From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [1]

TREASURE. —The word ‘treasure’ upon the lips of a Hebrew signifies a store of anything that constitutes wealth—of corn and wine and oil, as well as of gold and silver and precious stones ( Matthew 13:52). Hence spiritually the word suggests an apt figure of the true eternal riches. Just as on earth the worldly-wise may lay up stores of wealth, so in the heavens the man who seeks after spiritual things may lay up for himself an eternal treasure. It has been imagined by some commentators that by ‘treasure in heaven’ our Lord means merely the reward which shall be given hereafter to all who suffer loss for His sake on earth. ‘Go and sell that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven’ ( Matthew 19:21,  Mark 10:21,  Luke 18:22), they take to mean merely, ‘Give away thine earthly wealth, and God shall give thee instead heavenly blessedness’; but so to interpret the words is to miss by far the most valuable part of their teaching. It was this interpretation that formed the chief justification for the monkish asceticism of the Middle Ages. It gave rise to a false spiritualism, to the fatal and irreconcilable dualism of sacred and secular. In addressing the words to the rich young man, our Lord was treating a particular case, the case of one whose spiritual aspirations were crushed beneath the burden of his wealth. The treasure in heaven which Christ told him he should have was not to be gained by the simple process of denuding himself of his worldly possessions—God would not step in to supply in the next world what he had voluntarily sacrificed in this. Such teaching would have been an appeal to selfish prudence merely, would justify, if it were correct, all that unbelievers have said about the selfishness of Christianity. It was not to the man’s selfishness that Christ addressed Himself, but to the earnest longing after righteousness which He perceived in him. ‘What lack I yet?’ the man had said, even after asserting that he had kept the commandments from his youth up. Christ therefore bade him cast aside the temptation which bound him down, that his aspirations might at last have free play; that, untrammelled by earthly cares, he might take to himself the treasure of righteousness and truth which he had always longed to make his own.

That spiritual treasure is regarded by our Lord as a personal thing, not as a mere reward assigned from without, is rendered even more plain by what He says regarding the ‘treasure of the heart’ ( Matthew 12:35 ||  Luke 6:45). This treasure of the heart is manifestly the accumulated tendencies which we call character, the habits which a man makes, the qualities which he acquires, by the repeated choices of his life. He who strives continuously to follow the dictates of righteousness and love, makes for himself a righteous and loving character. His past deeds become a store from which he can continually draw anew. The more good deeds he does the richer grows his heart in goodness, and the greater will his joy become in doing what is right. His heart will of itself bear fruit of goodness. But the same is true also of the evil man. The second lie is proverbially easier than the first. The more evil he does, the more evil grows his heart, until it is well-nigh impossible for it to produce what is good. His heart becomes callous and hard, so that he can no longer take delight in goodness. Thus, again, it is true that ‘where the treasure is, there will the heart be also.’ The heart of the good man brings down heaven to earth, while that of the evil man could find no bliss in heaven itself.

When in  Colossians 2:3 St. Paul tells his readers that in Christ are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge, he is but following out the same figure. ἐν Χριστῷ expresses one of the two great principles of the Pauline theology. To win the true treasure a man must be in Christ; for He is the universal Man, the ideal of manhood, the only perfectly loving and wise and true of all mankind. In Him only was the heavenly treasure revealed in perfect fulness. He who would share it must therefore be in Christ, must be inspired by His spirit.

The true treasure of the human heart is the Kingdom of heaven. To have the Kingdom of God within one, is to be spiritually rich indeed. In setting forth the manner in which the Kingdom is received into different kinds of hearts, our Lord once again uses the figure of treasure, in the parable of the Treasure hid in a field ( Matthew 13:44). Here He refers to an experience not uncommon in the East, where the uncertain tenure of property led men often to hide their wealth, and where the equal uncertainty of life caused it often to remain unclaimed. This and the parable of the Pearl of Great [Note: reat Cranmer’s ‘Great’ Bible 1539.] Price (another kind of treasure), which follows it, describe the two ways in which the truth of the gospel is received by men. There is the finder who has never sought at all, and who comes upon his find by accident; and there is the finder who has spent his life in seeking. In this, however, they are like, that when the treasure is discovered each is willing to part with all he has for its possession. Indeed, this willingness is the test of the true finder; but it is also the essential mark of the true treasure. It is of such a nature that it cannot be possessed for less than all that a man is and has. It lays hold upon the true finder’s heart; for in it he recognizes the satisfaction of all his longings: it is the completion of his being, the source of his life to all eternity.

Literature.—The Comm. on the NT; standard works on the Parables; Beyschlag’s and Weiss’ NT Theol.  ; Flint, Christ’s Kingdom upon Earth (1865), 196; H. Scott Holland, God’s City (1894), 161; W. G. Tarrant in Serm. by Unitarian Ministers , i. (1905). 25.

W. J. S. Miller.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [2]

1: Θησαυρός (Strong'S #2344 — Noun Masculine — thesauros — thay-sow-ros' )

denotes (1) "a place of safe keeping" (possibly akin to tithemi, "to put"), (a) "a casket,"  Matthew 2:11; (b) "a storehouse,"  Matthew 13:52; used metaphorically of the heart,  Matthew 12:35 , twice (RV, "out of his treasure");  Luke 6:45; (2) "a treasure,"  Matthew 6:19-21;  13:44;  Luke 12:33,34;  Hebrews 11:26; "treasure" (in heaven or the heavens),  Matthew 19:21;  Mark 10:21;  Luke 18:22; in these expressions (which are virtually equivalent to that in  Matthew 6:1 , "with your Father which is in Heaven") the promise does not simply refer to the present life, but looks likewise to the hereafter; in  2—Corinthians 4:7 it is used of "the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ," descriptive of the Gospel, as deposited in the earthen vessels of the persons who proclaim it (cp. ver. 4); in   Colossians 2:3 , of the wisdom and knowledge hidden in Christ.

2: Γάζα (Strong'S #1047 — Noun Feminine — gaza — gad'-zah )

a Persian word, signifying "royal treasure," occurs in  Acts 8:27 .

3: Θησαυρίζω (Strong'S #2343 — Verb — thesaurizo — thay-sow-rid'-zo )

akin to A, No. 1, is used metaphorically in  Romans 2:5 of "treasuring up wrath." See Lay , No. 17.

Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types [3]

 Exodus 19:5 (a) The people of Israel were especially precious to GOD. They were His valued possession. He cared for them as the merchant cares for his diamonds. In them and through them He was to reveal His wonderful character, His patience, His longsuffering and His marvelous power. He therefore considered them priceless.

 Deuteronomy 28:12 (a) GOD Himself calls the blessings which He gives as treasures from Him. It is a good name for them, for what would we do without the sunshine, and what would we do without the rain? (See also  Psalm 17:14).

 Isaiah 33:6 (a) It certainly is true that the fear of GOD makes one rich in his life. It is not riches that can be stolen by another, nor does it decrease in value with time. The man who fears GOD is rich in faith, in character and in good works.

 Matthew 6:20-21 (b) This describes the gracious gifts for the Lord's work which are done in the name of the Lord Jesus and for His glory. GOD records these in Heaven, for they have great value to Him. The money that we send to the Lord, and give for His service is also included in the treasure, and this is recorded in Heaven. The money we give, as well as the time and talents we expend for our Lord, reveal the attitude of our hearts.

 Matthew 13:44 (b) This type represents the Kingdom of GOD, which consists of love, joy, peace, salvation and righteousness. These virtues are found in the hearts of GOD's people who are scattered and hidden throughout the earth. Throughout the world there are those who are called according to His purpose. There are the "other sheep," those who "should be saved," those who are "ordained unto eternal life." All of these, together with the blessings that accompany GOD's Gospel, are referred to as "a treasure." (See under "KINGDOM."). The Kingdom of GOD is the church, His family.

 2 Corinthians 4:7 (a) The treasure is the gift of eternal life, divine grace, the knowledge of GOD, and belonging to Jesus Christ the Saviour.

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [4]

The Hebrew word signifies any thing collected together, provisions, or magazines. So they say, a treasure of corn, of wine, of oil, of honey,  Jeremiah 41:8; treasures of gold, silver, brass,  Ezekiel 28:4;  Daniel 11:43 . Snow, winds, hail, rain, waters, are in the treasuries of God,  Psalms 135:7;  Jeremiah 51:16 . The wise men opened their treasures,  Matthew 2:11 , that is, their packets, or bundles, to offer presents to our Saviour. Joseph acquainted his brethren, when they found their money returned in their sacks, that God had given them treasures,  Genesis 43:23 . The treasures of the house of God, whether in silver, corn, wine, or oil, were under the care of the Levites. The kings of Judah had also keepers of the treasures both in city and country,  1 Chronicles 27:25; and the places where these magazines were laid up were called treasure cities. Pharaoh compelled the Hebrews to build him treasure cities, or magazines.

King James Dictionary [5]

TREASURE, n. trezh'ur. L. thesaurus.

1. Wealth accumulated particularly, a stock or store of money in reserve. Henry VII. was frugal and penurious, and collected a great treasure of gold and silver. 2. A great quantity of any thing collected for future use.

We have treasures in the field, of wheat and of barley, and of oil and of honey.  Jeremiah 41

3. Something very much valued.  Psalms 135

Ye shall be a peculiar treasure to me.  Exodus 19

4. Great abundance.

In whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.  Colossians 2

TREASURE, trezh'ur. To hoard to collect and reposit, either money or other things, for future use to lay up as, to treasure gold and silver usually with up. Sinners are said to treasure up wrath against the day of wrath.  Romans 2

Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [6]

The Hebrews had one general name for treasure, and called it Ozer. The sweetest of all thoughts is, that Jesus is the treasure of his people. Jehovah promised the church by Moses, that he would command the blessing upon Israel in his storehouses, and in all that he would set his hand unto. And when the Holy Ghost explains this to the soul of the redeemed, and he sees that this is emphatically the blessing; then, and not before, he enters into an apprehension of the sense of the covenant promise. Hence, Jesus speaking under the character of Wisdom-Mediator, saith: "That I may cause those that love me to inherit substance, and I will fill their treasures." Where Jesus is, there is treasure, yea durable riches and righteousness. But where Jesus is not, nothing, be it what it may, can be called treasure. (See  Deuteronomy 28:14;  Proverbs 8:18-21)

Webster's Dictionary [7]

(1): ( n.) Wealth accumulated; especially, a stock, or store of money in reserve.

(2): ( n.) That which is very much valued.

(3): ( n.) A great quantity of anything collected for future use; abundance; plenty.

(4): ( v. t.) To collect and deposit, as money or other valuable things, for future use; to lay up; to hoard; usually with up; as, to treasure up gold.

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [8]

(prop. אָצָר , To Hoard, Θησαυρός , in Scripture signifies anything collected together in stores, e.g. a treasure of corn, of wine, of oil; treasures of gold, silver, brass; treasures of coined money. Snow, winds, hail, rain, waters, are in the treasuries of God (Psalm 1357;  Jeremiah 51:16). We read also of a treasure of good works, treasures of iniquity, to lay up treasures in heaven, to bring forth good or evil out of the treasures of the heart. Joseph told his brethren, when they found their money returned in their sacks, that God had given them treasures ( Genesis 43:23). The kings of Judah had keepers of their treasures, both in city and country ( 1 Chronicles 27:25;  2 Chronicles 32:27, etc.), and the places where these magazines were laid up were called treasure-cities. Pharaoh compelled the Hebrews to build him treasure-cities, or magazines ( Exodus 1:11). The word treasures is often used to express anything in great abundance, "In Jesus Christ are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge" ( Colossians 2:3). The wise man says that wisdom contains in its treasuries understanding, the knowledge of religion, etc. Paul ( Romans 2:5) speaks of heaping up a treasure of wrath against the day of wrath; and the prophet Amos says ( Amos 3:10) they treasure up iniquity, they lay up iniquity as it were in a storehouse, which will bring them a thousand calamities. The treasures of impiety or iniquity ( Proverbs 10:2) express ill-gotten riches. The treasures of iniquity, says the wise man, will eventually bring no profit; and, in the same sense, Christ calls the riches of iniquity mammon of unrighteousness, an estate wickedly acquired ( Luke 16:9). Gospel faith is the treasure of the just; but Paul says, "We have this treasure in earthen vessels" ( 2 Corinthians 4:7). Isaiah says of a good man, "The fear of the Lord is his treasure" (33, 6). On the Scripture allusions to "hidden treasures" see Thomson, Land and Book, 1, 195 sq.; Freeman, Hand-book of Bible Manners, p. 350 sq. (See Store).