From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Charles Buck Theological Dictionary [1]

An assembly of the states of Germany. We shall only take notice, in this place of the more remarkable of those which have been held on the affairs of religion.

1. The diet of Augsburgh, in the year 1530, was assembled to re-unite the princes of the empire, in relation to some religious matters. The emperor himself presided in this assembly with the greatest magnificence imaginable. The elector of Saxony, followed by several princes, presented the confession of faith, called the confession of Augsburgh. The emperor ended the diet with a decree, that no alteration should be made in the doctrines and ceremonies of the Romish church till the council should order it otherwise.

2. The diet of Augsburgh, in 1547, was held on account of the electors being divided concerning the decisions of the council of Trent. The emperor demanded that the management of that affair should be referred to him; and it was resolved, that every one should conform to the decisions of the council.

3. The diet of Augsburgh, in 1548, was assembled to examine some memorials relating to the confession of faith; but, the commissioners not agreeing together, the emperor named three divines, who drew the design of this famous interim, so well known in Germany and elsewhere.

See Interim

4. The diet of Augsburgh, in 1550. In this assembly, the emperor complained that the interim was not observed, and demanded that all should submit to the council, which they were going to renew at Trent; which submission was resolved upon by a plurality of votes.

5. The diet of Nuremberg, in 1523. Here pope Adrian VIth's nuncio demanded the execution of Leo Xth's bull, and Charles Vth's edict against Luther. But the assembly drew up a list of grievances, which were reduced to an hundred articles, some whereof aimed at the destruction of the pope's authority, and the discipline of the Romish church; however, they consented that the Lutherans should be commanded not to write against the Roman Catholics.

6. The diet of Nuremberg, in 1524. In this assembly, the Lutherans having the advantage, it was decreed that the pope should call a council in Germany; but that, in the mean time, an assembly should be held at Spire, to determine what was to be believed and practised; but Charles V. prohibited the holding this assembly.

7. The diet of Ratisbon, in 1541, was held for re-uniting the Protestants with the Roman Catholics. The emperor named three Roman Catholics and three Protestant divines, to agree upon articles. The Roman Catholics were, Julius Phlug, John Gropper, and John Eckius; the Protestants were, Philip Melancthon, Martin Bucer, and John Pistorius; but, after a whole month's consultation, they could agree upon no more than five or six articles; which the emperor consented the Protestants should retain, forbidding them to solicit any body to change the ancient religion.

8. The diet of Ratisbon, in 1546, decreed that the council of Trent was to be followed, which was opposed by the Protestant deputies; and this caused a war against them.

9. The diet of Ratisbon, in 1557, demanded a conference between some famous doctors of both parties; which conference was held at Worms, in September, between twelve Roman Catholic and twelve Lutherans being divided among themselves.

10. The diet of Spire, in 1526. In this assembly (wherein presided the archduke Ferdinand) the duke of Saxony, and the landgrave of Hesse, demanded the free exercise of the Lutheran religion: upon which it was decreed, that the emperor should be desired to call a general, or national, council in Germany within a year, and that, in the mean time, every one should have liberty of conscience.

11. The diet of Spire, in 1529, decreed, that in the countries which had embraced the new religion, it should be lawful to continue in it till the next council; but that no Roman Catholic should be allowed to turn Lutheran. Against this decree six Lutheran princes, viz. the elector of Saxony, the marquis of Brandenburg, the two dukes of Lunenburg, the landgrave of Hesse, and the prince of Anhait, with the deputies of fourteen imperial towns, protested in writing; from which solemn protestation came the famous name of Protestants, which the Lutherans presently after took.

12. The diet of Worms, in 1521. In this assembly, Luther, being charged by the pope's nuncio with heresy, and refusing to recant, the emperor, by his edict of May 26, before all the princes of Germany, publicly outlawed him.

Webster's Dictionary [2]

(1): ( n.) The local legislature (Landtag) of an Austrian province.

(2): ( n.) The federative assembly of the old Germanic Confederation (1815 - 66).

(3): ( n.) The legislature of Denmark, Sweden, Japan, or Hungary.

(4): ( n.) Occasionally, the Reichstag of the German Empire, Reichsrath of the Austrian Empire, the federal legislature of Switzerland, etc.

(5): ( n.) Any of various national or local assemblies;

(6): ( n.) In the old German or Holy Roman Empire, the great formal assembly of counselors (the Imperial Diet or Reichstag) or a small, local, or informal assembly of a similar kind (the Court Diet, or Hoftag).

(7): ( n.) The state assembly or any of various local assemblies in the states of the German Empire, as the legislature (Landtag) of the kingdom of Prussia, and the Diet of the Circle (Kreistag) in its local government.

(8): ( n.) Course of living or nourishment; what is eaten and drunk habitually; food; victuals; fare.

(9): ( v. t.) To cause to eat and drink sparingly, or by prescribed rules; to regulate medicinally the food of.

(10): ( n.) A course of food selected with reference to a particular state of health; prescribed allowance of food; regimen prescribed.

(11): ( v. i.) To eat; to take one's meals.

(12): ( v. t.) To cause to take food; to feed.

(13): ( v. i.) To eat according to prescribed rules; to ear sparingly; as, the doctor says he must diet.

(14): ( n.) A legislative or administrative assembly in Germany, Poland, and some other countries of Europe; a deliberative convention; a council; as, the Diet of Worms, held in 1521.

King James Dictionary [3]

DIET, n. L., Gr., manner of living, mode of life prescribe by a physician, food, a room, parlor or bed room. In the middle ages, this word was used to denote the provision or food for one day, and for a journey of one day. Hence it seems to be from dies, day, or its root and hence the word may have come to signify a meal or supper, and the room occupied for eating.

1. Food or victuals as, milk is a wholesome diet flesh is nourishing diet. 2. Food regulated by a physician, or by medical rules food prescribed for the prevention or cure of disease, and limited in kind or quantity. I restrained myself to a regular diet of flesh once a day. 3. Allowance of provision.

For his diet there was a continual diet given him by the king.  Jeremiah 52 .

4. Board, or boarding as, to pay a certain sum for diet, washing and lodging.

DIET, n. G. An assembly of the states or circles of the empire of Germany and of Poland a convention of princes, electors, ecclesiastical dignitaries, and representatives of free cities, to deliberate on the affairs of the empire. There are also diets of states and cantons.


1. To feed to board to furnish provisions for as, the master diets his apprentice. 2. To take food by rules prescribed as, an invalid should carefully diet himself. 3. To feed to furnish aliment as, to diet revenge.


1. To eat according to rules prescribed. 2. To eat to feed as, the students diet in commons.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [4]

DIET . In AV [Note: Authorized Version.] , apart from Sir 30:25 , where it signifies ‘food,’ this word occurs only in   Jeremiah 52:34 , where RV [Note: Revised Version.] has the more correct ‘allowance,’ i.e. of food, as AV [Note: Authorized Version.] in the parallel passage   2 Kings 25:30 . In   Jeremiah 40:5 the same word is rendered ‘victuals,’ but RVm [Note: Revised Version margin.] ‘allowance.’

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [5]

( אֲרֻהָה , Aruchah' , rendered "Allowance ,"  2 Kings 25:30; "Victuals ,"  Jeremiah 40:5; "Dinner ,"  Proverbs 15:17), a fixed portion or ration of daily food ( Jeremiah 52:34). The food of Eastern nations has been in all ages light and simple. As compared with our own habits, the chief points of contrast are the small amount of animal food consumed, the variety of articles used as accompaniments to bread, the substitution of milk in various forms for our liquors, and the combination of what we should deem heterogeneous elements in the same dish or the same meal. The chief point of agreement is the large consumption of bread, the importance of which in the eyes of the Hebrew is testified by the use of the term lechem (originally food of any kind) specifically for bread, as well as by the expression "staff of bread" ( Leviticus 26:26;  Psalms 105:16;  Ezekiel 4:16;  Ezekiel 14:13). Simpler preparations of corn were, however, common; sometimes the fresh green ears were eaten in a natural state (a custom practiced in Palestine (Robinson's Researches , 1:493), the husks being rubbed off by the hand ( Leviticus 23:14;  Deuteronomy 23:25;  2 Kings 4:42;  Matthew 12:1;  Luke 6:1); more frequently, however, the grains, after being carefully picked, were roasted in a pan over a fire ( Leviticus 2:14), and eaten as "parched corn," in which form it was an ordinary article of diet, particularly among. laborers, or others who had not the means of dressing food ( Leviticus 23:14;  Ruth 2:14;  1 Samuel 17:17;  1 Samuel 25:18;  2 Samuel 17:28); this practice is still very usual in the East (comp. Lane, 1:251; Robinson, Res . 2:350). Sometimes the grain was bruised (like the Greek Polenta , Pliny, 18:14), in which state it was termed either גֶּרֶשׂ (Sept. Ἐρικτά ; A. V. "beaten,"  Leviticus 2:14;  Leviticus 2:16), or רַיפוֹת ( Aquil. Symm . Πτισάναι ; Auth.Vers. "corn,"  2 Samuel 17:19; comp.  Proverbs 27:22), and then dried in the sun; it was eaten either mixed with oil ( Leviticus 2:15), or made into a soft cake named עֲרַיסָה (A. V. "dough,"  Numbers 15:20;  Nehemiah 10:37;  Ezekiel 44:30).

The Hebrews used a great variety of articles ( John 21:5) to give a relish to bread. Sometimes salt was so used ( Job 6:6), as we learn from the passage just quoted; sometimes the bread was dipped into the sour wine (A. V. "vinegar") which the laborers drank ( Ruth 2:14); or, when meat was eaten, into the gravy, which was either served up separately for the purpose, as by Gideon ( Judges 6:19), or placed in the middle of the meat-dish, as done by the Arabs (Burckhardt, Notes , 1:63), whose practice of dipping bread in the broth, or melted fat of the animal, strongly illustrates the reference to the Sop in  John 13:26 sq. The modern Egyptians season their bread with a sauce composed of various stimulants, such as salt, mint, sesame, and chickpeas (Lane, 1:180). (The later Jews named this sauce חֲרוֹסֶת [Mishna, Pesach , 2:8]: it consisted of vinegar, almonds, and spice, thickened with flour. It was used at the celebration of the Passover [ Pesach , 10:3].) The Syrians, on the other hand, use a mixture of savory and salt for the same purpose (Russell, 1:93). Where the above-mentioned accessories were wanting, fruit, vegetables, fish, or honey was used. In short, it inav be said that all the articles of food which we are about to mention were mainly viewed as subordinates to the staple commodity of bread. The various kinds of bread and cakes are described under the head of (See Bread); (See Cake); (See Cracknel).

Milk and its preparations hold a conspicuous place in Eastern diet as affording substantial nourishment; sometimes it was produced in a fresh state ( חָלָב ,  Genesis 18:8), but more generally in the form of the modern Leban , i.e. sour milk ( חֶמְאָה , A. V. "butter,"  Genesis 18:8;  Judges 5:25;  2 Samuel 17:29). The latter is universally used by the Bedouins, not only as their ordinary beverage (Burckhardt, Notes, 1:240), but mixed with flour, meat, and even salad (Burckhardt, 1:58, 63; Russell, Aleppo, 1:118). It is constantly offered to travelers, and in some parts of Arabia it is deemed scandalous to take any money in return for it (Burckhardt, Arabia, 1:120). For a certain season of the year leban makes up a great part of the food of the poor in Syria (Russell, 1. c.). Butter ( Proverbs 30:33), and various forms of coagulated milk, of the consistency of the modern Kaimak ( Job 10:10;  1 Samuel 17:18;  2 Samuel 17:29), were also used. (See Butter); (See Cheese); (See Milk).

Fruit (q.v.) was another source of subsistence: figs stand first in point of importance; the early sorts described as the "summer fruit" ( קִיַוֹ ,  Amos 8:1-2), and the "first ripe fruit" ( בַּכּוּרָה ,  Hosea 9:10;  Micah 7:1), were esteemed a great luxury, and were eaten as fresh fruit; but they were generally dried and pressed into cakes, similar to the date-cakes of the Arabians (Burckhardt, Arabia, 1:57), in which form they were termed דְּבֵלַים ( Παλάθαι , A.V. "cakes of figs,"  1 Samuel 25:18;  1 Samuel 30:12;  1 Chronicles 12:40), and occasionally קִיַוֹ simply ( 2 Samuel 16:1; A.V. "summer fruit"). Grapes were generally eaten in a dried state as raisins ( צַמֻּקַים , Vulg. Igaturca Uvc Passea ,  1 Samuel 25:18;  1 Samuel 30:12;  2 Samuel 16:1;  1 Chronicles 12:40), but sometimes, as before, pressed into cakes, named אֲשַׁישָׁה ( 2 Samuel 6:19;  1 Chronicles 16:3;  Song of Solomon 2:5;  Hosea 3:1), understood by the Sept. as a sort of cake, Λάγανον Ἀπὸ Τηγάνου , and by the A. V. as a "flagon of wine." Caked fruit forms a part of the daily food of the Arabians, and is particularly adapted to the wants of travelers; dissolved in water it affords a sweet and refreshing drink (Niebuhr, Arabia, p. 57; Russell, Aleppo, 1:82); an instance of its stimulating effect is recorded in  1 Samuel 30:12. Apples (perhaps citrons) are occasionally noticed, but rather in reference to their fragrance ( Song of Solomon 2:5;  Song of Solomon 7:8) and color ( Proverbs 25:11) than as an article of food. Dates are not noticed in Scripture, unless we accept the rendering of קִיַוֹ in the Sept. (2 Samuel 1) as = Φοίνικες ; it can hardly be doubted, however, that, where the palm- tree flourished, as in the neighborhood of Jericho, its fruit was consumed; in  Joel 1:12 it is reckoned among other trees valuable for their fruit. The pomegranate tree is also noticed by Joel; it yields a luscious fruit, from which a species of wine was expressed ( Song of Solomon 8:2;  Haggai 2:19). Melons were grown in Egypt ( Numbers 11:5), but not in Palestine. The mulberry is undoubtedly mentioned in  Luke 17:6 under the name Συκάμινος ; the Hebrew בְּכָאַים so translated ( 2 Samuel 5:23;  1 Chronicles 14:14) is rather doubtful; the Vulg. takes it to mean pears. The Συκομωραία (A. V. "sycomore,"  Luke 19:4) differs from the tree last mentioned; it was the Egyptian fig, which abounded in Palestine ( 1 Kings 10:27), and was much valued for its fruit ( 1 Chronicles 27:28;  Amos 7:14). (See Apple); (See Citron); (See Fig); (See Mulberry-Tree); (See Pomegranate); (See Sycamine-Tree); (See Sycamore).

Of vegetables (q.v.) we have most frequent notice of lentils ( Genesis 25:34;  2 Samuel 17:28;  2 Samuel 23:11;  Ezekiel 4:9), which are still largely used by the Bedouins in traveling (Burckhardt, Arabia , 1:65); beans ( 2 Samuel 17:28;  Ezekiel 4:9), which still form a favorite dish in Egypt and Arabia for breakfast, boiled in water and eaten with butter and pepper; from 2 Samuel 27:28 it might be inferred that beans and other kinds of pulse were roasted, as barley was, but the second קָלַי in that verse is probably interpolated, not appearing in the Sept., and, even if it were not so, the reference to pulse in the A. V., as of Cicer in the Vulg., is wholly unwarranted; Cucumbers ( Numbers 11:5;  Isaiah 1:8;  Baruch 6:70; comp.  2 Kings 4:39, where wild gourds, Cucumeres Asinini , were picked in mistake for cucumbers); leeks, onions, and garlick, which were and still are of a superior quality in Egypt ( Numbers 11:5; comp. Wilkinson, Anc. Egypt . 2:374; Lane, 1:251); lettuce, of which the wild species, Lactuca Agrestis , is identified with the Greek Πικρίς by Pliny (21. 65), and formed, according to the Sept. and the Vulg., the "bitter herbs" ( מְרֹרַים ) eaten with the paschal lamb ( Exodus 12:8;  Numbers 9:11); endive, which is still well known in the East (Russell, 1:91), may have been included under the same class. In addition to the above we have notice of certain "herbs" ( אוֹרוֹת ,  2 Kings 4:39) eaten in times of scarcity, which were mallows according to the Syriac and Arabic versions, but, according to the Talmud, a vegetable resembling the Brassica Eruca of Linnaus; and again of Sea-Purslane ( מִלּוּחִ ; Ἄλιμα ; A. V. "mallows"), and broom-root ( רְתָמַים ; A. V. "juniper,"  Job 30:4), as eaten by the poor in time of famine, unless the latter were gathered as fuel. An insipid plant, probably purslane, used in salad, appears to be referred to in  Job 6:6, under the expression רַיר חִלָּמוּת (A. V. "white of egg"). The usual method of eating vegetables was in the form of pottage ( נָזַיד , Sept. Ἔψημα , Vulg. Pulmentum ,  Genesis 25:29;  2 Kings 4:38;  Haggai 2:12; a meal wholly of vegetables was deemed very poor fare,  Proverbs 15:17;  Daniel 1:12;  Romans 14:2). The modern Arabians consume but few vegetables; radishes and leeks are most in use, and are eaten raw with bread (Burckhardt, Arabia, 1:56). (See Bean); (See Cucumber); (See Garlic); (See Gourd); (See Leek); (See Lentil); (See Onion).

The spices or condiments known to the Hebrews were numerous; cummin ( Isaiah 28:25;  Matthew 23:23), dill ( Matthew 23:23, "anise," A. V.), coriander ( Exodus 16:31;  Numbers 11:7), mint ( Matthew 23:23), rue ( Luke 11:42), mustard ( Matthew 13:31;  Matthew 17:20), and salt ( Job 6:6), which is reckoned among "the principal things for the whole use of man's life" ( Sirach 39:26). Nuts (pistachios) and almonds ( Genesis 43:11) were also used as whets to the appetite. (See Almond); (See Anise); (See Coriander); (See Cummin); (See Mint); (See Mustard); (See Nuts); (See Spices).

In addition to these classes, we have to notice some other important articles of food: in the first place, honey, whether the natural product of the bee ( 1 Samuel 14:25;  Matthew 3:4), which abounds in most parts of Arabia (Burckhardt, Arabia , 1:54), or the other natural and artificial productions included under that head, especially the dibs of the Syrians and Arabians, i.e. grape-juice boiled down to the state of the Roman defrutum, which is still extensively used in the East (Russell, 1:82); the latter is supposed to be referred to in  Genesis 43:11, and  Ezekiel 27:17. The importance of honey, as a substitute for sugar, is obvious; it was both used in certain kinds of cake (though prohibited in the case of meat offerings,  Leviticus 2:11), as in the pastry of the Arabs (Burckhardt, Arabia , 1:54), and was also eaten in its natural state either by itself ( 1 Samuel 14:27;  2 Samuel 17:29;  1 Kings 14:3), or in conjunction with other things, even with fish ( Luke 24:42). "Butter and honey" is an expression for rich diet ( Isaiah 7:15;  Isaiah 7:22); such a mixture is popular among the Arabs (Burckhardt, Arabia , 1:54). "Milk and honey" are similarly coupled together, not only frequently by the sacred writers, as expressive of the richness of the promised land, but also by the Greek poets (comp. Callim. Hymn in Jov. 48; Hom. Od. 20:68). Too much honey was deemed unwholesome ( Proverbs 25:27). With regard to oil, it does not appear to have been used to the extent we might have anticipated; the modern Arabs only employ it in frying fish (Burckhardt, Arabia , 1:54), but for all other purposes butter is substituted: among the Hebrews it was deemed an expensive luxury ( Proverbs 21:17), to be reserved for festive occasions ( 1 Chronicles 12:40); it was chiefly used in certain kinds of cake ( Leviticus 2:5 sq.;  1 Kings 17:12). "Oil and honey" are mentioned in conjunction with bread in  Ezekiel 16:13;  Ezekiel 16:19. The Syrians, especially the Jews, eat oil and honey ( Dibs ) mixed together (Russell, 1:80). Eggs are not often noticed, but were evidently known as articles of food ( Isaiah 10:14;  Isaiah 59:5;  Luke 11:12), and are reckoned by Jerome ( In Epitaph. Paul . 1:176) among the delicacies of the table. (See Honey); (See Oil).

The Orientals have been at all times sparing in the use of animal food; not only does the excessive heat of the climate render it both unwholesome to eat much meat (Niebuhr, Descript. p. 46), and expensive from the necessity of immediately consuming a whole animal, but beyond this the ritual regulations of the Mosaic law in ancient, as of the Koran in modern times, have tended to the same result. It has been inferred from  Genesis 9:3-4, that animal food was not permitted before the Flood; but the notices of the flock of Abel ( Genesis 4:2), and of the herds of Jabal ( Genesis 4:20), as well as the distinction, between clean and unclean animals ( Genesis 7:2), favor the opposite opinion; and the permission in  Genesis 9:3 may be held to be only a more explicit declaration of a condition implied in the grant of universal dominion previously given ( Genesis 1:28). The prohibition then expressed against consuming the blood of any animal ( Genesis 9:4) was more fully developed in the Levitical law, and enforced by the penalty of death ( Leviticus 3:17;  Leviticus 7:26;  Leviticus 19:26;  Deuteronomy 12:16;  1 Samuel 14:32 sq.;  Ezekiel 44:7;  Ezekiel 44:15), on the ground, as stated in  Leviticus 17:11, and  Deuteronomy 12:23, that the blood contained the principle of life, and, as such, was to be offered on the altar; probably there was an additional reason in the heathen practice of consuming blood in their sacrifices ( Psalms 16:4;  Ezekiel 33:25). The prohibition applied to strangers as well as Israelites, and to every kind of beast or fowl ( Leviticus 7:26;  Leviticus 17:12-13). So strong was the feeling of the Jews on this point, that the Gentile converts to Christianity were laid under similar restrictions ( Acts 15:20;  Acts 15:29;  Acts 21:25).

As a necessary deduction from the above principle, all animals which had died a natural death ( נְבֵלָה ,  Deuteronomy 14:21), or had been torn by beasts ( טְרֵפָה ,  Exodus 22:31), were also prohibited ( Leviticus 17:15; comp.  Ezekiel 4:14), and to be thrown to the dogs ( Exodus 22:31): this prohibition did not extend to strangers ( Deuteronomy 14:21). Any person infringing this rule was held unclean until the evening, and was obliged to wash his clothes ( Leviticus 17:15). In the N.T. these cases are described under the term Πνικτόν ( Acts 15:20), applying not only to what was Strangled (as in A. V.), but to any animal from which the blood was not regularly poured forth. Similar prohibitions are contained in the Koran (ii. 175; v. 4; 16:116), the result of which is that at the present day the Arabians eat no meat except what has been bought at the shambles. Certain portions of the Fat of sacrifices were also forbidden ( Leviticus 3:9-10), as being set apart for the altar ( Leviticus 3:16;  Leviticus 7:25; comp.  1 Samuel 2:16 sq.;  2 Chronicles 7:7): it should be observed that the term in  Nehemiah 8:10, translated Fat , is not חֵלֶב , but מִשְׁמִנַּים = the fatty pieces of meat, delicacies. In addition to the above, Christians were forbidden to eat the flesh of animals, portions of which had been offered to idols ( Εἰδωλόθυτα ), whether at private feasts or as bought in the market ( Acts 15:29;  Acts 21:25;  1 Corinthians 8:1 sq.). All beasts and birds classed as unclean ( Leviticus 11:1 sq.  Deuteronomy 14:4 sq.) were also prohibited, (See Animal); (See Bird); and in addition to these general precepts there was a special prohibition against seething a kid in his mother's milk" ( Exodus 23:19;  Exodus 34:26;  Deuteronomy 14:21), which has been variously understood, by Talmudical writers, as a general prohibition against the joint use of meat and milk (Mishna, Cholgn , cap. 8, § 1); by Michaelis (Mos. Recht, 4:210) as prohibiting the use of fat or milk, in comparison with oil, in cooking; by Luther and Calvin as prohibiting the slaughter of young animals; and by Bochart and others as discountenancing cruelty in any way. These interpretations, however, all fail in establishing any connection between the precept and the offering of the first-fruits, as implied in the three passages quoted. More probably it has reference to certain heathen usages at their harvest festivals (Maimonides, More Neboch. 3, 48; Spencer, De Legg. Hebr. Ritt. p. 535 sq.): there is a remarkable addition in the Samaritan version, and in some copies of the Sept. in  Deuteronomy 14:21, which supports this view; Ὃς Γὰρ Ποιεῖ Τοῦτο , Ὡσεὶ Ἀσπάλακα Θύσει , Ὅτι Μίασμά Ἐστι '''''Τ''''' '''''Ù''''' Θε Ù Ι᾿Ακώβ (comp. Knobel, Comment. in  Exodus 23:19). The Hebrews further abstained from eating the sinew of the hip ( גַּיד הִנָּשֶׁה ,  Genesis 32:32), in memory of the struggle between Jacob and the angel (comp.  Genesis 32:25). The Sept., the Vulg., and the A. V. interpret the Ἃπαξ Λεγόμενον word Nasheh of the shrinking or benumbing of the muscle ( Ἐνάρκησεν; Qui Emarcuit ; "which shrank"): Josephus (Ant. 1:20, 2) more correctly explains it as "the broad nerve" ( Τὸ Νεῦρον Τὸ Πλατύ ); and there is little doubt that the nerve he refers to is the Nervus Ischiadicus , which attains its greatest thickness at the hip. There is no further reference to this custom in the Bible; but the Talmudists ( Cholin , 7) enforced its observance by penalties. (See Meat).

Under these restrictions the Hebrews were permitted the free use of animal food: generally speaking, they only availed themselves of it in the exercise of hospitality ( Genesis 18:7), or at festivals of a religious ( Exodus 12:8), public ( 1 Kings 1:9;  1 Chronicles 12:40), or private character ( Genesis 27:4;  Luke 15:23); it was only in royal households that there was a daily consumption of meat ( 1 Kings 4:23; Nahum 5:18). The use of meat is reserved for similar occasions among the Bedouins (Burckhardt's Notes , 1:63). The animals killed for meat were calves ( Genesis 18:7;  1 Samuel 28:24;  Amos 6:4), which are farther described by the term Fatling ( מְרַיא = Μόσχος Σιτευτός ,  Luke 15:23, and Σιτιστόν ,  Matthew 22:4;  2 Samuel 6:13;  1 Kings 1:9 sq.; A. V. "fat cattle"); lambs ( 2 Samuel 12:4;  Amos 6:4); oxen, not above three years of age ( 1 Kings 1:9;  Proverbs 15:17;  Isaiah 22:13;  Matthew 22:4), which were either stall-fed ( בְּרַאַים ; Sept. Μ Σχοι Ἐκλεκτοί ), or taken up from the pastures ( רְעַי ; Scpt. Βόες Νομάδες ;  1 Kings 4:23); kids ( Genesis 27:9;  Judges 6:19;  1 Samuel 16:20); harts, roebucks, and fallow-deer ( 1 Kings 4:23), which are also brought into close connection with ordinary cattle in  Deuteronomy 14:5, as though holding an intermediate place between tame and wild animals; birds of various kinds ( צַפַּרַים ; Auth. Ver. "fowls;"  Nehemiah 5:18; the Sept., however, gives Χίμαρος , as though the reading were צְפַּירַים ); quail in certain parts of Arabia ( Exodus 16:13;  Numbers 11:32); poultry ( בִּרְבֻּרַים ;  1 Kings 4:23; understood generally by the Sept. Ρνίθων Ἐκλεκτῶν Σιτευτά ; by Kimchi and the A. V. as "fatted fowl;" by Gesenius, Thesaur. p. 246, as geese, from the whiteness of their plumage; by Thenius, Comm. in loc., as Guinea-fowls, as though the word represented the call of that bird); partridges ( 1 Samuel 26:20); fish, with the exception of such as were without scales and fins ( Leviticus 11:9;  Deuteronomy 14:9), both salted, as was probably the case with the sea- fish brought to Jerusalem ( Nehemiah 13:16), and fresh ( Matthew 14:19;  Matthew 15:36;  Luke 24:42): in our Savior's time it appears to have been the usual food about the Sea of Galilee ( Matthew 7:10); the term Ψάριον is applied to it by John ( John 6:9;  John 21:9 sq.) in the restricted sense which the word obtained among the later Greeks, as = fish. Locusts, of which certain species only were esteemed clean ( Leviticus 11:22), were occasionally eaten ( Matthew 3:4), but considered as poor fare. They are at the present day largely consumed by the poor both in Persia (Morier's Second Journey , p. 44) and in Arabia (Niebuhr, Voyage , 1:319); they are salted and dried, and roasted, when required, on a frying-pan with butter (Burckhardt's Notes , 2:92; Niebuhr, 1. c.). (See Locust).

Meat does not appear ever to have been eaten by itself; various accompaniments are noticed in Scripture, as bread, milk, and sour milk ( Genesis 18:8); bread and broth ( Judges 6:19); and with fish either bread ( Matthew 14:19;  Matthew 15:36;  John 21:9) or honeycomb ( Luke 24:42): the instance in  2 Samuel 6:19 cannot be relied on, as the term אֶשְׁפָּר , rendered in the A. V. a good piece of flesh, after the Vulg., assatura bibulae carnis, means simply a portion or measure, and may apply to wine as well as meat. For the modes of preparing meat, (See Cooking); and for the times and manner of eating, MEALS; (See Fish), (See Fowl), etc.

To pass from ordinary to occasional sources of subsistence: prison diet consisted of bread and water administered in small quantities ( 1 Kings 22:27;  Jeremiah 37:21); pulse and water was considered but little better ( Daniel 1:12): in time of sorrow or fasting it was usual to abstain either altogether from food ( 2 Samuel 12:17;  2 Samuel 12:20), or from meat, wine, and other delicacies, which were described as לֶחֶם חֲמוּדוֹת , literally bread of desires ( Daniel 10:3). In time of extreme famine the most loathsome food was swallowed, such as an ass's head ( 2 Kings 6:25), the ass, it must be remembered, being an unclean animal (for a parallel case, comp. Plutarch, Artaxerx. 24), and dove's dung (see the article on that subject), the dung of cattle (Josephus, War, 5:13, 7), and even possibly their own dung ( 2 Kings 18:27). The consumption of human flesh was not altogether unknown ( 2 Kings 6:28; comp. Josephus, War, 6:3, 4), the passages quoted supplying instances of the exact fulfillment of the prediction in  Deuteronomy 28:56-57; comp. also  Lamentations 2:20;  Lamentations 4:10;  Ezekiel 5:10. (See Food).

With regard to the beverages used by the Hebrews, we have already mentioned milk, and the probable use of barley-water, and of a mixture, resembling the modern sherbet, formed of fig-cake and water. Tho Hebrews probably resembled the Arabs in not drinking much during their meals, but concluding them with a long draught of water. It is almost needless to say that water was most generally drunk. In addition to these, the Hebrews were acquainted with various intoxicating liquors, the most valued of which was the juice of the grape, while others were described under the general term of shekar, or strong drink ( Leviticus 10:9;  Numbers 6:3;  Judges 13:4;  Judges 13:7), if, indeed, the latter does not sometimes include the former ( Numbers 28:7). These were reserved for the wealthy, or for festive occasions; the poor consumed a sour wine (A.V. "vinegar;"  Ruth 2:14;  Matthew 27:48), calculated to quench thirst, but not agreeable to the taste ( Proverbs 10:26). (See Beverage).

The Nuttall Encyclopedia [6]

A convention of the princes, dignitaries, and delegates of the German empire, for legislative or administrative purposes, of which the most important in a historical point of view are diets held at Augsburg in 1518, at Worms in 1521, at Nüremberg in 1523,1524, at Spires in 1526,1529, at Augsburg in 1530, at Cologne in 1530, at Worms in 1536, at Frankfort in 1539, at Ratisbon in 1541, at Spires in 1544, at Augsburg in 1547,1548, 1550, and at Ratisbon in 1622.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [7]

dı̄´et ארחה 'ăruḥāh  Jeremiah 52:34  2 Kings 25:30