From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types [1]

 Psalm 32:4 (a) This describes the depressing condition of David's heart, and the lack of joy in his soul.

 Proverbs 10:5 (b) This figure is used to urge GOD's people to serve Him actively and efficiently while opportunities abound. It is because there will come a day when either old age or external conditions will make it impossible or permissible to serve Him. (See also  Proverbs 6:8;  Proverbs 30:25).

 Proverbs 26:1 (a) Here we see a figure which shows that things may be as incongruous in society as they are in the elements.

 Jeremiah 8:20 (b) By this picture in nature we see a wonderful truth in human life. In the summer, crops are produced, the fruit ripens, and at the end of summer they are gathered. The grain is saved, but the stubble, chaff and weeds are left in the field to be destroyed. So it is in life. The harvest day is coming, the summertime of opportunity will be ended, and some will be left outside the door because they are of no value to GOD.

 Matthew 24:32 (b) This is a picture of those blessed days that will exist when Israel will be restored as a nation, and like the fig tree will again bear fruit for GOD. (See also  Mark 13:28;  Luke 21:30).

King James Dictionary [2]

SUM'MER, n. One who casts up an account.

SUM'MER, n. With us, the season of the year comprehended in the months June, July and August during which time, the sun being north of the equator, shines more directly upon this part of the earth, which, together with the increased length of the days, renders this the hottest period of the year. In latitudes south of the equator, just the opposite takes place, or it is summer there when it is winter here.

The entire year is also sometimes divided into summer and winter, the former signifying the warmer and the latter the colder part of the year.

SUM'MER, To pass the summer or warm season.

The fowls shall summer upon them.  Isaiah 18

SUM'MER, To keep warm. Little used.


1. A large stone, the first that is laid over columns and pilasters, beginning to make a cross vault or a stone laid over a column, and hollowed to receive the first haunce of a platband. 2. A large timber supported on two stone piers or posts, serving as a lintel to a door or window, &c. 3. A large timber or beam laid as a central floor timber, inserted into the girders, and receiving the ends of the joists and supporting them. This timber is seen in old buildings in America and in France. In America, it is wholly laid aside. It is called in England summer-tree.

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [3]

Summer ( θέρος,  Matthew 24:32,  Mark 13:28,  Luke 21:30).—This term stands in the Gospels for the time of heat as distinguished from χειμών, the season of cold and rain-storms. These terms indicate the great division of the year in the East. Scripture has no special words for ‘spring’ and ‘autumn’; and while the Arab speaks of er-rabîʿa , ‘the time of fresh pasture,’ and el-kharîf , ‘the time of gathering’ of grapes and other fruits, they are hardly regarded as distinct seasons. Saif wa shitta ’, ‘summer and winter,’ sum up the year for him. When, in the less frequent showers of early April, the fig-leaves burst out and cover the immature fruit on the twigs, the days of cloudless sunshine are ‘at hand.’ These last from April, through the harvest in the end of May, the threshing and winnowing that follow, and the gathering of the fruits in August and September, until the clouds of October herald the coming of rains and cold.

W. Ewing.

Webster's Dictionary [4]

(1): ( v. t.) To keep or carry through the summer; to feed during the summer; as, to summer stock.

(2): ( n.) A large stone or beam placed horizontally on columns, piers, posts, or the like, serving for various uses. Specifically: (a) The lintel of a door or window. (b) The commencement of a cross vault. (c) A central floor timber, as a girder, or a piece reaching from a wall to a girder. Called also summertree.

(3): ( v. i.) To pass the summer; to spend the warm season; as, to summer in Switzerland.

(4): ( v.) One who sums; one who casts up an account.

(5): ( n.) The season of the year in which the sun shines most directly upon any region; the warmest period of the year.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [5]

1: Θέρος (Strong'S #2330 — Noun Neuter — theros — ther'-os )

akin to thero, "to heat," occurs in  Matthew 24:32;  Mark 13:28;  Luke 21:30 .

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [6]

See Canaan .

Morrish Bible Dictionary [7]

See Seasons

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [8]

is the invariable rendering in the A..V. of the Heb. קִיַוֹ , Kayits (Chaid. קִיַט , Kayit,  Daniel 2:35; New Test. Θέρος , Heat), which properly signifies Harvest of fruits (not of grain, which is קָצַיר ), strictly the Cutting-Off Of the fruit ( Isaiah 16:9;  Jeremiah 8:20;  Jeremiah 48:32); specially Fig-Harvest, which in Palestine takes place in August, although the early figs ( בּכּוּרַים ) ripen at the summer solstice ( Isaiah 28:4;  Micah 7:1); hence the harvest-time of figs, i.e. summer, especially Midsummer, the hottest season ( Psalms 32:4; the droughts of summer,  Proverbs 6:8;  Proverbs 10:5;  Proverbs 26:1; the summerhouse,  Amos 3:15); also fruit, specially figs, as harvested ( Amos 8:1-2; comp.  Jeremiah 24:1 sq.). (See Agriculture); (See Fig); (See Harvest); (See Palestine); (See Season).

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [9]

sum´ẽr ( קיץ , ḳayic  ; Aramaic קיט , ḳayiṭ (  Daniel 2:35 ), from קוּץ , ḳūc קוּט , ḳūṭ , "to cut off," "to pluck or gather fruit," hence, the time of fruit, summer ( 2 Samuel 16:1 ,  2 Samuel 16:2;  Jeremiah 40:10 ,  Jeremiah 40:12 ); θέρος , théros ( Matthew 24:32;  Luke 21:30 )): The Hebrew verb, mentioned above, occurs in  Isaiah 18:6 , "to summer," used of the ravenous birds feeding upon carcasses of the slain. The term "summer parlor" in  Judges 3:20 (compare   Judges 3:24 ) is literally, "upper room," and is so rendered in the Revised Version (British and American). The summer was the dry season extending from April to October when usually no rain falls. Hence, the "drought of summer" ( Psalm 32:4 ). See Seasons .

Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [10]