From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology [1]

Palestine lacks fresh water rivers and lakes and its dependence upon rain after its yearly hot, dry period makes drought an ongoing possibility. In view of frequently occurring shortages of water, thirst and drinking are of particular significance in the Scriptures. The act of drinking as well as the object of drink became powerful metaphors in Scripture. Drink is used figuratively to symbolize participation in a number of Acts or relationships, the reception (internalization) of a belief or teaching, or the sustenance needed to live.

Participation in and Sustenance of the Spiritual Life . Drink can be used metaphorically for that which sustains the spiritual life. Stemming from the fundamental fact that one needs to drink liquids in order to sustain life, drink used figuratively can speak of a consciousness that one does not live by physical elements alone but ultimately by spiritual nourishment from God. In  Isaiah 55:1-5 the exiles are summoned to return and to be restored by satisfying their spiritual thirst. Against the physical background of Palestine, where drought was too often a reality and the need for drink to quench the thirst a necessity, the desire for God is spoken of as a "thirst" that God alone could satisfy (  Psalm 42:1-2;  63:1;  143:6 ). Here "to drink" is to take the salvation offered by grace alone and to live by it.  Amos 8:11 speaks figuratively of a famine or thirst for the Word of God that can be quenched only if God wills.

The phrases "drink from your river of delights" ( Psalm 36:8 ) and "spring of living water" ( Jeremiah 2:13 ) may well be sources of the title "river of the water of life" that flows from the temple of God, creating so many joys ( Ezekiel 47:1-12;  Revelation 22:1-2 ). As well the metaphors of "cup" and "well of salvation" ( Psalm 116:13;  Isaiah 12:3 ) are used to express the deliverance and goodness of the Lord. Spiritual participation with the true God brings not a mere existence but a life of joy and an experience of the goodness of God.

In the New Testament Christ invites people to drink the water that will "become in him a spring of water welling up to eternal life" ( John 4:14 ). While the water here is designated as eternal life, in  John 7:38-39 the drinking of "living water" is related to the Spirit who would be given after Christ was glorified. In the final chapter of the Bible the same invitation to participate in the eternal life of Christ and the Spirit is given. "The Spirit and the bride say, Come!' And let him who hears say, Come!' Whoever is thirsty, let him come; and whoever wishes, let him take the free gift of the water of life" (  Revelation 22:17; cf.  Revelation 21:6 ). This drinking of the water of life is parallel to eating the bread of life ( John 6:27,50-51 ). In another metaphor John records the words of Christ "unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you. Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day" ( John 6:53-54 ). Here Christ is again seen as the source of life; the appropriation of himself as God's appointed sacrifice is needed for eternal life.

Drinking Together as Denoting Fellowship . Drinking takes on a deeper significance when, often along with eating, it expresses the fellowship and unity that exist among those who share a meal. Because drinking together denotes fellowship and acceptance there will be those who will call upon the fact that they have eaten and drunk with Jesus to claim a place at his side in eternity ( Luke 13:16 ). But Jesus will reply that he never knew them ( Luke 13:27 ). Fellowship, while symbolized by drinking together, must be based on something greater.

Drink can in fact be a metaphor for consummation or initiation of a relationship. Israel eats and drinks before God at Sinai in a covenant meal celebrating the sealing of the Mosaic covenant ( Exodus 24:11 ). This meal that includes the act of drinking may foreshadow the Lord's Supper, which celebrates the new covenant sealed by Christ's death ( 1 Corinthians 11:25-26 ).

This symbolic meaning of fellowship also lies behind  Luke 5:30; by eating with sinners the disciples, like Jesus, stand on their side. Luke brings an important qualification by inserting the words "to repentance, " for true fellowship must be based on more than the mere physical act of drinking and eating together ( Luke 5:32 ).

Drink as Sacrifice . Perhaps owing to its life-giving qualities and that it was seen as a blessing of God ( Genesis 27:28 ), wine was designated as a form of daily sacrifice to the Lord called the drink offering ( Exodus 29:38-41 ). Paul uses the drink offering to symbolize the possibility of his life being given ("poured out") as a sacrifice upon or accompanying the sacrificial service of the Philippians ( Philippians 2:17 ). Though this may refer to his entire ministry it may be best to see it as referring to his death if he is killed as a martyr.

Even the water that David's mighty men had obtained from the well at Bethlehem at dire risk to their lives was viewed so dearly by David that he would not drink it but poured it out as an offering to God ( 2 Samuel 23:13-17 ). He regarded the drink as "the blood of men who went at the risk of their lives" (v. 17).

Drink as Symbolic of Acceptance of God's Will . Drink is used symbolically of Christ's acceptance of God's will. In  John 18:11 , when referring to his willingness to suffer God's judgment on man's behalf, Jesus asks Peter the question "Shall I not drink the cup the Father has given me?" Jesus was prepared to suffer the judgment of God as payment for humankind's sin as part of his acceptance of god's will ( Matthew 26:42 ).

The suffering of the disciples, though not for God's judgment on humankind's sin but as a participation in Christ's suffering, is referred to by the figure of speech "drink the cup" ( Matthew 20:22-23 ). To "drink the cup of suffering" is to experience and take to oneself the suffering sent by God ( Mark 10:38 ). Their following Christ will necessitate an experiencing of suffering (v. 39).

Participation in Killing . Killing one's enemies is spoken of figuratively as a lion that "drinks the blood of his victims" ( Numbers 23:24 ). "To drink blood" is a figure for killing ( Isaiah 49:26; cf.  Revelation 16:6;  17:6 ) taken from the actions of beast of prey ( Numbers 23:24;  Ezekiel 39:17-18 ). On the day of the Lord's vengeance the sword "will devour till it is satisfied, till it has quenched its thirst with blood" ( Jeremiah 46:10 ). Battles often use the imagery of sacrifice including "drinking of blood" ( Isaiah 34:5-7;  Ezekiel 39:17-18 ).

Participation in Evil . Evildoing is spoken of as "drinking up evil" ( Job 15:16 ). This is especially true of violence ( Proverbs 4:17;  26:6 ). This drinking seems to be symbolic of the sinner's habitual participation and internalization of all kinds of evil.

Reception of God's Judgment . Drink can stand for the way God's judgment comes to men as the "cup of God's wrath." The sinful will "drink" of this wrath, symbolic of their reception and suffering of God's judgment ( Job 21:20;  Isaiah 51:17,22 ). The image of drinking expresses the fact that those smitten by it execute the judgment on themselves by their own Acts. This cup of wrath is often referred to also as a "cup of wine" and therefore experiencing God's judgment is compared to becoming drunk ( Psalm 75:8;  Revelation 14:10;  16:19 ). It is the fate of ungodly nations in particular ( Psalm 60:3,75:8;  Isaiah 29:9;  63:6;  Jeremiah 25:15-16;  Lamentations 4:21;  Ezekiel 23:32-34;  Habakkuk 2:16;  Zechariah 12:2 ). However in  Jeremiah 8:14;  9:14 , and 23:15, God is said to give poisoned water to his own people, referring to the bitter punishment they are being called to bear.

Drink Used to Refer to Sexual Relationships . "To drink water from one's own cistern" means to ensure that your wife is the source of your sexual pleasure, as water refreshes a thirsty man ( Proverbs 5:15 ). In this case drink is used symbolically to mean "appease desire."

Stephen J. Bramer

Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words [2]

Shâthâh ( שָׁתָה , Strong'S #8354), “to drink.” This verb appears in nearly every Semitic language, although in biblical Aramaic it is not attested as a verb (the noun form michetteh does appear). Biblical Hebrew attests shâthâh at every period and about 215 times.

This verb primarily means “to drink” or “to consume a liquid,” and is used of inanimate subjects, as well as of persons or animals. The verb shâqâh which is closely related to shâthâh in meaning, often appears both with animate and inanimate subjects. The first occurrence of shâthâh reports that Noah “drank of the wine, and was drunken” (Gen. 9:21). Animals also “drink”: “I will draw water for thy camels also, until they have done drinking” (Gen. 24:19). God says He does not “drink the blood of goats” (Ps. 50:13).

“To drink a cup” is a metaphor for consuming all that a cup may contain (Isa. 51:17). Not only liquids may be drunk, since shâthâh is used figuratively of “drinking” iniquity: “How much more abominable and filthy is man, which drinketh iniquity like water?” (Job 15:16). Only infrequently is this verb used of inanimate subjects, as in Deut. 11:11: “But the land, whither ye go to possess it … drinketh water of the rain of heaven.…”

Shâthâh may also be used of the initial act of “taking in” a liquid: “Is not this it in which my lord drinketh …?” (Gen. 44:5). “To drink” from a cup does not necessarily involve consuming what is drunk. Therefore, this passage uses shâthâh of “drinking in,” and not of the entire process of consuming a liquid. This word may be used of a communal activity: “And they went out into … the house of their god, and did eat and drink, and cursed Abimelech” (Judg. 9:27). The phrase “eat and drink” may mean “to eat a meal”: “And they did eat and drink, he and the men that were with him, and tarried all night …” (Gen. 24:54). This verb sometimes means “to banquet” (which included many activities in addition to just eating and drinking), or “participating in a feast”: “… Behold, they eat and drink before him, and say, God save king Adonijah” (1 Kings 1:25). In one case, shâthâh by itself means “to participate in a feast”: “So the king and Haman came to the banquet that Esther had prepared” (Esth. 5:5).

The phrase, “eating and drinking,” may signify a religious meal—i.e., a communion meal with God. The seventy elders on Mt. Sinai “saw God, and did eat and drink” (Exod. 24:11). By this act, they were sacramentally united with God (cf. 1 Cor. 10:19). In contrast to this communion with the true God, the people at the foot of the mountain communed with a false god—they “sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to play” (Exod. 32:6). When Moses stood before God, however, he ate nothing during the entire forty days and nights (Exod. 34:28). His communion was face-to-face rather than through a common meal.

Priests were commanded to practice a partial fast when they served before God—they were not to drink wine or strong drink (Lev. 10:9). They and all Israel were to eat no unclean thing. These conditions were stricter for Nazirites, who lived constantly before God. They were commanded not to eat any product of the vine (Num. 6:3; cf. Judg. 13:4; 1 Sam. 1:15). Thus, God laid claim to the ordinary and necessary processes of human living. In all that man does, he is obligated to recognize God’s control of his existence. Man is to recognize that he eats and drinks only as he lives under God’s rule; and the faithful are to acknowledge God in all their ways.

The phrase, “eating and drinking,” may also signify life in general; “Judah and Israel were many, as the sand which is by the sea in multitude, eating and drinking, and making merry” (1 Kings 4:20; cf. Eccl. 2:24; 5:18; Jer. 22:15). In close conjunction with the verb “to be drunk (intoxicated),” Shâthâh means “to drink freely” or “to drink so much that one becomes drunk.” When Joseph hosted his brothers, they “drank, and were merry with him” (Gen. 43:34).

King James Dictionary [3]

DRINK, pret. and pp. drank. Old pret. And pp. drunk pp. Drunken. G. Drink and drench are radically the same word, and probably drown. We observe that n is not radical.

1. To swallow liquor, for quenching thirst or other purpose as, to drink of the brook.

Ye shall indeed drink of my cup.  Matthew 20 .

2. To take spirituous liquors to excess to be intemperate in the use of spirituous liquors to be a habitual drunkard. 3. To feast to be entertained with liquors.

To drink to,

1. To salute in drinking to invite to drink by drinking first as, I drink to you grace. 2. To wish well to, in the act of taking the cup.


1. To swallow, as liquids to receive, as a fluid, into the stomach as, to drink water or wine. 2. To suck in to absorb to imbibe.

And let the purple violets drink the stream.

3. To take in by any inlet to hear to see as, to drink words or the voice.

I drink delicious poison from thy eye.

4. To take in air to inhale.

To drink down, is to act on by drinking to reduce or subdue as, to drink down unkindness.

To drink off, to drink the whole at a draught as, to drink off a cup of cordial.

To drink in, to absorb to take or receive into any inlet.

To drink up, to drink the whole.

To drink health, or to the health, a customary civility in which a person at taking a glass or cup, expresses his respect or kind wishes for another.

DRINK, n. Liquor to be swallowed any fluid to be taken into the stomach, for quenching thirst, or for medicinal purposes as water, wine, beer, cider, decoctions, &c.

Webster's Dictionary [4]

(1): ( v. i.) To quaff exhilarating or intoxicating liquors, in merriment or feasting; to carouse; to revel; hence, to lake alcoholic liquors to excess; to be intemperate in the /se of intoxicating or spirituous liquors; to tipple.

(2): ( v. i.) To swallow anything liquid, for quenching thirst or other purpose; to imbibe; to receive or partake of, as if in satisfaction of thirst; as, to drink from a spring.

(3): ( v. t.) To swallow (a liquid); to receive, as a fluid, into the stomach; to imbibe; as, to drink milk or water.

(4): ( v. t.) To take in (a liquid), in any manner; to suck up; to absorb; to imbibe.

(5): ( v. t.) To take in; to receive within one, through the senses; to inhale; to hear; to see.

(6): ( v. t.) To smoke, as tobacco.

(7): ( n.) Liquid to be swallowed; any fluid to be taken into the stomach for quenching thirst or for other purposes, as water, coffee, or decoctions.

(8): ( n.) Specifically, intoxicating liquor; as, when drink is on, wit is out.

Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types [5]

 Matthew 6:25 (b) GOD condemns the placing of human and temporal desires above spiritual values.

 John 6:55 (a) This is a graphic way of telling us to take richly the blessing and the virtues of Christ into our souls. The believer must be constantly partaking of the loveliness, the greatness, and the sufficiency of Christ Jesus As the Word of GOD describes Him to our hearts, we accept the message and appropriate all of CHRIST for all our needs.

 John 7:37 (a) This shows the need of appropriating the Holy Spirit for fruitful service. (See also1Co  12:13). The Holy Spirit is the "Living Water." He only makes the Christian fruitful, opens the understanding for the Scriptures, and enables one to be a spiritual Christian. We therefore drink Him into our souls as the Living Water, and as the Lord Jesus requests us to do.

 1 Corinthians 10:4 (a) The word is used as a type of filling up the heart, soul and life with the values offered by the Lord JESUS from Heaven.

Holman Bible Dictionary [6]

 2 Samuel 17:18 Jeremiah 38:6 Genesis 29:2 John 4:11 Deuteronomy 2:28 Lamentations 5:4 Hosea 4:11 Acts 2:13 Ruth 2:14 Luke 23:36 Psalm 104:15 Isaiah 28:7 Hosea 4:11MilkWaterWine

Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [7]

Is sometimes put figuratively in Scripture, to imply the thirst and desire of the soul after Christ. Hence, we find the Lord Jesus saying "If any man thirst, let him come to me and drink." ( John 7:37) And again, "He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me and I in him." ( John 6:56) In like manner, at the close of Scripture, the coming of Christ is described under the similitude of drink. ( Revelation 22:17)

Easton's Bible Dictionary [8]

To drink water by measure ( Ezekiel 4:11 ), and to buy water to drink ( Lamentations 5:4 ), denote great scarcity. To drink blood means to be satiated with slaughter.

The Jews carefully strained their drinks through a sieve, through fear of violating the law of  Leviticus 11:20,23,41,42 . (See  Matthew 23:24 . "Strain at" should be "strain out.")

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [9]

DRINK . See Meals, § 6 , Wine and Strong Drink.

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [10]

(the verb is expressed in Hebrews by the cognate terms שָׁקָה , Shakah , and

שָׁתָה , s Hathah ; Greek Πίνω ). The drinks of the Hebrews were:

1. Water (q.v.);

2. Wine (q.v.);

3. Artificial liquor ( שֵׁכָר , Σίκερα , "strong drink" (See Shekar);

4. Vinegar (q.v.).

As drinking utensils, they made use of various forms of vessels:

1, the cup (q.v.), the most general term ( כּוֹס );

2, the goblet ( כַּפּוֹר , covered tankard) or "basin" (q.v.), from which the fluid was poured into the chalice ( גָּבַיע , bumper, comp.  Jeremiah 35:5) and bowl ( מִזְרָק , mixing-cup, Cratera );

3, the mug ( צִפִּחִת , "Cruse ") or pitcher; and,

4, the saucer ( קִשְׂוָה קָשָׂה , patera) or shallow libation dish (q.v.) Horns were probably used in the earliest times. (See Beverage).

The term "drink" is frequently used figuratively in the Scriptures (see Thomson, Land and Book, 1:496). The wise man exhorts his disciple ( Proverbs 5:15) to "drink water out of his own cistern;" to content himself with the lawful pleasures of marriage, without wandering in his affections. To eat and drink is used in  Ecclesiastes 5:18, to signify people's enjoying themselves; and in the Gospel for living in a common and ordinary manner ( Matthew 11:18). The apostles say they ate and drank with Christ after his resurrection; that is, they conversed, and lived in their usual manner, freely, with him ( Acts 10:41). Jeremiah ( Jeremiah 2:18) reproaches the Jews with having had recourse to Egypt for muddy water to drink, and to Assyria, to drink the water of their river; that is, the water of the Nile and of the Euphrates; meaning, soliciting the assistance of those people. To drink blood signifies to be satiated with slaughter ( Ezekiel 39:18). Our Lord commands us to drink his blood and to eat his flesh (John 6): we eat and drink both figuratively in the Eucharist. To drink water by measure ( Ezekiel 4:11), and to buy water to drink ( Lamentations 5:4), denote extreme scarcity and desolation. On fast- days the Jews abstained from drinking during the whole day, believing it to be equally of the essence of a fast to suffer thirst as to suffer hunger. (See Fast).