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Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [1]

A — 1: Καύσων (Strong'S #2742 — Noun Masculine — kauson — kow'-sone )

denotes "a burning heat" (from kaio, "to burn;" cp. Eng., "caustic," "cauterize"),  Matthew 20:12;  Luke 12:55 (AV, "heat"), RV, in each place, "scorching heat" (marg. "hot wind"); in   James 1:11 , "a burning heat," AV, RV, "the scorching wind" like the sirocco. Cp.  Amos 4:9 , where the Sept. has purosis, "burning" (pur, "fire"). See Burning.

A — 2: Καῦμα (Strong'S #2738 — Noun Neuter — kauma — kow'-mah )

"heat" (akin to No. 1), signifies "the result of burning," or "the heat produced,"  Revelation 7:16;  16:9; cp. kaumatizo, "to scorch," kausis, "burning," kauteriazomai, "to brand, sear."

A — 3: Θέρμη (Strong'S #2329 — Noun Feminine — therme — ther'-may )

denotes "warmth, heat,"  Acts 28:3 (Eng., "thermal," etc.).

B — 1: Καυσόω (Strong'S #2741 — Verb — kausoo — kow-so'-o )

was used as a medical term, of "a fever;" in the NT, "to burn with great heat" (akin to A, No. 1), said of the future destruction of the natural elements,  2—Peter 3:10,12 , "with fervent heat," Passive Voice, lit., "being burned."

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [2]

HEAT ( καύσων),  Matthew 20:12,  Luke 12:55; Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘scorching heat,’ with marg. ‘hot wind.’ καύσων in LXX Septuagint has both meanings: (1) scorching heat ( Genesis 31:40,  Isaiah 49:10,  Sirach 18:16;  Sirach 43:22); (2) the east wind (קָדִים), hot, dry, dust-laden, withering up all vegetation, and blowing from the desert, like the simoom ( Job 27:21,  Jeremiah 18:17,  Ezekiel 17:10;  Ezekiel 19:12,  Jonah 4:8,  Hosea 13:15), usually ἄνεμος or πνεῦμα καύσων. Authorized Version gives ‘burning heat,’ and Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘scorching wind’ in  James 1:11.

The first meaning seems preferable in  Matthew 20:12, though Trench ( Parables ) and others incline to (Revised Version margin). ‘Onus intrinsecus, a labore; aestum extrinsecus, a sole’ (Bengel).  Luke 12:55 belongs to a class of passages based on the observation of natural phenomena; cf.  Matthew 5:45;  Matthew 7:24 f.,  Matthew 24:27,  Luke 10:18,  John 3:8;  John 12:24. Here also the rendering ‘scorching heat’ is the more usual, and seems to agree better than ‘hot wind’ or ‘east wind’ with the mention of the south wind (νότος) which immediately precedes. Possibly, however, the distinction was not so clearly marked between these two winds, since in  Ezekiel 27:26 קָדִים (east wind) is translated in LXX Septuagint by τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ νότου.

The only reference in the Gospels to heat for the purpose of warmth is  John 18:18 ‘a fire of coals’ (ἀνθρακιάν), i.e. ‘of charcoal’ (Revised Version margin), coals having probably still this meaning at the time of the Authorized Version. See Wind.

Literature.—Grimm-Thayer, Lex. s.v. καύσων; Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible, and Encyc. Bibl . art. ‘Wind’; Thomson, Land and Book , pp. 295, 536 f.

W. H. Dundas.

Webster's Dictionary [3]

(1): ( n.) Agitation of mind; inflammation or excitement; exasperation.

(2): ( n.) High temperature, as distinguished from low temperature, or cold; as, the heat of summer and the cold of winter; heat of the skin or body in fever, etc.

(3): ( n.) Sexual excitement in animals.

(4): ( n.) Fermentation.

(5): ( n.) A violent action unintermitted; a single effort; a single course in a race that consists of two or more courses; as, he won two heats out of three.

(6): ( n.) Indication of high temperature; appearance, condition, or color of a body, as indicating its temperature; redness; high color; flush; degree of temperature to which something is heated, as indicated by appearance, condition, or otherwise.

(7): ( n.) A single complete operation of heating, as at a forge or in a furnace; as, to make a horseshoe in a certain number of heats.

(8): ( n.) A force in nature which is recognized in various effects, but especially in the phenomena of fusion and evaporation, and which, as manifested in fire, the sun's rays, mechanical action, chemical combination, etc., becomes directly known to us through the sense of feeling. In its nature heat is a mode if motion, being in general a form of molecular disturbance or vibration. It was formerly supposed to be a subtile, imponderable fluid, to which was given the name caloric.

(9): ( v. t.) To excite or make hot by action or emotion; to make feverish.

(10): ( v. t.) To excite ardor in; to rouse to action; to excite to excess; to inflame, as the passions.

(11): ( v. i.) To grow warm or hot by the action of fire or friction, etc., or the communication of heat; as, the iron or the water heats slowly.

(12): ( v. i.) To grow warm or hot by fermentation, or the development of heat by chemical action; as, green hay heats in a mow, and manure in the dunghill.

(13): ( imp. & p. p.) Heated; as, the iron though heat red-hot.

(14): ( n.) The sensation caused by the force or influence of heat when excessive, or above that which is normal to the human body; the bodily feeling experienced on exposure to fire, the sun's rays, etc.; the reverse of cold.

(15): ( n.) Animation, as in discourse; ardor; fervency.

(16): ( n.) Utmost violence; rage; vehemence; as, the heat of battle or party.

(17): ( v. t.) To make hot; to communicate heat to, or cause to grow warm; as, to heat an oven or furnace, an iron, or the like.

King James Dictionary [4]

HEAT, n. L. aestus, for haestus, or caestus.

1. Heat, as a cause of sensation, that is, the matter of heat, is considered to be a subtil fluid, contained in a greater or less degree in all bodies. In modern chimistry, it is called caloric. It expands all bodies in different proportions, and is the cause of fluidity and evaporation. A certain degree of it is also essential to animal and vegetable life. Heat is latent, when so combined with other matter as not to be perceptible. It is sensible, when it is evolved and perceptible. 2. Heat, as a sensation, is the effect produced on the sentient organs of animals, by the passage of caloric, disengaged from surrounding bodies, to the organs. When we touch or approach a hot body, the caloric or heat passes from that body to our organs of feeling, and gives the sensation of heat. On the contrary, when we touch a cold body, the caloric passes from the hand to that body, and causes a sensation of cold.

Note. This theory of heat seems not to be fully settled.

3. Hot air hot weather as the heat of the tropical climates. 4. Any accumulation or concentration of the matter of heat or caloric as the heat of the body the heat of a furnace a red heat a white heat a welding heat. 5. The state of being once heated or hot.

Give the iron another heat.

6. A violent action unintermitted a single effort.

Many causes are required for refreshment between the heats.

7. A single effort in running a course at a race. Hector won at the first heat. 8. Redness of the face flush. 9. Animal excitement violent action or agitation of the system. The body is all in a heat. 10. Utmost violence rage vehemence as the heat of battle. 11. Violence ardor as the heat of party. 12. Agitation of mind inflammation or excitement exasperation as the heat of passion. 13. Ardor fervency animation in thought or discourse.

With all the strength and heat of eloquence.

14. Fermentation.

Heat, L odi, osus, for hodi, hosus L aestus, for haestus, heat, tide Gr. to burn, and the English haste and hoist are probably of the same family.

1. To make hot to communicate heat to, or cause to be hot as, to heat an oven or a furnace to heat iron. 2. To make feverish as, to heat the blood. 3. To warm with passion or desire to excite to rouse into action.

A noble emulation heats your breast.

4. To agitate the blood and spirits with action to excite animal action.

HEAT, To grow warm or hot by fermentation, or extrication of latent heat.

Green hay heats in a mow, and green corn in a bin.

1. To grow warm or hot. The iron or the water heats slowly.

HEAT, for heated, is in popular use and pronounced het but it is not elegant.

Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types [5]

 Ecclesiastes 4:11 (c) This type is used to represent the fact that whether it be in the service of the Lord, in the duties of the church, or in any other enterprise, it is better for two to work together for they will encourage each other, assist and help each other to be enthusiastic in the work.

 Jeremiah 17:8 (b) We learn from this that those whose faith is founded on the Word of GOD, and whose lives are controlled by the Spirit of GOD, will be constantly radiant and zealous for the Lord, even though very adverse conditions may arise.

 Ezekiel 3:14 (a) Here we find a type of anger, bitterness and hatred.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [6]

hēt ( חם , ḥōm , הרב , hōrebh , "drought,"   Job 30:30;  Isaiah 4:6;  Isaiah 25:4;  Jeremiah 36:30; שרב , shārābh ,  Isaiah 49:10 , translated in the Revised Version margin "mirage"; ζεστός , zestós , "fervent,"  Revelation 3:15 , θέρμη , thérmē ,  Acts 28:3 , καῦμα , kaúma ,  Revelation 7:16 , καύσων , kaúsōn ,  Matthew 20:12; see Mirage ):

The heat of the summer is greatly dreaded in Palestine, and as a rule the people rest under cover during the middle of the day, when the sun is hottest. There is no rain from May to October, and scarcely a cloud in the sky to cool the air or to screen off the burning vertical rays of the sun. The first word of advice given to visitors to the country is to protect themselves from the sun. Even on the mountains, where the temperature of the air is lower, the sun is perhaps more fierce, owing to the lesser density of the atmosphere.

This continuous summer heat often causes sunstroke, and the glare causes diseases of the eye which affect a large percentage of the people of Palestine and Egypt.

It is to be expected that in these times of heat and drought the ideal pleasure has come to be to sit in the shade by some cool flowing fountain. In the mountains the village which has the coolest spring of water is the most desired. These considerations give renewed meaning to the passages: "as cold waters to a thirsty soul" ( Proverbs 25:25 ); "He maketh me to lie down in green pastures; he leadeth me beside still waters" ( Psalm 23:2 ). What a blessing to be "under the shadow of the Almighty" ( Psalm 91:1 ), where "the sun shall not strike upon them, nor any heat" ( Revelation 7:16 )!

The middle of the day is often referred to as the "heat of the day" ( 1 Samuel 11:11 ). It made a great difference to the army whether it could win the battle before the midday heat. Saladin won the great battle at Hattin by taking advantage of this fact. It was a particular time of the day when it was the custom to rest. "They came about the heat of the day to the house of Ish-bosheth, as he took his rest at noon" ( 2 Samuel 4:5 ). Yahweh appeared to Abraham as "he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day" ( Genesis 18:1 ). The hardship of working throughout the day is expressed in  Matthew 20:12 , "who have borne the burden of the day and scorching heat." Sometimes just after sunrise the contrast of the cold of night and the heat of the sun is especially noticeable. "The sun ariseth with the scorching wind" ( James 1:11 ).

In summer the wind is usually from the Southwest, but in case it is from the South it is sure to be hot. "When ye see a south wind blowing, ye say, There will be a scorching heat" ( Luke 12:55 ). The heat on a damp, sultry day, when the atmosphere is full of dust haze is especially oppressive, and is referred to in  Isaiah 25:5 as "the heat by the shade of a cloud." The heat of summer melts the snow on the mountains and causes all vegetation to dry up and wither. Ice and snow vanish in the heat thereof (  Job 6:17 ), "Drought and heat consume the snow waters" ( Job 24:19 ). But the "tree planted by the waters, that spreadeth out its roots by the river ... shall not fear when heat cometh, but its leaf shall be green" ( Jeremiah 17:8 ).

The word is used often in connection with anger in the Scriptures: "hot anger" ( Exodus 11:8 ); "hot displeasure" ( Deuteronomy 9:19 ); "anger of the Lord was hot against Israel" ( Judges 2:14 the King James Version); "thine anger from waxing hot" (  Psalm 85:3 King James Version, margin); "I know thy works, that thou art neither cold nor hot" (  Revelation 3:15 ).

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [7]

(usually חֹם ,'Chom, הִמָּה , Chammah', or חֵמָה Chemah'), besides its ordinary meaning, has several peculiar uses in Scripture. In  Isaiah 49:10, and  Revelation 7:16, there is a reference to the burning wind of the desert, the Simoom or Samiel, described by travelers as exceedingly pestilential and fatal. It is highly probable that this was the instrument with which God destroyed the army of Sennacherib ( 2 Kings 19:7;  2 Kings 19:35). Its effects are evidently alluded to in  Psalms 103:15-16, and in  Jeremiah 4:11. Thevenot mentions such a wind, which in q658 suffocated 20,000 men in one night, and another which in 1655 suffocated 4000 persons. It sometimes burns up the corn when near its maturity, and hence the image of "corn blasted before it be grown up," used in  2 Kings 19:26. Its effect is not only to render the air extremely hot and scorching, but to fill it with poisonous and suffocating vapors. The most violent storms that Judaea was subject to came from the deserts of Arabia. "Out of the South cometh the whirlwind," says Job ( Job 37:9); "And there came a great wind from The Wilderness" ( Job 1:19).  Zechariah 9:14 : "And Jehovah shall appear over them, and his arrow shall go forth as the lightning; and the Lord Jehovah shall sound the trumpet, and shall march in the whirlwinds of the south." The 91st Psalm, which speaks of divine protection, describes the plague as arrows, and in those winds there are observed flashes of fire. In  Numbers 13:3, the place in which the plague was inflicted upon the Israelites is for that reason called Taberah, i.e. a burning. A plague is called דֶּבֶר , Deber', as a desert is called מַדנְבָּר , Midbar', because those winds came from the desert, and are real plagues. This Hot Wind, when used as a symbol, signifies the fire Of Persecution, or else some prodigious wars which destroy men. For Wind signifies War; and Scorching Heat signifies persecution and Destruction. So in  Matthew 13:6;  Matthew 13:21, and  Luke 8:6-13, Heat is tribulation, temptation, or persecution; and in  1 Peter 4:12, Burning tends to temptation. A gentle heat of the sun, according to the Oriental interpreters, signifies the favor and bounty of the prince; but great heat denotes punishment. Hence the burning of the heavens is a portent explained in Livy (3, 5) of slaughter. Thus in  Psalms 121:6 : "The sun shall not smite thee by day, nor the moon by night," is in the next place explained thus, "Jehovah shall preserve thee from all evil; he shall preserve thy soul." (See Fire).