Seasons

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Morrish Bible Dictionary [1]

When God created the lights in the firmament He said, "Let them be for signs and for seasons," and it is well known that the different seasons on the earth are in great measure caused by the days being longer or shorter, and thus having more or less of the heat of the sun. After the flood, God declared that while the earth remained the seasons should continue,  Genesis 8:22 these fall approximately thus:

1. Seed-time }

3. Cold } falling in October to March.

6. Winter }

2. Harvest }

4. Heat } falling in April to September.

5. Summer }

These seasons must overlap each other in Palestine, and are somewhat different in the hill country from what they are in the plains and valleys. Seed-time follows what was called 'the early rain,' in October and November, and continues till January. Harvest commences in sheltered places as early as the beginning of April: in the hill country it is a month later; and in the north it extends to the end of July. The rains of November clothe the fields with grass. In January oranges, citrons, and lemons are ripening. In February and March, apple, pear, plum, and apricot trees are in blossom. During May, in some places, apricots and melons are ripe. In June, figs, cherries, and plums begin to ripen, but August is the chief month for fruit. The vintage extends through September. In August the great heat begins to dry up the vegetation, and it gradually changes the whole scene into what appears to be a dry and barren land; but the early rains soon show that it is only the surface that is parched.

In places there are masses of choice wild flowers, and where the land is well cultivated, it is now, as formerly, very productive. "Twenty thousand measures of wheat" year by year were sent to Hiram in exchange for timber.  1 Kings 5:11 . Wheat, honey, oil and balm were sent to Tyre as merchandise.  Ezekiel 27:17 . Barley also is produced plentifully.

The Jewish Calendar here given follows the order usually found in books of reference, but the climate and seasons have somewhat altered. Some of the names of the months apparently point to the time of the year in which they fell. Thus Abib signifies 'budding' or 'ear of corn'; Zif, 'blossom'; and Bul , 'rain.' See Months and RAIN.

Jewish Calendar And Its Antitypes

Tammuz and Ab are not mentioned in scripture. The names in italic are used by Josephus and others.

Easton's Bible Dictionary [2]

 Genesis 8:22

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [3]

sē´z ' nz (summer: קיץ , ḳayic , Chaldaic קיט , ḳayiṭ (  Daniel 2:35 ); (θέρος , théros  ; winter: סתו , ṣethāw ) ( Song of Solomon 2:11 ), (חרף , ḥōreph  ; χειμών , cheimṓn ): The four seasons in Palestine are not so marked as in more northern countries, summer gradually fading into winter and winter into summer. The range of temperature is not great. In the Bible we have no reference to spring or autumn; the only seasons mentioned are "summer and winter" ( Genesis 8:22;  Psalm 74:17;  Zechariah 14:8 ).

Winter is the season of rain lasting from November to May. "The winter is past; the rain is over" ( Song of Solomon 2:11 ). See Rain . The temperature at sealevel in Palestine reaches freezing-point occasionally, but seldom is less than 40ø F. On the hills and mountains it is colder, depending on the height. The people have no means of heating their houses, and suffer much with the cold. They wrap up their necks and heads and keep inside the houses out of the wind as much as possible. "The sluggard will not plow by reason of the winter" ( Proverbs 20:4 ). Jesus in speaking of the destruction of Jerusalem says, "Pray ye that your flight be not in the winter" ( Matthew 24:20 ). Paul asks Timothy to "come before winter" ( 2 Timothy 4:21 ) as navigation closed then and travel was virtually impossible.

Summer is very hot and rainless. "(When) the fig tree ... putteth forth its leaves, ye know that the summer is nigh" ( Mark 13:28 ); "The harvest is past, the summer is ended" ( Jeremiah 8:20 ). It is the season of harvesting and threshing ( Daniel 2:35 ). "He that gathereth in summer is a wise son" ( Proverbs 10:5 ). See Cold; Heat; Astronomy , I, 5.

References