From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [1]

1: Στρέφω (Strong'S #4762 — Verb — strepho — stref'-o )

denotes (1) in the Active Voice, (a) "to turn" (something),  Matthew 5:39; (b) "to bring back,"  Matthew 27:3 (in the best texts; some have No. 2); (c) reflexively, "to turn oneself, to turn the back to people," said of God,   Acts 7:42; (d) "to turn one thing into another,"  Revelation 11:6 (the only place where this word occurs after the Acts); (2) in the Passive Voice, (a) used reflexively, "to turn oneself," e.g.   Matthew 7:6;  John 20:14,16; (b) metaphorically,  Matthew 18:3 , RV, "(except) ye turn" (AV, "... be converted");  John 12:40 (in the best texts; some have No. 4). See Convert , A, No. 1.

2: Ἀποστρέφω (Strong'S #654 — Verb — apostrepho — ap-os-tref'-o )

denotes (a) "to cause to turn away (apo), to remove,"  Romans 11:26;  2—Timothy 4:4 (1st clause); metaphorically, "to turn away from allegiance, pervert,"   Luke 23:14; (b) "to make to return, put back,"  Matthew 26:52; (c) in the Passive Voice, used reflexively, "to turn onself away from,"  Matthew 5:42;  2—Timothy 1:15;  Titus 1:14;  Hebrews 12:25; in the Active Voice,  Acts 3:26 . See Pervert , Put.

3: Διαστρέφω (Strong'S #1294 — Verb — diastrepho — dee-as-tref'-o )

"to distort" (dia, "asunder"), is rendered "to turn aside," RV (AV, "... away"), in  Acts 13:8 . See Pervert , No. 2.

4: Ἐπιστρέφω (Strong'S #1994 — Verb — epistrepho — ep-ee-stref'-o )

is used (a) transitively, "to make to turn towards" (epi)  Luke 1:16,17;  James 5:19,20 (to convert); (b) intransitively, "to turn oneself round," e.g., in the Passive Voice,   Mark 5:30 (see RETURN); in the Active Voice,   Matthew 13:15 , Rv , "turn again" (AV, "be converted");  Acts 11:21;  14:15;  15:19;  1—Thessalonians 1:9 , "ye turned," the aorist tense indicating an immediate and decisive change, consequent upon a deliberate choice; conversion is a voluntary act in response to the presentation of truth. See Convert.

5: Μεταστρέφω (Strong'S #3344 — Verb — metastrepho — met-as-tref'-o )

signifies, in the Passive Voice, "to be turned" (of a change into something different, meta) in  Acts 2:20;  James 4:9 : see Pervert , No. 3.

6: Ὑποστρέφω (Strong'S #5290 — Verb — hupostrepho — hoop-os-tref'-o )

is used intransitively of "turning back, behind" (hupo), e.g.,  Luke 17:15 , "turned back;" in  Luke 2:45 , RV, "returned:" see Return.

7: Ἀποβαίνω (Strong'S #576 — Verb — apobaino — ap-ob-ah'ee-no )

"to go from," is used metaphorically of events, "to issue, turn out,"  Luke 21:13;  Philippians 1:19 . See Go , No. 21.

8: Μετάγω (Strong'S #3329 — Verb — metago — met-ag'-o )

"to move from one side to another," is rendered "to turn about" in  James 3:3,4 .

9: Μετατίθημι (Strong'S #3346 — Verb — metatithemi — met-at-ith'-ay-mee )

"to change," is translated "turning (the grace of God)" in  Jude 1:4 . See Carry , Change , Remove , Translate.

10: Ἀνακάμπτω (Strong'S #344 — Verb — anakampto — an-ak-amp'-to )

ana, "back," kampto, "to bend," is rendered "shall turn ... again," in  Luke 10:6 . See Return.

11: Ἐκτρέπω (Strong'S #1624 — Verb — ektrepo — ek-trep'-o )

"to cause to turn aside" (ek, "from," trepo, "to turn"), is used in the Passive Voice, with Middle sense, in  1—Timothy 1:6;  5:15;  6:20 , RV, "turning away" (AV, "avoiding");  2—Timothy 4:4 (2nd clause);   Hebrews 12:13 , "be (not) turned out of the way" (RV, marg., "put out of joint"); some adhere to the meaning "to turn aside, go astray;" the interpretation depends on the antithesis which follows, "but rather be healed" (RV), which is not the antithesis to "turning aside" or being "turned" out of the way; accordingly the marg. is to be preferred (the verb is often used medically). In the Sept.,  Amos 5:8 .

12: Ἀποτρέπω (Strong'S #665 — Verb — apotrepo — ap-ot-rep'-o )

"to cause to turn away" (apo), is used in the Middle Voice in  2—Timothy 3:5 .

13: Περιτρέπω (Strong'S #4062 — Verb — peritrepo — per-ee-trep'-o )

"to turn about" (peri), is rendered "doth turn (thee to madness)" in  Acts 26:24 , RV, AV, "doth make (thee mad)."

14: Μεθίστημι (Strong'S #3179 — Verb — methistemi — meth-is'-tay-mee, -is-tan'-o )

is used metaphorically in  Acts 19:26 , "turned away (much people)." See Put , Remove , Translate.

15: Ἀναστατόω (Strong'S #387 — Verb — anastatoo — an-as-tat-o'-o )

"to stir up, excite, unsettle" (ana, "up," histemi, "to cause to stand"), is rendered "have turned (the world) upside down" in  Acts 17:6 . See Trouble , Uproar.

16: Γίνομαι (Strong'S #1096 — Verb — ginomai — ghin'-om-ahee )

"to become," is rendered "shall be turned" in  John 16:20 (of sorrow into joy).

17: Ἐκκλίνω (Strong'S #1578 — Verb — ekklino — ek-klee'-no )

"to turn aside" (ek, "from," klino, "to lean"), is rendered "have ... turned aside" in  Romans 3:12 (AV, "are ... gone out of the way");   Romans 16:17 , RV, "turn away" (AV, "avoid");  1—Peter 3:11; RV, ditto (AV, "eschew").

18: Διαδέχομαι (Strong'S #1237 — Verb — diadechomai — dee-ad-ekh'-om-ahee )

"to receive through another, to receive in turn" (dia, "through," dechomai, "to receive"), occurs in  Acts 7:45 , RV, "in their turn ... when they entered" (AV, "that came after"); the meaning here is "having received (it) after," i.e., as from Moses under Joshua's leadership. In the papyri the word is used similarily of visiting as deputy (see also Field, Notes on the Trans. of the NT, 116).

 Matthew 2:22 Hebrews 11:34Flight 1—Corinthians 14:27Course

King James Dictionary [2]

Turn, L turnus torniare, to turn tornare, to return torneare, tornire, to turn, to fence round, to tilt torniamento, tournament.

1. To cause to move in a circular course as, to turn a wheel to turn a spindle to turn the body. 2. To change or shift sides to put the upper side downwards, or one side in the place of the other. It is said a hen turns her eggs often when sitting. 3. To alter, as a position.


When to advance, or stand, or turn the sway of battle.

4. To cause to preponderate to change the state of a balance as, to turn the scale. 5. To bring the inside out as,to turn a coat. 6. To alter, as the posture of the body, or direction of the look.

The monarch turns him to his royal guest.

7. To form on a lathe to make round. 8. To form to shape used in the participle as a body finely turned.

Him limbs how turn'd.

9. To change to transform as,to turn evil to good to turn goods into money.

Impatience turns an ague into a fever.

I pray thee, turn the counsel of Ahithophel into foolishness.  2 Samuel 15

10. To metamorphose as, to turn a worm into a winged insect. 11. To alter or change, as color as, to turn green to blue. 12. To change or alter in any manner to vary. 13. To translate as, to turn Greek into English.

--Who turns a Persian tale for half a crown.

14. To change, as the manner of writing as,to turn prose into verse. 15. To change, as from one opinion or party to another as, to turn one from a tory to whig to turn Mohammedan or a pagan to a Christian. 16. To change in regard to inclination or temper.

Turn thee to me, and have mercy upon me.  Psalms 25

17. To change or alter from one purpose or effect to another.

God will make these evils the occasion of greater good, by turning them to our advantage.

18. To transfer.

Therefore he slew him, and turned the kingdom to David.  1 Chronicles 10 .

19. To cause to nauseate or lothe as, to turn the stomach. 20. To make giddy.

Eastern priests in giddy circles run,

And turn their heads to imitate the sun.

21. To infatuate to make mad, wild or enthusiastic as, to turn the brain. 22. To change direction to or from any point as, to turn the eyes to the heavens to turn the eyes from a disgusting spectacle. 23. To direct by a change to a certain purpose or object to direct, as the inclination, thoughts or mind. I have turned my mind to the subject.

My thoughts are turn'd on peace.

24. To revolve to agitate in the mind.

Turn those ideas about in your mind.

25. To bend from a perpendicular direction as, to turn the edge of an instrument. 26. To move from a direct course or strait line to cause to deviate as, to turn a horse from the road, or a ship from her course. 27. To apply by a change of use.

When the passage is open, land will be turned most to cattle.

28. To reverse.

The Lord thy God will turn thy captivity, and have compassion upon thee.  Deuteronomy 30

29. To keep passing and changing in the course of trade as, to turn money or stock two or three times in the year. 30. To adapt the mind chiefly in the participle.

He was perfectly well turned for trade.

31. To make acid to sour as, to turn cider or wine to turn milk. 32. To persuade to renounce an opinion to dissuade from a purpose, or cause to change sides. You cannot turn a firm man.

To turn aside, to avert.

To turn away, to dismiss from service to discard as, to turn away a servant.

1. To avert as, to turn away wrath or evil.

To turn back, to return as, to turn back goods to the seller. Little used.

To turn down, to fold or double down.

To turn in, to fold or double as, to turn in the edge of cloth.

To turn off, to dismiss contemptuously as, to turn off a sycophant or parasite.

1. To give over to resign. We are not so wholly turned off from that reversion. 2. To divert to deflect as, to turn off the thoughts from serious subjects.

To be turned of, to be advanced beyond as, to be turned of sixty six.

To turn out, to drive out to expel as, to turn a family out of doors, or out of the house.

1. To put to pasture as cattle or horses.

To turn over, to change sides to roll over.

1. To transfer as, to turn over a business to another hand. 2. To open and examine one leaf after another as, to turn over a concordance. 3. To overset.

turn to, to have recourse to.

Helvetius' tables may be turned to on all occasions.

To turn upon, to retort to throw back as, to turn the arguments of an opponent upon himself.

To turn the back, to flee to retreat.  Exodus 23

To turn the back upon, to quit with contempt to forsake.

To turn the die or dice, to change fortune.

TURN, To move round to have a circular motion as, a wheel turns on its axis a spindle turns on a pivot a man turns on his heel.

1. To be directed.

The understanding turns inwards on itself, and reflects on its own operations.

2. To show regard by directing the look towards any thing.

Turn mighty monarch, turn this way

Do not refuse to hear.

3. To move the body round. He turned to me with a smile. 4. To move to change posture. Let your body be at rest do not turn in the least. 5. To deviate as, to turn from the road or course. 6. To alter to be changed or transformed as, wood turns to stone water turns to ice one color turns to another. 7. To become by change as, the fur of certain animals turns in winter.

Cygnets from gray turn white.

8. To change sides. A man in a fever turns often. 9. To change opinions or parties as, to turn Christian or Mohammedan. 10. To change the mind or conduct.

Turn from thy fierce wrath.  Exodus 32

11. To change to acid as,mild turns suddenly during a thunder storm. 12. To be brought eventually to result or terminate in. This trade has not turned to much account or advantage. The application of steam turns to good account, both on land and water. 13. To depend on for decision. The question turns on a single fact or point. 14. To become giddy.

I'll look no more,

Lest my brain turn.

15. To change a course of life to repent.

Turn ye, turn ye from your evil ways, for why will ye die?  Ezekiel 33 .

16. To change the course or direction as, the tide turns.

To turn about, to move the face to another quarter.

To turn away, to deviate.

1. To depart from to forsake.turn in, to bend inwards. 1. To enter for lodgings or entertainment.  Genesis 19 2. To go to bed.

To turn off, to be diverted to deviate from a course. The road turns off to the left.

To turn on or upon, to reply or retort.

1. To depend on.

To turn out, to move from its place, as a bone.

1. To bend outwards to project. 2. To rise from bed also, to come abroad.

To turn over, to turn from side to side to roll to tumble.

1. To change sides or parties.

To turn to, to be directed as, the needle turns to the magnetic pole.

To turn under, to bend or be folded downwards.

To turn up, to bend or be doubled upwards.

TURN, n. The act of turning movement or motion in a circular direction, whether horizontally, vertically or otherwise a revolution as the turn of a wheel.

1. A winding a meandering course a bend or bending as the turn of river. 2. A walk to and from.

I will take a turn in your garden.

3. Change alteration vicissitude as the turns and varieties of passions.

Too well the turns of mortal chance I know.

4. Successive course.

Nobleness and bounty--which virtues had their turns in the king's nature.

5. Manner of proceeding change of direction. This affair may take a different turn from that which we expect. 6. Chance hap opportunity.

Every one has a fair turn to be as great as he pleases.

7. Occasion incidental opportunity.

An old dog falling from his speed, was loaded at every turn with blows and reproaches.

8. Time at which, by successive vicissitudes, any thing is to be had or done. They take each other's turn.

His turn will come to laugh at you again.

9. Action of kindness or malice.

Thanks are half lost when good turns are delay'd.

Some malicious natures place their delight in doing turns.

10. Reigning inclination or course. Religion is not to be adapted to the turn and fashion of the age. 11. A step off the ladder at the gallows. 12. Convenience occasion purpose exigence as, this will not serve his turn. 13. Form cast shape manner in a literal or figurative sense as the turn of thought a man of a sprightly turn in conversation.

The turn of his thoughts and expression is unharmonious.

Female virtues are of a domestic turn.

The Roman poets, in their description of a beautiful man, often mention the turn of his neck and arms.

14. Manner of arranging words in a sentence. 15. Change new position of things. Some evil happens at every turn of affairs. 16. Change of direction as the turn of the tide from flood to ebb. 17. One round of a rope or cord. 18. In mining, a pit sunk in some part of a drift. 19. Turn or tourn, in law. The sheriff's turn is a court of record, held by the sheriff twice a year in every hundred within his county. England.

By turns, one after another alternately.

They assist each other by turns.

1. At intervals.

They feel by turns the bitter change.

To take turns, to take each other's places alternately.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words [3]

A. Verbs.

Hâphak ( הָפַךְ , Strong'S #2015), “to turn, overturn, change, transform, turn back.” A common word throughout the various periods of Hebrew, this term occurs in other Semitic languages, including ancient Akkadian. It is found almost 100 times in biblical Hebrew. Used for the first time in the biblical text in Gen. 3:24, the Hebrew verb form there indicates reflexive action: “… A flaming sword which turned every way [NAB, “revolving”; NEB, “whirling”] …”

In its simplest meaning, hâphak expresses the turning from one side to another, such as “turning” one’s back (Josh. 7:8), or “as a man wipeth a dish, wiping it, and turning it upside down” (2 Kings 21:13). Similarly, Hosea refers to Israel as being “a cake not turned” (Hos. 7:8). The meaning of “transformation” or “change” is vividly illustrated in the story of Saul’s encounter with the Spirit of God. Samuel promised that Saul would “be changed into another man” (1 Sam. 10:6, JB), and when the Spirit came on him, “God changed his heart” (1 Sam. 10:9, JB). Other examples of change are the “changing” of Pharaoh’s mind (Exod. 14:5; literally, “the heart of Pharaoh … was turned”); the “turning” of Aaron’s rod into a serpent (Exod. 7:15); dancing “turned” to mourning (Lam. 5:14); water “turned” into blood (Exod. 7:17); and the sun “turned” to darkness and the moon to blood (Joel 2:31). Ps. 41:3 presents a difficult translation problem in its use of hâphak. Literally, it reads: “All his bed you [Yahweh] change in his sickness.” In view of the poetic parallelism involved, restoration of health must be meant. Thus, the RSV translates: “In his sickness thou healest all his infirmities.” Perhaps only a refreshing of the bed is meant, so the NEB translates: “He turns his bed when he is ill.”

The KJV rendering of Isa. 60:5 sounds strange to our modern ears: “The abundance of the sea shall be converted unto thee.…” A slight improvement is given by the RSV, which reads: “The abundance of the sea shall be turned to you.” The meaning is best captured by the JB: “The riches of the sea shall be lavished upon you.”

Sâbab ( סָבַב , Strong'S #5437), “to turn, go around, turn around (change direction).” This verb occurs only in Hebrew (including post-biblical Hebrew) and Ugaritic. Nouns using these radicals appear in Arabic and Akkadian. Biblical Hebrew attests the word in all periods and about 160 times.

Basically this verb represents a circular movement—“to take a turning.” First, it refers to such movement in general. The first occurrence of sâbab having this emphasis is in Gen. 42:24, where Joseph “turned himself about” from his brothers and wept. Here the verb does not tell the precise direction of his departure, only that he left their presence. Similarly, when Samuel was told that Saul went to Carmel and “is gone about, and passed on, and gone down to Gilgal” (1 Sam. 15:12), we are not told that he reversed direction in order to get from his origin to Carmel and Gilgal. God led Israel out of the way (by an out-of-the-way route) when He took them into the Promised Land. He wanted to avoid having them face war with the Philistines, an event that was unavoidable if they proceeded directly north from Egypt to Palestine. Therefore, He led them through the wilderness—a back route into the land: “But God led the people about, through the way of the wilderness of the Red Sea …” (Exod. 13:18). Perhaps one of the passages where this meaning is clearest is Prov. 26:14, which speaks of the “turning” of a door on its hinges. An extension of this meaning occurs in 1 Sam. 5:8-9, “to remove, to take away”: “And they answered, Let the ark of the God of Israel be carried about [taken away] unto Gath. And they carried the ark of the God of Israel about thither” (cf. 2 Kings 16:18).

A second emphasis of sâbab is “to go around,” in the sense of to proceed or be arranged in a circle. Joseph tells his family: “… Lo, my sheaf arose, and also stood upright; and, behold, your sheaves stood round about, and made obeisance to my sheaf” (Gen. 37:7). They moved so as to surround his sheaf. This is the action pictured when Israel besieged Jericho, except with the further nuance of encircling in a processional and religious march: “And ye shall compass the city, all ye men of war, and go round about the city once” (Josh. 6:3). “To travel” and “to return” are used together to represent traveling a circuit. It is said of Samuel that he used to go annually “in circuit” (1 Sam. 7:16). Another variation of this emphasis is “to go around” a territory in order to avoid crossing through it: “And they journeyed from mount Hor by the way of the Red Sea, to compass [go around] the land of Edom: and the soul of the people was much discouraged because of the way” (Num. 21:4).

Sâbab is also used of the completion of this movement, the state of literally or figuratively surrounding something or someone. The very first biblical occurrence of the word carries this force (according to many scholars): “The name of the first is Pison: that is it which compasseth [flows around] the whole land of Havilah …” (Gen. 2:11). Judg. 16:2, where the Gazites “compassed [Samson] in, and laid wait for him all night in the gate of the city,” represents another occurrence of this nuance. When David spoke of the cords (as a trap) of Sheol “surrounding” him (2 Sam. 22:6), he meant that they actually touched him and held him fast. Sâbab can be used of sitting down around a table. So Samuel told Jesse to fetch David, “for we will not sit down till he come hither” (1 Sam. 16:11). A third use of this verb is “to change direction.” This can be a change of direction |toward:“Neither shall the inheritance remove from one tribe to another tribe …” (Num. 36:9); the usual direction of passing on an inheritance is down family lines, and God’s commandment that the daughters of Zelophehad marry within their father’s families would make certain that this movement of things not be interrupted. This emphasis appears more clearly in 1 Sam. 18:11: “And David [escaped] out of his presence twice”; it is certain that David is putting as much space between himself and Saul as possible. He is “running away or turning away” (cf. 1 Sam. 22:17). Sâbab may also refer to a change of direction, as in Num. 34:4: “And your border shall turn.…”

There are three special nuances under this emphasis. First, the verb may mean “to roam through” as a scout looking for water: “… And they fetched a compass [made a circuit] of seven days’ journey: and there was no water for the host, and for the cattle that followed them” (2 Kings 3:9). Some scholars suggest that this is the idea expressed in Gen. 2:11 that the Pison meandered through Havilah rather than flowed around it. Second, sâbab may be used of “turning something over” to someone. So Adonijah said of Solomon: “… The kingdom was mine, … howbeit the kingdom is turned about, and is become my brother’s …” (1 Kings 2:15). Third, sâbab may be used of “changing or turning one thing into another”: “And the land shall be turned as a plain from Geba to Rimmon south of Jerusalem …” (Zech. 14:10).

B. Nouns.

Sâbı̂yb ( סְבִיבָה , Strong'S #5439), “area round about; circuit.” This word appears about 336 times in biblical Hebrew. The word can be used as a noun, but it usually occurs as an adverb or preposition. In 1 Chron. 11:8 sâbı̂yb refers to the “parts round about”: “And he built the city round about, even from Millo round about.…” The word may also be used for “circuits”: “… And the wind returneth again according to his circuits” (Eccl. 1:6). The first biblical appearance of the word is in Gen. 23:17, and it refers to “within the circuit of.”

Other nouns are related to the verb sâbı̂yb. Cibbah and necibbah both refer to “turn of affairs”; cibbah is found in 1 Kings 12:15 and necibbah in 2 Chron. 10:15. Mucab occurs once with the meaning of “circular passage”: “… For the winding about of the house went still upward round about the house …” (Ezek. 41:7). Mecab occurs 4 times, and it refers to “that which surrounds or is round.” Mecab refers to a “round table” (Song of Sol. 1:12) and to “places round about” Jerusalem (2 Kings 23:5).

Webster's Dictionary [4]

(1): ( n.) One of the successive portions of a course, or of a series of occurrences, reckoning from change to change; hence, a winding; a bend; a meander.

(2): ( n.) A circuitous walk, or a walk to and fro, ending where it began; a short walk; a stroll.

(3): ( v. i.) To invert a type of the same thickness, as temporary substitute for any sort which is exhausted.

(4): ( v. i.) To bring down the feet of a child in the womb, in order to facilitate delivery.

(5): ( v. i.) To be nauseated; - said of the stomach.

(6): ( v. t.) To make a turn about or around (something); to go or pass around by turning; as, to turn a corner.

(7): ( v. i.) To become giddy; - said of the head or brain.

(8): ( v. i.) To become acid; to sour; - said of milk, ale, etc.

(9): ( v. i.) To undergo the process of turning on a lathe; as, ivory turns well.

(10): ( v. i.) To be changed, altered, or transformed; to become transmuted; also, to become by a change or changes; to grow; as, wood turns to stone; water turns to ice; one color turns to another; to turn Mohammedan.

(11): ( v. i.) To result or terminate; to come about; to eventuate; to issue.

(12): ( n.) An embellishment or grace (marked thus, /), commonly consisting of the principal note, or that on which the turn is made, with the note above, and the semitone below, the note above being sounded first, the principal note next, and the semitone below last, the three being performed quickly, as a triplet preceding the marked note. The turn may be inverted so as to begin with the lower note, in which case the sign is either placed on end thus /, or drawn thus /.

(13): ( n.) Monthly courses; menses.

(14): ( n.) A court of record, held by the sheriff twice a year in every hundred within his county.

(15): ( n.) A pit sunk in some part of a drift.

(16): ( n.) A round of a rope or cord in order to secure it, as about a pin or a cleat.

(17): ( n.) A fall off the ladder at the gallows; a hanging; - so called from the practice of causing the criminal to stand on a ladder which was turned over, so throwing him off, when the signal was given.

(18): ( n.) Convenience; occasion; purpose; exigence; as, this will not serve his turn.

(19): ( n.) Form; cast; shape; manner; fashion; - used in a literal or figurative sense; hence, form of expression; mode of signifying; as, the turn of thought; a man of a sprightly turn in conversation.

(20): ( n.) Successive course; opportunity enjoyed by alternation with another or with others, or in due order; due chance; alternate or incidental occasion; appropriate time.

(21): ( n.) A change of condition; especially, a sudden or recurring symptom of illness, as a nervous shock, or fainting spell; as, a bad turn.

(22): ( n.) Change of direction, course, or tendency; different order, position, or aspect of affairs; alteration; vicissitude; as, the turn of the tide.

(23): ( n.) The act of turning; movement or motion about, or as if about, a center or axis; revolution; as, the turn of a wheel.

(24): ( v. i.) To be deflected; to take a different direction or tendency; to be directed otherwise; to be differently applied; to be transferred; as, to turn from the road.

(25): ( v. i.) Hence, to revolve as if upon a point of support; to hinge; to depend; as, the decision turns on a single fact.

(26): ( v. t.) To change from a given use or office; to divert, as to another purpose or end; to transfer; to use or employ; to apply; to devote.

(27): ( v. i.) To change from ebb to flow, or from flow to ebb; - said of the tide.

(28): ( v. i.) To become inclined in the other direction; - said of scales.

(29): ( n.) Incidental or opportune deed or office; occasional act of kindness or malice; as, to do one an ill turn.

(30): ( v. t.) To cause to move upon a center, or as if upon a center; to give circular motion to; to cause to revolve; to cause to move round, either partially, wholly, or repeatedly; to make to change position so as to present other sides in given directions; to make to face otherwise; as, to turn a wheel or a spindle; to turn the body or the head.

(31): ( v. t.) To cause to present a different side uppermost or outmost; to make the upper side the lower, or the inside to be the outside of; to reverse the position of; as, to turn a box or a board; to turn a coat.

(32): ( v. t.) To give another direction, tendency, or inclination to; to direct otherwise; to deflect; to incline differently; - used both literally and figuratively; as, to turn the eyes to the heavens; to turn a horse from the road, or a ship from her course; to turn the attention to or from something.

(33): ( v. t.) To change the form, quality, aspect, or effect of; to alter; to metamorphose; to convert; to transform; - often with to or into before the word denoting the effect or product of the change; as, to turn a worm into a winged insect; to turn green to blue; to turn prose into verse; to turn a Whig to a Tory, or a Hindu to a Christian; to turn good to evil, and the like.

(34): ( v. t.) To form in a lathe; to shape or fashion (anything) by applying a cutting tool to it while revolving; as, to turn the legs of stools or tables; to turn ivory or metal.

(35): ( v. t.) Hence, to give form to; to shape; to mold; to put in proper condition; to adapt.

(36): ( v. t.) To translate; to construe; as, to turn the Iliad.

(37): ( v. t.) To make acid or sour; to ferment; to curdle, etc.: as, to turn cider or wine; electricity turns milk quickly.

(38): ( v. t.) To sicken; to nauseate; as, an emetic turns one's stomach.

(39): ( v. i.) To move round; to have a circular motion; to revolve entirely, repeatedly, or partially; to change position, so as to face differently; to whirl or wheel round; as, a wheel turns on its axis; a spindle turns on a pivot; a man turns on his heel.

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [5]

Among the Egyptians the sun was considered in each phase a different god, having its peculiar name, attribute, and worship. Thus the sun during its nocturnal existence was Turn; when it shone in the meridian, it was Ra; when it produced and nourished life, it was venerated as Kheper. Since, according to the Egyptians, the night precedes the day, Tum was considered to have been born before Ra, and to have issued alone from the abyss of chaos. Lenormant, Chaldaean Magic, p. 81 sq.