cf.  Mark 9:37 ). At the same time, Jesus carries out his mission in full obedience to the will of the one who sent him ( John 4:34;  5:30;  6:38-39;  7:18 ). He speaks his words and does his works (7:16; 8:26; 9:4; 12:49; 14:24).

To believe that God has sent his Son Jesus on this saving mission is critically decisive for an individual's eternal destiny. "Now this is eternal life: that they may know you the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom you have sent" (17:3; cf. 5:24; 6:29; 11:42; 17:21). To reject divinely sent messengers and their message will mean, even for the sons of Israel, receiving the retributive justice and forfeiting kingdom blessings at the last judgment ( Matthew 22:1-14;  Luke 14:17 ).

Jesus recognized his place in the midst of a long train of divinely sent, yet humanly rejected, messengersboth past and future. There were the prophets, wise men, scribes, and apostles, whom Israel had and would reject, even kill ( Matthew 23:33-36;  Luke 11:47-51;  13:34; cf.  Matthew 22:3-4;  Luke 14:17 ). Through parable Jesus let them know that he, the Son, was among that number ( Matthew 21:34-37;  Mark 12:2-6;  Luke 20:10-13 ).

Unlike any previous human sent on a mission by God, Jesus proceeded to send his followers on a mission with the same authority and the same tasks. During his earthly ministry Jesus designated the Twelve as "apostles" ( Matthew 10:2;  Luke 6:13;  Acts 1:2 ). He is the source of the title and the instructions he gives the apostles enables us to fill out the picture of what Jesus meant by being one sent on a mission. The authorization is complete. Apostles are fully representative of their Lord ( Matthew 10:40 ). This is seen from their tasks. Not only do they preach the same message as Jesus"The kingdom of heaven is near" (10:7)but they are given authority by him to do the same miraculous works: casting out demons and healing the sick (10:1;  Mark 6:7;  Luke 9:1 ). Interestingly, the focus of their mission was the same: "the lost sheep of the house of Israel" ( Matthew 10:6;  15:24 ). Jesus sent them on their mission as innocents, unprotected and unprovisioned (10:9,16;  Mark 6:8-11;  Luke 9:3-5 ). They go to complete the work begun by others, to harvest what they have not labored for ( John 4:38 ). Though they are not labeled apostles, the Seventy, sent out two by two, go on the same basic mission ( Luke 10:1-12 ). They also have full authorization from Jesus, so that those who are listening to them are listening to him (10:16).

The pattern of mission set by Jesus' sending of his followers during his earthly ministry was repeated and extended during his post-resurrection appearances. At that time he clearly defined the mission for each generation until he returns ( Matthew 28:18-20 ). Their message's perspective and the scope of the audience, however, would now be different. The risen Lord commissioned his followers to proclaim a salvation fully accomplished in his atoning death and victorious resurrection and freely offered to those who repent and receive it ( Luke 24:44-48 ). He sent them to "all the nations to the end of the earth" ( Matthew 28:19;  Luke 24:47;  Acts 1:8;  22:21;  26:17 ). The manner of the mission must now be carried out with due regard to protection and provision ( Luke 22:35-38 ).

This commissioning is not limited to the twelve apostles. The Gospel of John presents Jesus as commissioning all disciples with the same mission. He prays in the high priestly prayer, "As you sent me into the world, I have sent them into the world" (17:18). In a post-resurrection appearance to the disciples he says, "As the Father has sent me, I am sending you" (20:21). In his further instructions he indicates that this comparative formula means a full authorization in mission. As they go about preaching the gospel of salvation, God the Holy Spirit empowers them (20:22).

Jesus also sends the Holy Spirit on a mission. He will empower Christian believers for witness to the good news of salvation ( Luke 24:49; cf. vv. 46-48;  Acts 1:8 ). He will bring not only full knowledge of the saving truth in Jesus' teaching ( John 14:26;  15:26; this is promised particularly to the twelve apostles ), but he will bring to the unbelieving world convincing conviction of sin, righteousness, and judgment to come (16:7-11).

Finally, Jesus speaks of sending angels on mission. Not only does the exalted Lord Jesus send his angel to reveal to John what shall occur at the end ( Revelation 22:16 ), but, as the glorious, returning Son of Man, he will send angels both to gather the elect to himself ( Matthew 24:31;  Mark 13:27 ) and to gather out of his kingdom "everything that causes sin and all who do evil" and cast them into eternal punishment ( Matthew 13:41-42 ).

Mission in the Early Church. God Sends Salvation . As the apostles reflected on the Savior God sent they highlighted the motive, context, task, and result of his mission. God's self-initiating love sent Jesus ( 1 John 4:9-10 ). As with Moses and the judges, Jesus is sent into a situation of bondage, this time spiritual, to fulfill God's saving purposes ( Galatians 4:3-5 ). The comparison and contrast with Moses, God's first "apostle-redeemer, " reveals not only Jesus' comparable faithfulness but his superiority ( Hebrews 3:1-6 ). He has greater glory as the creator of the household of faith and as a Son who rules over it. In these two ways his role as fully authorized, indeed interchangeable, representative of God is brought out.

Jesus' task is to be savior of the world ( 1 John 4:14 ); redeemer of those under law ( Galatians 4:4 ); sacrifice for sin and condemnation of sin ( Romans 8:3 ); and propitiation ( 1 John 4:9-10 ). The result of this rescue mission is not only redemption from the penalty of sin, but an introduction into eternal life, that is, "living through him" and receiving an inheritance: "full rights as sons" ( Romans 8:1-4;  Galatians 4:4-5;  1 John 4:9 ).

The apostles were also very much aware of God's sending of the Spirit in these last days. He comes to empower the witness to the gospel ( 1 Peter 1:12 ) and to be a salvation blessing, bearing witness to the intimate union believers have with the Father ( Galatians 4:6 ). He is the means by which the Godhead is omniscient and omnipresent in the world ( Revelation 5:6 ).

Angels, too, are sent. They minister to believers, even to the extent of the miraculous intervention so that the mission may go forward ( Acts 12:11;  Hebrews 1:14 ). They provide revelation of events of the end of history ( Revelation 1:1;  22:6 ).

The work of all these messengers comes to nothing if the word, the message of salvation, is not sent and heeded ( Acts 10:36;  13:26;  28:28 ,; salvation sent to those who will listen ). It must go to Israel and the Gentiles. So intent is the Godhead that the mission go forward and so essential is the human messenger, that through a vision spiritually needy Gentiles are sent to summon a Jewish Christian apostle to preach to them under their roof (10:3-6,20). The proclaimers of this message are divinely sent ( Romans 10:15 ).

Apostle . Originating in Jesus' choice and commissioning of the Twelve, the concept of apostle as divinely commissioned messenger of the good news of salvation plays a major role in the church's thinking about mission. The term can apply uniquely to the foundational apostles of the church's first generation, the Twelve. Outside traditions in which ecclesiastical authority involves apostolic succession, any continuing presence of apostolicity is usually thought of in terms of "apostolic function, " namely, pioneer church planting missionary endeavor. Though this is certainly at the core of the biblical teaching, there is much else the term can teach us about mission.

There a number of categories of individuals who are called "apostles" in the New Testament: the Twelve ( Luke 6:13 ); the 120 to 500 who saw the risen Christ ( 1 Corinthians 15:7 ); Paul (15:8-9); missionaries ( Acts 14:4;  Romans 16:7;  1 Corinthians 9:5 ); and church envoys ( 2 Corinthians 8:23;  Philippians 2:25 ). The qualifications for fitting one of these categories involves the call of the risen Christ who sends. If one has been personally commissioned by the risen Lord in a post-resurrection pre-ascension appearance, he fits into the category of "the Twelve" or the 120 to 500. Of course, the Twelve met the added qualification of having been chosen by Jesus during his earthly ministry (cf. the criteria and method of choice for Judas's replacement,  Acts 1:21-26 ). Paul realized that he did not meet the criteria for being part of the Twelve or even the 120 to 500. Comparing himself to "one abnormally born, " he claims the title "apostle" because of a personal call from the risen Lord in an appearance from heaven after the ascension ( 1 Corinthians 15:8-10 ). Though the evidenced is less clear, it seems that there is biblical precedent for labeling as "apostles" missionary messengers of the saving gospel in each generation of the church, who receive an inward, subjective call to fulfill an apostolic function of pioneer church planting cross-culturally, a calling that in turn is confirmed by the "outward commissioning" of the church ( Acts 14:4,14;  Romans 16:7;  1 Corinthians 9:5; cf.  Acts 9:17;  13:3;  Romans 10:15 ). Church envoys, who are termed "apostles, " are qualified to serve because of the church's call. Those sent as church envoys engage in spiritual ministry: validating the advance of the gospel ( Acts 8:14;  11:22 ); communicating decisions about doctrine and behavior (15:27,30, 33; 21:25); providing physical aid that promotes unity (11:29-30;  1 Corinthians 16:3 ); and serving as apostolic agents to give guidance and encouragement ( Acts 19:22;  1 Corinthians 4:17;  2 Corinthians 12:17;  2 Timothy 4:12 ). Since, however, they are not presented as being sent directly by the Father or the Son, their work is beyond the bound of our definition of mission.

The tasks of the apostle varies to some extent according to category. Apostles are first and foremost missionaries, sent out to bear witness to the good news of salvation ( Acts 2:37-39;  20:24;  Romans 1:1;  Ephesians 3:2-6;  1 Timothy 2:7;  2 Timothy 1:11;  4:7 ). When they are numbered among the Twelve or the 120 to 150, they give their eyewitness testimony to the central saving event that makes gospel proclamation possible: the resurrection ( Acts 1:21-22;  5:29;  1 Corinthians 9:1;  15:7 ).

The Twelve have the unique function of providing the revelational and organizational foundation for the church ( Luke 22:14,28-30;  Ephesians 2:20;  Revelation 18:20;  21:14 ). They guarantee the church's doctrine and its mission ( Acts 2:42;  8:14,18;  15:2,22;  Ephesians 2:20;  1 Timothy 2:7;  2 Peter 3:2;  Jude 17 ). They are its early chief administrators (4:35-37; 5:2; 6:6; 9:27). Paul, though of "abnormal birth, " also participates in the unique revelatory function.

The empowerment the apostle knows is a gracing, a gifting of effective missionary witness ( Romans 1:5;  1 Corinthians 12:28-29;  Galatians 2:8;  Ephesians 4:11 ). This, as well as signs and wonders ( Acts 2:43;  4:33;  5:12;  2 Corinthians 11:5;  12:11-12 ), appears to rest uniquely on apostles with foundational revelatory and organizational functions: the Twelve and Paul. Still, any missionary exercising the "apostolic function" knows the empowerment of God in witness, for the fruit is always God's doing ( 1 Corinthians 3:7-9;  9:2 ).

The manner of the apostle's ministry is a paradoxical mixture of honor and dishonor. He is a chosen representative of Jesus Christ according to God's will and decree ( 1 Corinthians 1:1;  2 Corinthians 1:1;  Galatians 1:1;  Colossians 1:1;  1 Timothy 1:1;  2 Timothy 1:1;  Titus 1:1;  1 Peter 1:1 ). At the same time, he is "a spectacle to the whole universe, to angels as well as to men, " the object of disdain and persecution ( 1 Corinthians 4:9; cf.  Acts 5:18,40;  Revelation 18:20 ). Humankind's sinful rebellion, expressed as rejection of the message and the messenger, creates this paradox. It places the messenger at the vortex of the battle for the souls of people. How individuals respond to the mission and message is critically decisive. It will mean either final redemption or judgment ( 2 Corinthians 2:14-17 ).

William J. Larkin, Jr.

See also Evangelism Evangelize; Testimony

Bibliography . J.-A. Bü ner, Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1:141-42,142-46; F. Hahn, Mission in the New Testament  ; R. E. Hedlund, The Mission of the Church in the World: A Biblical Theology  ; L. Legrand, Unity and Plurality: Mission in the Bible  ; K. H. Rengstorf, TDNT, 1:398-406; M. R. Spindler and P. R. Middlekoop, Bible and Mission: A Partially Annotated Bibliography 1960-1980  ; P. M. Steyne, In Step with the God of the Nations: A Biblical Theology of Missions .

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [2]

MISSION. —The following article deals with the mission of the Lord Jesus Christ only as presented in the Gospel narratives. The Lord Jesus frequently manifested consciousness of being commissioned by God . Now the general (πέμπω) and now the specific term (ἀποστέλλω) for sending is used in reference to His work, the latter word signifying an intimate connexion between sender and sent (Cremer, p. 529). As God’s trusted messenger He felt that there was a decree (δεῖ) for Him to execute ( Luke 2:49;  Luke 4:43;  Luke 9:22 etc.), that He had His Father’s authority ( John 5:43;  John 8:42), and that as the Father had sanctified Him and sent Him into the world ( John 10:36), it was not for Him to do His own pleasure ( John 6:38). The Fourth Evangelist, deeply impressed with the idea of the commission received by his Lord, mentions the fact repeatedly, and in one place stops to brood over the mere name of a place because it suggests a mission ( John 9:7). Instead of considering Himself as being merely one among a number of Divine messengers, Jesus knew Himself to be the Messenger-Son ( Mark 12:6-7). The Lord’s consciousness refers to (1) the objects of His mission, (2) the means to be adopted to gain His wondrous ends, (3) the extent , and (4) the credentials of His mission.

1. The objects of the mission .—These are exhibited in various forms. Prophecy has to be fulfilled ( Mark 12:10-11;  Mark 14:21;  Mark 14:27;  Mark 14:49,  Luke 4:21;  Luke 10:24;  Luke 24:27,  John 5:46;  John 13:18). It is the function of Jesus to be the King (Psalms 2), the Son of Man (Psalms 8,  Daniel 7:13-14), the Servant of Jehovah (Isaiah 42, 53), the founder a New Covenant ( Jeremiah 31:31-34); and thus to glorify God ( John 12:28;  John 17:4) and save men ( Matthew 1:21,  Luke 2:11;  Luke 19:10,  John 3:17;  John 10:10;  John 12:47;  John 17:2;  John 20:31) by attracting men to Himself ( Matthew 11:28,  John 5:40;  John 12:32) and by giving Himself as a sacrifice ( Mark 10:45,  John 1:29;  John 6:51;  John 10:15;  John 12:24).

2. Means to the ends of the mission. —The nature of these aims required that the Heavenly Apostle ( Hebrews 3:1) should manifest the Kingdom and the character of God, together with the greatness of man’s calling. The sacrificial death at Calvary sums up all the revelations. The speech, the life, the death of the Lord Jesus are the means whereby He discharges His unique mission to mankind.

( a ) To succeed, it was imperative that Jesus should ensure the recognition of the sovereignty of God . The Kingdom of God must be established upon the earth ( Matthew 4:17,  Luke 19:11 ff.). Where there are minds that gladly defer to God’s will, there the Kingdom is. Submission may be incomplete ( Matthew 13:24-30;  Matthew 13:47-48) and transient ( Matthew 13:20-22). In Jesus alone were the claims of God fully and constantly heeded: therefore the leadership of men is His prerogative ( Matthew 23:10). He called men to Himself in order to make them loyal to the heavenly throne. God’s subjects renounce evil habits ( Matthew 4:17), enjoy pardon ( Luke 24:47), possess sincerity ( Matthew 7:21-27), are plastic and trustful as children ( Matthew 18:2-4,  Luke 18:16-17,  John 3:3), are willing to render costly service in meekness ( Matthew 20:25-28); they transcend national distinctions ( Matthew 8:11) and set all interests below those of the Kingdom ( Matthew 6:33;  Matthew 13:45-46,  Luke 9:57-62;  Luke 18:29-30). The presence of the Kingdom is known by its conquering power ( Luke 11:20). Its growth cannot be accounted for unless the activities of God are adduced; albeit man’s cooperation is required ( Mark 4:26-29). A river (as the Nile) may not originate in the land that it waters, and yet may be indispensable thereto; similarly Christ’s Kingdom is the blessing the world needs most, and its coining must be uppermost in prayerful minds ( Matthew 6:9-10), yet it takes its rise in the unseen heaven ( John 18:36). Diseases, defects, excreseences of all kinds—physical, mental, spiritual—are foreign elements ( Matthew 13:27-28,  Luke 13:16). It was the function of the Lord Jesus to reveal verbally and in His life the nature of God’s reign. His loving and unswerving devotion to the Father’s will is the central orb of the moral world, and all human wills should be planets ruled and lighted by His filial homage. Union with Him, harmony with Him, would bring about union and harmony among the races of mankind, and earth according to the great prayers ( Matthew 6:9-10,  John 17:20-21), would be a province of heaven. In all its particulars—its purity, might, obedience, joyful loyalty, friendliness, prayerfulness, catholicity—the Kingdom of God is the life of Christ expanded. It was His task to give mankind, on the scale of His earthly experience, a clear and distinct conception of subjection to the authority of God. The Kingdom is where He is; it is He working through the wills, intellects, affections of His people. The laws of the Kingdom are those to which Christ conformed His purposes and deeds. The Beatitudes ( Matthew 5:1-12) are songs that first were sung in His own heart. Hence a description of the Kingdom is a description of the character of Jesus from the point of view belonging to duty and common service. If the precepts of the gospel—which were indeed citations from His own hook of life as child, friend, artizan, preacher, sacrifice—were heeded in home and Church and State, we should see the Kingdom of God an organism with Christ as its soul, devout, righteous, beneficent.

( b ) He to whom the human will ought to be surrendered must he known to be supremely worthy of reverence, trust, and love. Inasmuch, then, as knowledge of God is essential to eternal life, it was one of the aims of Christ to impart this knowledge ( John 17:3). God had often been represented as the Father of the Chosen People, and here and there individuals had thought themselves to be sons of God; but in the teachings of Jesus the Divine Fatherhood is asserted and illustrated so copiously, that some chapters of the Gospels consist almost solely of variations to the music of these good tidings (Matthew 5, 6, 7). Jesus made men think of God trustfully as well as reverently, with love as well as with awe. The revelation could be made only by the Son of God ( Matthew 11:27,  Luke 10:22), and it was contained in Himself ( John 1:18;  John 14:7-10). The love and obedience of the Son have as their counterparts the Father’s love and instructions; and so the paternal and the filial dispositions are mutually illuminating. The purposes of the Father are executed by the Son, and therefore to come to Jesus, to receive and honour Him, are acts that reach to God ( Luke 9:48,  John 5:22-23;  John 13:20). The message is the Messenger. Not merely does a veil fall from before the Divine character; for Jesus, standing where the veil had stood, manifests the eternal righteousness and pitying love that cannot be content unless men are rescued from unrighteousness and wrath. Salvation is man’s progressive advance ( John 17:3 γινώσκω) to God, his growing communion with the Father, his increasing faith, love, and reverence. The Saviour invites men to come by penitence and trust to Himself, that they may become one with Him and, through Him, with the Father ( Matthew 11:28,  John 17:21). whose holiness He discloses.

( c ) The fulfilment of Christ’s mission required the revelation of man . What is the moral condition of men? What is man in God’s idea? What can make man’s sin to be seen and hated? What can make God’s thought and purpose concerning man attractive to sinners? Inasmuch as penitence, faith, hope, love are essential elements of a true life, to create them was included in Christ’s gracious task. To produce the consciousness of guilt was an indispensable preliminary. His speech made sin exceeding sinful, and in His conduct there were presented such contrasts to man’s misdoings that the evils were exposed. A sense of sin actually was produced ( Luke 5:8;  Luke 7:37 ff;  Luke 19:7-8), and men learned to trust God’s Son and to desire to be taught His life ( Luke 11:1). He encouraged men to hope that His experience of pleasing the Father ( John 8:29) might become theirs, seeing that they could become as intimately related to Him as the branches are related to the vine ( John 15:1-8). The appearance of the Son of Man was a gospel, because, while it condemned sin, it affirmed moral evil to be an intrusion into man’s nature, and it invited the sinful to receive forgiveness and enter into union with that victorious life which from the first had overcome the world ( Matthew 4:1-11,  John 8:29;  John 16:33;  John 17:4). Corrupted man rejected and killed the Holy One, thereby disclosing human guilt and need; man, as God intended him to be, and as he may become by ‘believing in him’ ( John 2:11;  John 3:16), is revealed in Christ’s meekness, devoutness, filial obedience and fraternal service. ‘The Son of God’ gives men authority to become God’s sons ( John 1:12-13), thereby causing men fully to unfold their manhood.

( d ) The mission of the Saviour involved His death .—His death was a chief part of His work. The Evangelists record sayings which prove that the great sacrifice was present to our Lord’s mind at an early stage of His ministry, so that there is no need to regard the explicit references to the death by violence made near Caesarea Philippi ( Mark 8:31 ff.) as indicating a new outlook to the Lord’s own mind. The tragic note that is heard early in the Fourth Gospel ( John 2:19-21;  John 3:14-15;  John 6:51) is not left to the last in the Synoptic accounts ( Matthew 9:15,  Mark 2:19-20,  Luke 5:34-35). Moreover, the saving purpose of the sacrifice ( Matthew 26:28,  Mark 10:45;  Mark 14:24,  John 10:11;  John 12:23-24;  John 12:32-33), its necessity (δεῖ  Mark 8:31,  Luke 24:26), and its voluntary character ( Matthew 26:53,  John 10:18), are affirmed. ‘Through death to life’ is illustrated in His experience. The enjoyment by Him of a fuller life in countless redeemed ones is conditional upon His uttermost self-renunciation ( John 12:24). The life of the Saviour passes to men through His surrender, and it enters into them so far as they adopt its principle. The way of sacrifiee is thus the way whereby the Saviour gives and the saved receive ( Matthew 16:24-25). The New Covenant ( Jeremiah 31:31-34) is connected with the shedding of the Lord’s blood ( Luke 22:20), and it is necessary that the saved should participate in this fundamental law of Christ’s being ( John 6:53-57). It was the Son’s gracious will to come to earth on an errand which meant exposure to temptation (and therefore exposure to the possibility that He might not return to heaven) in order to destroy sin and to allure mankind to the paths of rectitude and peace. It was not the purpose of the Lord to ascend to God unless He could do so as the head of a new race,—a race healed ( John 3:14-15), vivified and nourished by His sacrificial offering ( John 6:51-58). This death, with its victory over death, and its sequel—the return to the Father—were intended to provide, through the gift of the Holy Spirit, those saving resources whereby the true life is initiated ( John 16:7-11) and sustained ( John 14:16;  John 14:26,  John 15:26,  John 16:13-15).

3. The extent of Christ’s mission. —While the regeneration of men was His first concern, His numerous miracles evince His care for man’s physical needs. As all departments of life were to be purified and enriched by His example and teaching, so all men were to feel that they could be saved by His grace. It has been supposed that Jesus had no outlook beyond the Chosen People, and that the universalism of the Gospels is an interpolation; the catholicity which the Church subsequently manifested being read back into the teachings of the Lord. This conjecture is applied to the Fourth Gospel, to the world-wide commission ( Matthew 28:18-20,  Mark 16:15), and to the universalism of St. Luke. True it is that at first the area of labour was restricted ( Matthew 15:24), but this was a necessity of the situation, and is no indication that the Gentiles were to be excluded from salvation. Sin is not local or racial, and Jesus hated it  ; and man, as man, was loved by Him. Any devout Jew would think that somehow the Gentiles were to reap advantage from the Messianic reign ( Luke 2:30-32), and though it was deemed absurd to suppose that preference could be given by the Messiah to heathen men ( John 7:35), even the Pharisees were zealous in making proselytes ( Matthew 23:15). Why should it be thought incredible that Jesus hoped ultimately to win men of all nations? Was not exclusiveness distressing to Him? Was He not ready with a reference to mercies granted to the woman of Zarephath and to Naaman the Syrian ( Luke 4:25-27)? The outer court of the Temple was the only part of the sacred structure to which a Gentile had access, and all the Evangelists report that Jesus insisted that this enclosure should be kept clean and quiet ‘for all the nations’ ( Matthew 21:12-13,  Mark 11:15-17,  Luke 19:45-46,  John 2:14;  John 2:16). Jesus rejoiced in the centurion’s faith—not found by Him in Israel ( Luke 7:9), and the Syrophœnician woman cheered His heart by her trust and loving ingenuity ( Matthew 15:28). At first the disciples were forbidden to preach to Samaritans ( Matthew 10:5), though, when they were fully equipped, the restriction was withdrawn ( Acts 1:8): He Himself laboured in Samaria ( Luke 9:51-56, John 4), and called attention to the beneficence of one Samaritan ( Luke 10:33-35), and to the faith and gratitude of another’ ( Luke 17:15-19). It is quite in harmony with the Saviour’s love for the outcast and despised, the publicans and sinners amongst the Jews ( Matthew 9:9-13,  Luke 7:37-50;  Luke 15:1-2 ff.,  Luke 18:9-14;  Luke 19:1-10), that He should foresee the approach of all men to Himself ( John 12:32), and anticipate a time when He should be the Shepherd of one flock consisting of sheep gathered from far and near ( John 10:16). The interest manifested by the Magi (Matthew 2) and by the Greeks ( John 12:20-21) is not alien to Christ’s mission. Moreover it is clearly declared that strangers will become workers in the vineyard ( Matthew 21:41), and that before His throne all nations are to be assembled for judgment ( Matthew 25:31-32). ‘The Saviour of the world’ ( John 4:42) has grace and power wherewith to meet the needs which belong to every man in every age and country; for He is the Light ( John 1:9,  John 8:12,  John 9:5,  John 12:46), the Water ( John 4:10,  John 7:37), the Bread ( John 6:35;  John 6:48-51), the Life ( John 11:25,  John 14:6).

4. Credentials of the mission. —Jesus entered upon His task with the confidence that He was anointed with the Holy Spirit ( Luke 4:18). John the Baptist declared that he saw the Spirit descending upon Jesus, and that he had been prepared for this sign ( John 1:33-34). The testimony thus borne by the last of the Old Covenant prophets is referred to by the Saviour together with other credentials,—as the witness of His works, that of the Father and that of the Scriptures ( John 5:32-47). Messengers came from the Machaerus prison, saying, ‘John the Baptist hath sent us unto thee, saying, Art thou he that cometh, or look we for another?’ In that hour Jesus wrought miracles which He adduced, together with His habit of announcing good tidings to the poor, as proofs of His Messiahship ( Luke 7:18-22). The deeds were signs (σημεῖα) that the Divine messenger could quicken body and soul ( Mark 5:41-42,  Luke 7:14-15,  John 11:25;  John 11:43-44); cure physical and spiritual diseases; render efficient withered powers ( Mark 3:1-5,  John 5:5-9); add faculties, contrary to what might be expected, as in the case of the man born blind (John 9); redress evils caused by circumstances—for instance the fever due to the Capernaum district—( Luke 4:38-39); cleanse all the fountains of life, as in cures wrought for lepers ( Mark 1:40-42,  Luke 17:12-14); bestow abilities, receptive ( Mark 8:22-25) and communicative ( Matthew 9:32-33). While the miracles were wrought in pure kindness, they afforded evidences to the thoughtful of the validity of Christ’s claims ( John 3:2;  John 7:31;  John 10:37-38;  John 14:11;  John 15:24), and they were intended by the Lord to give assurance to men of His redeeming grace ( Mark 2:10-11). The very term employed for saving processes (σώζω) will serve equally for temporal and spiritual blessings ( Matthew 1:21,  Mark 10:26,  Luke 7:50,  John 3:17), even as the Worker shows Himself in reference both to the inner and the outer life to be the Great Physician ( Mark 2:17). Some persons were allowed to have extraordinary aid to the belief that Jesus came from God, for they were with Him when He was transfigured, and heard a voice saying, ‘This is my Son, my chosen: hear ye him’ ( Luke 9:35); nevertheless there was adequate support for the faith of all men in the remarkable interest Jesus took in the neglected ( Luke 7:22-23;  Luke 15:1 ff.), in His readiness to pray ( John 17:1) and to serve ( Mark 6:34, cf. v. 31), and in the union of qualities of character which are rarely found together. The credentials of Christ’s mission are in Himself. The grandeur and simplicity of His life, the meek and beneficent use of marvellous powers, the sinless One’s friendship with sinners, the strength and gentleness, the zeal and patience, the ardour and purity of His character—prove that He came forth from the Father ( John 6:68-69;  John 16:27). Believers in Him discover with more and more clearness, as they trust Him more and more fully, that His gracious promises are fulfilled. He is to their consciences the Goodness,—to their intellects the Truth,—to their hearts the supreme Beauty, the Way, the Truth, the Life.

Literature.—Cremer, Lex. s.v. ἀσοστέλλω; Wendt, Teaching of Jesus , ii. 184 ff.

W. J. Henderson.

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary [3]

God has entrusted to his people the task, or mission, of spreading the message of his salvation to the world. The people who carry out this mission are therefore called missionaries. The present article uses the words ‘mission’ and ‘missionary’ in this broad sense, and not as technical names for specific organizations or people who work full time in church-sponsored activities in foreign countries.

Mission is necessary because sin has cut people off from the life of God and left them in the power of Satan ( Genesis 3:24;  Romans 1:21-25;  John 3:19;  Galatians 5:19-21;  1 John 5:19). God, however, has made a way of salvation (and it is the only way;  John 3:16;  John 14:6;  Acts 4:12;  Romans 5:17), but if the people of the world are to receive this salvation, God’s people must first of all tell them about it ( Romans 10:13-15;  2 Corinthians 5:18-19).

The Bible records the development of God’s plan for the salvation of people worldwide. God chose one man (Abraham) to father one particular nation (Israel) through whom God’s blessing would go to all nations. Israel was to be God’s representative in bringing the nations of the world to know him ( Genesis 12:2-3;  Genesis 22:18;  Exodus 19:5-6;  Isaiah 49:6;  Zechariah 8:22-23). Although Israel as a whole failed to carry out its task, out of it came one person, Jesus Christ, who was the Saviour of the world ( Luke 2:10-11;  Galatians 3:16). He built a new people of God, the Christian church, to whom he entrusted the mission of taking the message of his salvation to people everywhere ( Matthew 28:19-20;  Acts 1:8;  Acts 13:47).

Jesus and world mission

Israel failed to be God’s light to the nations, partly because the people were so self-satisfied in their status as God’s chosen people that they had no concern for others. They considered themselves assured of God’s blessing, and the Gentile nations assured of his judgment; but in this they deceived themselves ( Jonah 4:2;  Jonah 4:11;  Matthew 3:9;  Romans 2:25-29;  Romans 3:29;  Romans 9:6-7;  Romans 9:15).

Despite Israel’s failure, it was still the nation God chose and prepared to produce the world’s Saviour. Jesus therefore announced his salvation to Israel before spreading the message farther afield among the Gentiles ( Matthew 15:24; cf.  Matthew 4:23;  Matthew 13:54). He instructed the twelve apostles to do likewise ( Matthew 10:5-6). (For the mission of the twelve during the lifetime of Jesus see Apostle .) Even Paul, who was not one of the original twelve, believed he had an obligation to preach to the Jews first ( Acts 13:46;  Acts 18:6;  Romans 1:16).

Jesus had always anticipated a wider mission to the Gentiles ( Matthew 8:11-12;  Matthew 21:43;  Matthew 28:19;  John 10:16;  John 20:21). He told his disciples, and through them the church, to look upon the initial work in Palestine as the foundation for a wider reaching work into the Gentile world ( Luke 24:46-47;  Acts 1:8). He encouraged a sense of urgency in this mission by saying that he would return and bring in the new age only after his followers had preached the gospel worldwide ( Matthew 24:14).

Planting churches in new areas

The New Testament record of the expansion of the early church shows the sort of work the church must be prepared for if it is to fulfil its mission. Of first importance is the personal life and testimony of the Christians themselves. Through their witness the gospel spreads ( Acts 8:4-6;  Acts 11:19-21;  Colossians 1:7). But God wants more than to save people. He wants to see them baptized, made disciples of Jesus, instructed in Christian teaching and built into local churches ( Matthew 28:19-20;  John 17:20-21;  Acts 1:8;  Acts 2:41-47;  Acts 11:26;  Colossians 1:25;  Colossians 1:28; see Baptism ; Disciple ; TEACHER).

Although all Christians should bear witness to Jesus, God chooses and equips certain people for the specific task of breaking into unevangelized areas with the gospel ( Acts 9:15;  Romans 10:14-15;  Romans 15:20;  2 Corinthians 10:16;  Galatians 1:16; see Evangelist ). As a church recognizes such gifted people, it may send them out to devote their whole time to preaching the gospel, making disciples and planting churches. In doing so, the home church becomes a partner with its missionaries in the gospel ( Acts 13:1-4;  Acts 14:27;  Acts 16:1-2;  Acts 18:22-23; cf.  Philippians 1:5).

Paul was a missionary sent by a church into unevangelized areas, and his example shows that missionaries must have plans and goals. Like Paul, they may make no attempt to preach in every town and village, but concentrate on planting churches in the main population centres ( Acts 13:14; Acts 14; Acts 1; Acts 8; Acts 20;  Acts 16:12;  Acts 18:1;  Acts 19:1). These churches then have the responsibility to spread the gospel into the surrounding regions, though they will do so effectively only if they themselves are spiritually healthy ( Acts 13:49;  Acts 19:8-10;  1 Thessalonians 1:8).

Whatever the strategy, the missionaries must also be flexible. They must be sensitive to God’s will in changing situations, and be prepared to alter their plans if God so directs ( Acts 16:6-10;  Acts 18:21;  1 Corinthians 16:7-9;  1 Corinthians 16:12).

Adapting to different situations

There is only one gospel, but its presentation may be adapted to the background and needs of different audiences. Paul’s preaching in the Jewish synagogues differed from his preaching to non-Jewish idolaters ( Acts 13:14-41;  Acts 14:11-17;  Acts 17:22-31). Nevertheless, it is often the case that those who appear ready-made to accept the gospel refuse it (e.g. Jews who already knew the Bible;  Acts 13:45;  Acts 14:1-2;  Acts 17:1-5;  Acts 17:13), and the most unlikely people accept it (e.g. idolaters, robbers, adulterers and perverts;  Acts 19:18-20;  Acts 19:26;  1 Corinthians 6:9-11).

Christianity must not be identified with one level of society or one race. There should not therefore be an emphasis on one class of people to the neglect of the rest ( Acts 16:14;  Acts 17:4;  Acts 17:12;  Acts 18:3;  Acts 18:7-8;  1 Corinthians 1:26;  2 Corinthians 8:1-2;  Ephesians 2:14-15;  1 Timothy 6:1-2;  1 Timothy 6:17). Nor should there be an emphasis on one sort of proclamation to the neglect of the rest ( 1 Corinthians 9:22). Missionaries may make the gospel known through preaching, discussion, debating or teaching; they may use religious buildings, public places or private homes; they may deal with mass audiences, small groups or individual enquirers ( Acts 2:40-41;  Acts 5:25;  Acts 6:9-10;  Acts 8:27-29;  Acts 11:12;  Acts 14:1;  Acts 16:13;  Acts 16:32;  Acts 17:19;  Acts 20:22;  Acts 21:39-40;  Acts 28:17).

The time that missionaries spends in one centre may vary from a few weeks to a few years ( Acts 17:2;  Acts 18:11;  Acts 20:31). Patience is necessary, but that does not mean that they must remain indefinitely in one place preaching the gospel to unresponsive people, when people in other places have not yet heard ( Matthew 10:11-14;  Acts 13:51;  Acts 17:13-14;  Acts 19:8-9).

Independence of new churches

To avoid making a church dependent on them, those who plants the church should be careful about starting programs that can only operate if they are there permanently ( Acts 18:20;  Acts 20:38;  1 Corinthians 2:5). They should concentrate on making the Christians true disciples who can carry on the work of Christ, both in helping the church and in reaching out to the lost ( Matthew 28:19;  Ephesians 4:11-13). In particular they should train those who show signs of being gifted for the more important ministries of the church ( 2 Timothy 2:2; see Gifts Of The Spirit ).

Having taught people to trust in the Lord, missionaries must show that they also trust in the Lord, by leaving the new believers to learn by experience how to live as Christ’s people ( Acts 14:23;  Acts 20:32). If the believers have been built up in the knowledge of God and his Word ( Acts 11:26;  Acts 20:27), they will be able to maintain their Christian commitment after the missionaries have gone. They should even be able to spread the gospel into the surrounding regions ( Acts 13:49;  Acts 13:52;  Acts 19:10;  1 Thessalonians 1:8-10).

Though the founders of the church may leave it, they do not abandon it. Through letters, visits and periods of temporary residence they can help it to grow ( Acts 15:36;  Acts 20:2-3;  1 Corinthians 5:9;  1 Corinthians 7:1;  1 Corinthians 16:5;  1 Corinthians 16:12).

Each church, if it is to stand by itself, must also be able to govern itself. God has provided for the leadership of local churches through giving certain people the necessary abilities to be elders. The founders of the church have the responsibility to appoint such leaders in the church ( Acts 14:23;  Acts 20:17;  Titus 1:5; see Elder ). (Concerning Paul’s exercise of authority in the churches he established, see Apostle .)

People in different churches will pray, sing, teach and worship in a variety of ways, depending on their background and culture. When missionaries plant churches in cultures different from their own, they must not impose their culture upon the new Christians, but encourage them to find suitable ways of expressing their newfound faith (cf.  1 Corinthians 16:20;  Colossians 3:16-17).

Christianity can function in any age and in any culture. The New Testament is not a book of rules giving instructions on the practical details of church procedures, but a collection of stories and letters providing guidance for a Spirit-directed people ( Acts 20:28;  1 Corinthians 2:12-13;  1 Corinthians 6:5;  1 Corinthians 7:6;  1 Corinthians 7:40;  Philippians 1:9). Flexibility will enable missionaries to change patterns of activity to meet the needs of different kinds of people ( Acts 15:10;  1 Corinthians 9:20-23;  Galatians 2:12-14). (For the principles of church life that should guide those who establish new churches see Church .)

When establishing churches in new areas, missionary may choose not to accept financial support from the local people, to avoid being a burden or creating misunderstanding ( 1 Corinthians 9:12;  2 Corinthians 12:14-18). They might choose to do part-time secular work to help support themselves, or receive gifts of money from churches elsewhere ( Acts 18:3;  Acts 20:33-34;  2 Corinthians 11:7-9;  Philippians 4:15-18;  1 Thessalonians 2:5;  1 Thessalonians 2:9;  2 Thessalonians 3:7-8).

Evangelism and social concern

Jesus demonstrated true Christian love by helping the poor, the sick, the despised and the victims of injustice. He taught his disciples to do likewise ( Matthew 8:2-3;  Matthew 8:6-7;  Matthew 9:11;  Matthew 25:34-35;  Mark 8:1-2;  Mark 12:40;  Luke 10:36-37;  James 5:1-6;  1 John 3:17).

Following Jesus, the early missionaries saw people not merely as souls to be saved, but as people whose bodies and minds were also in need. They were concerned for the whole person, not just part of the person. They therefore accompanied their preaching with acts of compassion, and taught the newly founded churches the social responsibilities that the gospel placed upon them ( Acts 5:12;  Acts 9:34;  Acts 16:16-18;  Romans 13:8-10;  Galatians 2:10;  Galatians 6:10;  1 Timothy 5:3-5;  1 Timothy 6:18;  James 1:27).

Like Jesus, however, the early missionaries did not carry out their practical ministries or use their miraculous powers as a method of evangelism. They did not do good deeds for people merely to try to convert them. They did good deeds because they had a Christian duty to do so, whether or not the people were Christians or even likely to become Christians ( Acts 3:6;  Acts 5:15-16;  Acts 19:11-12;  Acts 28:8-9;  James 2:15-16; see Good Works; Miracles )

As Christians carry on the mission that Jesus started, they show people the sort of world that God wants. They work towards the goal that God has for the removal of all the effects of sin, not only in individuals and human society but also in the world of nature ( Romans 8:19-23;  Revelation 21:4;  Revelation 22:1-2; see Justice ; Nature ).

But the root of the world’s problems is sin, and the basic task of the church’s mission is to make known the gospel of Jesus Christ. The gospel is God’s provision to deal with sin. As people respond to that gospel, they come into a right relationship with God, and then set about producing character and behaviour that is in keeping with their Christian faith ( Matthew 28:19-20;  Luke 24:47;  Acts 1:8;  Romans 1:16;  Romans 15:20;  Titus 3:8).

Webster's Dictionary [4]

(1): ( n.) Persons sent; any number of persons appointed to perform any service; a delegation; an embassy.

(2): ( v. t.) To send on a mission.

(3): ( n.) An organization for worship and work, dependent on one or more churches.

(4): ( n.) A course of extraordinary sermons and services at a particular place and time for the special purpose of quickening the faith and zeal participants, and of converting unbelievers.

(5): ( n.) The act of sending, or the state of being sent; a being sent or delegated by authority, with certain powers for transacting business; comission.

(6): ( n.) An assotiation or organization of missionaries; a station or residence of missionaries.

(7): ( n.) Dismission; discharge from service.

(8): ( n.) That with which a messenger or agent is charged; an errand; business or duty on which one is sent; a commission.

Charles Buck Theological Dictionary [5]

A power or commission to preach the Gospel. Thus Jesus Christ gave his disciples their mission, when he said, "go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature."

See next article.

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [6]

is the word used by Roman Catholics, Anglicans, and American Ritualists in a sense somewhat synonymous to the word Revival (q.v.). Among Roman Catholics the Mission is a series of special services, conducted generally by propagandists, who do not themselves preside over a parish; they are mostly members of a monastic order. The word "Mission" in this sense is of recent use. In the Church of England and the Protestant Episcopal Church the word designates "a series of services in which prayer, praise, preaching, and personal exhortation are the main features, and is intended to call souls to repentance and faith, and deepen the spiritual life in the faithful." The "mission" is conducted in a particular parish, or in a number of parishes at once, directed by the rector, or by some priest experienced in such matters, whom he obtains to aid him. " Its themes are heaven, hell, the judgment, sin, the atonement for sin, God's justice, and God's mercy." "The purpose is the proclamation of the old foundations of faith and repentance to souls steeped in worldliness and forgetful of their destiny, whether they be the souls of the baptized or the unbaptized." The usual period of the year for the "mission" is the season of Lent (q.v.). In England it has been the practice for years. A correspondent of the New York Church Journal (March 12, 1874), after describing the interest awakened by the mission services in the English metropolis (in 1874), says that the bishops, persuaded by the good results of the propriety of the missions, "have declined to lay down special rules, and trust to the loyalty of the clergy to conduct the mission in accordance with the rules of the Church," and then adds that "the clergy are now too busy with the real work of the mission to discuss the proper pronunciation of Amen,' the length of surplices, and the color of stoles." In the United States it has as yet found favor with few of the Protestant Episcopal churches. A serious obstacle is the Liturgy. In the mission the largest spontaneity and freedom are allowed. Prayers are extemporaneous. The preaching is pungent and personal. The singing is participated in by the whole congregation, and familiar hymns and tunes are selected. The tendency is towards a general introduction of the "mission" into all Protestant Episcopal churches. The Church Journal and Gospel Messenger of December 25, 1873, made a special plea in its behalf, and the Reverend B.P. Morgan has published a book to enlist his Church in revival work. (See Retreat). (J.H.W.)