From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [1]

(ὁ Σάρων, השָׁרוֹן, ‘the level’)

Sharon was the ancient name of the undulating Maritime Plain which extended from Mt. Carmel to some distance beyond Jaffa-perhaps to the Nahr Rûbîn and the low hills to the S. of Ramleh-where it merged in the Philistian Plain. It was admired by prophets and poets for the richness of its vegetation and the beauty of its wild flowers-‘the excellency of Sharon’ ( Isaiah 35:2), ‘the rose of Sharon’ ( Song of Solomon 2:1). From the groves of oak which at one time covered a great part of its surface, especially in the north, it was also called ὁ δρυμός (Septuagint,  Isaiah 33:9;  Isaiah 35:2;  Isaiah 65:10; Jos. Bellum Judaicum (Josephus)I. xiii. 2) or οἱ δρυμοί (Ant. XIV. xiii. 3). Strabo (XVI. ii. 27) says that in his time there was next to Carmel ‘a large forest’ (δρυμὸς μέγας τις). The only part of Sharon which is alluded to in the NT is the southern end, lying around Lydda (now Lydd), where the fields and orchards were exceedingly well-watered and fertile and the population was dense. Here the presence of St. Peter in the early Apostolic Age-though his visit was only brief, as he was urgently summoned away to Joppa-is said to have given rise to a widespread spiritual movement: ‘all that dwelt at Lydda and in Sharon turned to the Lord’ ( Acts 9:35). The Authorized Versionrenders ‘at Lydda and Sharon,’ apparently mistaking ‘Sharon’ for a town or village in the neighbourhood of Lydda. The use of the article with the Greek and the Hebrew noun proves that a whole district-‘the level country’ (from יָשָׁר)-is meant. The only known village of Sârôna is in the N.E. of Mt. Tabor, probably represented by the Saronas which Eusebius (Onom. 296. 6) says was the name given to the district between Tabor and Tiberias.

Literature.-G. A. Smith, Historical Geography of the Holy Land (G. A. Smith), 1900, p. 147 ff.; D. F. Buhl, GAP[Note: AP Geographie des alten Palästina (Buhl).], 1896, p. 103 f.

James Strahan.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [2]

SHARON . 1 . ha-shârôn , lit. ‘the plain,’   1 Chronicles 27:29 ,   Song of Solomon 2:1 ,   Isaiah 33:9;   Isaiah 35:2;   Isaiah 65:10; Gr. ho Sarôn , whence AV [Note: Authorized Version.] Saron ,   Acts 9:35 . This is the great Maritime Plain extending from Jaffa, or a little south of it, to Mount Carmel in the north. Though called a plain, it is of an undulating character, and was in parts, particularly towards the N., a forest of oaks (  Isaiah 35:2 ). Although hut poorly cultivated, it has a great depth of rich soil and is capable of much development; left now largely to weeds, it yields annually a magnificent crop of beautiful wild flowers. It has always been a pasturage of flocks (  1 Chronicles 27:29 ,   Isaiah 65:10 ). Around Ramleh and Ludd are forests of olives, and the orange gardens of Jaffa are too well known to need more than a passing reference; wherever the hand of man has been diligent, there the soil has bounteously responded. Over a great part of the plain, especially near the sea, water may be tapped at no great depth. Its rivers are the marshy Nahr Zerka or Crocodile River, just below Carmel, Nahr el-Mufjir, Nahr Iskanderuneh , and Nahr el-Aujeh , the last mentioned close to Jaffa. The chief town of Sharon was in ancient days Dor (  Joshua 11:2;   Joshua 12:23 ,   1 Kings 4:11 ), in NT times Cæsarea, and in later Crusading times (1218 1291) the fortified port of Athlît. In   Joshua 12:13 Lassharon is mentioned as one of the royal cities of Canaan; as ‘the king of’ is omitted in the original, the passage may read ‘king of Aphek in the Sharon.’ For ‘rose of Sharon’ See Rose.

2 . A second Sharon ( Saronas ) is mentioned by Eusebius and Jerome as between Mt. Tahor and Tiberias, and this is to-day represented by the village of Sârôna in the Ard el-Hamma N.E. of Tabor. This may he the place mentioned in   Joshua 12:13 (see above).

3 . The suburbs (RVm [Note: Revised Version margin.] ‘pasture lands’) of Sharon (  1 Chronicles 5:16 ) are mentioned as among the possessions of Gad along with Gilead and Bashan.

E. W. G. Masterman.

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [3]

 1 Chronicles 5:16;  Isaiah 33:9, "the excellency (Beauty) of Sharon" ( Isaiah 35:2),  Isaiah 65:10;  Song of Solomon 2:1, "the rose (Narcissus) of Sharon," famous for flowers and for pasture;  Acts 9:35. The broad rich tract between the central mountains and the Mediterranean, stretching from Joppa or Jaffa northwards to Carmel. Half the width is of marl and alluvial soil, the other half of old red semi-consolidated sand and shelly breccias. (See Palestine .) The coast is marked by white sandhills; fine grain, well trimmed plantations, and long gentle swells of rich red and black earth, characterize Sharon. A second Sharon beyond Jordan is not meant in  1 Chronicles 5:16, as some have imagined. It is not said that the Gadites possessed cities in Sharon but only pastures of Sharon; these the Gadites sought for their herds as far as the Mediterranean coast.

As intercourse was maintained between the cis-Jordanic Manassites and the trans-Jordanic Manassites, the Gadites with the latter might very well repair with their herds to the Sharon pastures, as the domain of cis-Jordanic Manasseh stretched into the plain of Sharon. Translated "and in all the pasture grounds of Sharon unto their outgoings" to the sea ( Joshua 17:9). David had his herds feeding in Sharon with Shitrai the Sharonite over them. Gesenius derives Sharon from jashar "straight," "a plain country." One of the earliest recorded travelers in this district was an Egyptian, whose papyrus has been lately transliterated; then as now agricultural pursuits prevailed here, and illustrations are still found of the Egyptian and Eastern plows.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [4]

1. A plain adjoining the seacoast of Palestine between Carmel and Joppa, about sixty miles in length and of variable width, expanding inland as it stretches from the promontory of Carmel towards the south. It contains some sandy tracts, but the soil is in general highly productive, and the plain was of old famous for its beauty and fertility,  1 Chronicles 27:29 Song of   Song of Solomon 2:1   Isaiah 33:9   35:2   65:10 . It contained a town of the same name, called Saron in  Acts 9:35 .

The whole plain was once thickly populated, but is now comparatively uninhabited. The heat of summer is excessive, and the climate somewhat unhealthy. All travellers describe the view of the plain from the tower of Ramleh as one of surpassing richness and beauty.

The frowning hills of Judah on the east confront the glittering waters of the Mediterranean on the west. Towards the north and south far as the eye can reach spreads the beautiful plain, covered in many parts with fields of green or golden grain. Near by are the immense olive-groves of Ramleh and Lydda and amid them the picturesque towers, minarets, and domes of these villages; while the hillsides towards the northeast are thickly studded with native hamlets. The uncultivated parts of the plain are covered in spring and the early summer with a rich profusion of flowers.

2. A town in the tribe of Gad, in the district of Bashan beyond the Jordan,  1 Chronicles 5:16 .

Smith's Bible Dictionary [5]

Sha'ron. (A Plain). A district of the Holy Land occasionally referred to in the Bible.  1 Chronicles 5:16;  Isaiah 33:9. In  Acts 9:35, called Saron . The name has, on each occurrence with one exception only,  1 Chronicles 5:16, the definite article; it would therefore appear that "the Sharon" was some well-defined region familiar to the Israelites. It is that broad, rich tract of land which lies between the mountains of the central part of the Holy Land and the Mediterranean - the northern continuation of the Shefelah . See Palestina; Palestine .

The Sharon of  2 Chronicles 5:16 to which allusion has already been made, is distinguished from the western plain, by not having the article attached to its name, as the other invariably has. It is also apparent from the passage itself that it was some district on the east of the Jordan, in the neighborhood of Gilead and Bashan. The name has not been met with in that direction. See Saron .

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [6]

Plain Of a beautiful and spacious plain, extending from Caesarea to Joppa on the sea coast, and eastward to the mountains of Judea; and is celebrated for its wines, its flowers, and its pastures. It still preserves some portions of its natural beauty, and is adorned in the spring with the white and red rose, the narcissus, the white and orange lily, the carnation and other flowers; but for the rest of the year it appears little better than a desert, with here and there a ruined village, and some clumps of olive trees and sycamores. This name was almost become a proverb, to express a place of extraordinary beauty and fruitfulness,  Isaiah 33:9;  Isaiah 35:2 . But there are three cantons of Palestine known by the name of Sharon. The first, according to Eusebius and St. Jerom, is a canton between Mount Tabor and the sea of Tiberias. The second, a canton between the city of Caesarea of Palestine and Joppa. And the third a canton beyond Jordan, in the country of Basan, and in the division of the tribe of Gad. Modern travellers give this name also to the plain that lies between Ecdippe and Ptolemais.

People's Dictionary of the Bible [7]

Sharon ( Shâr'On ), The Plain. 1. A district in Palestine lying upon the seacoast. It extended from Joppa to Cæsarea (whence it is frequently in Scripture coupled with Carmel), and from the central hills to the Mediterranean. It was a region well adapted for pasture,  1 Chronicles 27:29;  Isaiah 65:10, very fertile,  Isaiah 33:9;  Isaiah 35:2, and celebrated for its roses.  Song of Solomon 2:1. Its locality is further indicated as being in the neighborhood of Lydda,  Acts 9:35, where it is called Saron, A. V., but Sharon in R. V.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [8]

1. A very fertile plain, near the Mediterranean, extending from near Joppa northward to Mount Carmel. Its excellency is spoken of, and the bride in  Song of Solomon 2:1 calls herself a 'rose of Sharon.' It formed part of the lots of Ephraim and of Manasseh.   1 Chronicles 27:29;  Isaiah 33:9;  Isaiah 35:2;  Isaiah 65:10 . It is called SARON in  Acts 9:35 .

2. Plain or city on the east of the Jordan.   1 Chronicles 5:16 . Not identified.

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary [9]

The thinly populated Plain of Sharon was part of Palestine’s coastal plain south of Mt Carmel. Parts of it were marshland, though other parts contained good pastures and forests ( 1 Chronicles 5:16;  1 Chronicles 27:29;  Isaiah 35:2; see Palestine ). Its wildflowers were typical of the Palestinian plains (Song of  Song of Solomon 2:1).

Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [10]

There were several places called by this name in Palestine. Indeed there might be more elsewhere, for the name itself signifies a plain, or a place of fruitfulness. Hence the prophet celebrates it so much. ( Isaiah 35:2; Isa 65:10)

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [11]

(Heb, Sharon', שָׁרוֹן , A Plain ; Sept. usually Σαρών [comp.  Acts 9:35], Σαρωνάς ) , the name, apparently, of three places in Palestine. (See Sharonite).

In the treatment of these we adduce the elucidations of modern critical and archaeological research.

I. The district along the Mediterranean is that commonly referred to tunder this distinctive title. (See Saron).

1. The Name . This has invariably, when referring to this locality ( 1 Chronicles 27:29;  Song of Solomon 2:1;  Isaiah 33:9;  Isaiah 35:2;  Isaiah 65:10), the definite article, הִשָּׁרוֹן , Hash-Sharon ; and this is represented, likewise, in the Sept. renderings Σαρών , Δρυμός , Τὸ Πεδίον . . Two singular variations of this are found in the Vat. MS. (Mai), viz.  1 Chronicles 5:16, Γεριάμ ; and 27:29, ‘Ἀσειδῶν , where the A is a remnant of the Hebrew definite article. It is worthy of remark that a more decided trace of the Hebrew article appears in  Acts 9:35, where some MSS. have Ἀσσαρωνᾶ . The Lasharon (q.v.) of  Joshua 12:18, which some scholars consider to be Sharon with a preposition prefixed, appears to be more probably correctly given in the A.V. The term thus appears to be denominative of a peculiar place, like "the Arabah," "the Shephelah, "the Ciccar," "the Pisgah," etc. (See Topographical Terms).

Sharon is derived by Gesenius (Thesaur. p. 642) from יָשֹׁ ר , To Be Straight or Even the root, also, of Mishor, the name of a district east of Jordan. The application to it, however, by the Sept., by Josephus ( Ant. 15, 13, 3; War, 1, 13, 2), and by Strabo (16, p. 758) of the name Δρυμός or Δρυμοί , "woodland," is singular. It does not seem certain that that term implies the existence of wood on the plain of Sharon. Reland has pointed out ( Palmest. p. 190) that the Saronicus Sinus, or Bay of Saron, in Greece, was so called (Pliny, H.N. 4, 5) because of its woods, Σάρωνις meaning an oak. Thus it is not impossible that Δρυμός was used as an equivalent of the name Sharon, and was not intended to denote the presence of oaks or woods on the spot. May it not be a token that the original meaning of Saron, or Sharon, is not that which its received Hebrew root would imply, and that it has perished except in this one instance? The Alexandrine Jews who translated the Sept. are not likely to have known much either of the Saronic Gulf or of its connection with a rare Greek word. The thickets and groves of the region are proverbial (see below).

2. Description . According to  Acts 9:15, this district was the level region adjacent to Lydda. Eusebius and Jerome ( Onomast. s.v. "Saron"), under the name of Saronas, specify it as the region extending from Caesarea to Joppa. This is corroborated by Jerome in his comments on the three passages in Isaiah, in one of which (on 55, 10) he appears to extend it as far south as Jamnia. He elsewhere (Comm. on  Isaiah 35:2) characterizes it in words which admirably portray its aspects even at the present: "Omnis igitur candor [the white sand hills of the coast], cultus Dei [the wide crops of the finest corn], et circumcisionis scientia [the well- trimmed plantations], et loca uberrima et campestria [the long gentle swells of rich red and black earth], quae appellantur Saron." It is that broad, rich tract of land which lies between the mountains of the central part of the Holy Land and the Mediterranean the northern continuation of the Shephelah. From the passages above cited we gather that it was a place of pasture for cattle, where the royal herds of David grazed ( 1 Chronicles 27:29): the beauty of which was as generally recognized as that of Carmel itself ( Isaiah 35:2), and the desolation of which would be indeed a calamity ( Isaiah 33:9), and. its reestablishment a symbol of the highest prosperity ( Isaiah 65:10). The rose of Sharon (q.v.) was a simile for all that a lover would express ( Song of Solomon 2:1).

Add to these slight traits the indications contained in the renderings of the Sept., Τὸ Πεδίον , "the plain," and Δρυμός , "the wood," and we have exhausted all that we can gather from the Bible of the characteristics of Sharon. There are occasional allusions to wood in the description of the events which occurred in this district in later times. Thus, in the chronicles of the Crusades, the "Forest of Saron" was the scene of one of the most romantic adventures of Richard (Michaud, Histoire, 8); the "Forest of Assur" (i.e. Arsuf) is mentioned by Vinisauf (4, 16). To the southeast of Kaisariyeh there is still "a dreary wood of natural dwarf pines and entangled bushes" (Thomson, Land and Book, ch. 33). The orchards and palm groves round Jimzu, Lydd, and Ramleh, and the dense thickets of dom in the neighborhood of the two last, as well as the mulberry plantations in the valley of the Aujeh, a few miles from Jaffa an industry happily increasing every day show how easily wood might be maintained by care and cultivation (see Stanley, Sinai and Pal. p. 1260, note). It was famous for Saronite wine (Mishna, Nidda, 2, 7, comp. Chilaim, 2, 6), for roses, anciently (Mariti. Voyage, p. 350; Chateaubriand, Trav. 2, 55, comp. Russegger, 3, 201, 287) as well as now (Thomson, Land and Book, 2, 269). In Its midst, between Lydda and Arsuf, according to some, lay the village of Sharon (see Mariti, loc. cit.), once a city. (This is meant, perhaps, in  Joshua 12:18, Acts 40:35.) But later travelers do not mention it, and it is not certain that the passages adduced refer to a city. There are many villages still on the plain (Berggren, Reis. 3, 162). The district has lost much of its ancient fertility, but it is yet good pasture land; there are, still flocks to be found grazing on it, though few in comparison with former days. Like the plain of Esddraelon, Sharon is very much, we might say entirely, deserted. Around Jaffa, indeed, it is well cultivated, and as you move northward from that town you are encompassed with groves of orange, olive, fig, lemon, pomegranate, and palm; the fragrance is delicious, almost oppressive. But farther north, save in a few rich spots, you find but little cultivation. Yet over all the undulating waste your eye is refreshed by the profusion of wild flowers scattered everywhere. Like many of the spots famed anciently for beauty and fertility, it only gives indications of what it might become (see Porter, Hand-book for Pal. p. 380).

II. The Sharon of  1 Chronicles 5:16 is distinguished from the western plain by not having the article attached to its name. It is also apparent from the passage itself that it was some district on the east of Jordan in the neighborhood of Gilead and Bashan (see Bachiene, 2, 3, 233). Reland objects to this ( Palest. p. 371), but on insufficient grounds. The expression "suburbs" ( מַגְרְשֵׁי ) is in itself remarkable. The name has not been met with in that direction, and the only approach to an explanation of it is that of Prof. Stanley ( Sinai And Pal. App. § 7), that Sharon may here be a synonym for the Mishor word, probably, derived from the same root, describing a region with some of the same characteristics and attached to the pastoral plains east of the Jordan.

III. Another Sharon is pointed out by Eusebius ( Ut Sup. ) in North Palestine, between Tabor and the Sea of Tiberias; and Dopke would understand this to be meant in  Song of Solomon 2:1, because this book so often refers to the northern region of the Jordan. But this is very doubtful.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [12]

shâr´un ( השּׁרון , ha - shārōn , with the definite article possibly meaning "the plain"; τὸ πεδίον , pedı́on , ὁ δρυμός , ho drumós , ὁ Σαρών , ho Sarṓn ):

(1) This name is attached to the strip of fairly level land which runs between the mountains and the shore of the Mediterranean, stretching from Nahr Rubı̄n in the South to Mt. Carmel in the North. There are considerable rolling hills; but, compared with the mountains to the East, it is quite properly described as a plain. The soil is a deep rich loam, which is favorable to the growth of cereals. The orange, the vine and the olive grow to great perfection. When the many-colored flowers are in bloom it is a scene of rare beauty.

Of the streams in the plain four carry the bulk of the water from the western slopes of the mountains to the sea. They are also perennial, being fed by fountains. Nahr el - ‛Aujeh enters the sea to the North of Jaffa; Nahr Iskanderūneh 7 miles, and Nahr el - Mefjir fully 2 miles South of Caesarea; and Nahr ez- Zerḳā , the "Crocodile River," 2 1/2 miles North of Caesarea. Nahr el - Fālik runs its short course about 12 miles North of Nahr el - ‛Aujeh . Water is plentiful, and at almost any point it may be obtained by digging. Deep, finely built wells near some of the villages are among the most precious legacies left by the Crusaders. The breadth of the plain varies from 8 to 12 miles, being broadest in the Sharon. There are traces of a great forest in the northern part, which accounts for the use of the term drumos . Josephus ( Ant. , Xiv , xiii, 3) speaks of "the woods" ( hoi drumoı́ ) and Strabo (xvi) of "a great wood." There is still a considerable oak wood in this district. The "excellency" of Carmel and Sharon (  Isaiah 35:2 ) is probably an allusion to the luxuriant oak forests. As in ancient times, great breadths are given up to the pasturing of cattle. Over David's herds that fed in Sharon was Shitrai the Sharonite ( 1 Chronicles 27:29 ). In the day of Israel's restoration "Sharon shall be a fold of flocks" ( Isaiah 65:10 ). Jerome speaks of the fine cattle fed in the pastures of Sharon, and also sings the praises of its wine ( Comm. on Isa 33 and 65). Toward the Sharon no doubt there was more cultivation then than there is at the present day. The German colony to the North of Jaffa, preserving in its name, Sārona , the old Greek name of the plain, and several Jewish colonies are proving the wonderful productiveness of the soil. The orange groves of Jaffa are far-famed.

"The rose of Sharon" ( Song of Solomon 2:1 ) is a mistranslation: ḥăbhacceleth is not a "rose," but the white narcissus, which in season abounds in the plain.

Sharon is mentioned in the New Testament only in  Acts 9:35 .

(2) A district East of the Jordan, occupied by the tribe of Gad ( 1 Chronicles 5:16; here the name is without the article). Kittel ("Ch," SBOT ) suggests that this is a corruption from "Sirion," which again is synonymous with Hermon. He would therefore identify Sharon with the pasture lands of Hermon. Others think that the mı̄shōr or table-land of Gilead is intended.

(3) In  Joshua 12:18 we should perhaps read "the king of Aphek in Sharon." See Lassharon . The order seems to point to some place Northeast of Tabor. Perhaps this is to be identified with the Sarona of Eusebius, Onomasticon , in the district between Tabor and Tiberias. If so, the name may be preserved in that of Sārona on the plateau to the Southwest of Tiberias.

Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [13]

Sha´ron, a level tract along the Mediterranean, between Mount Carmel and Cesarea, celebrated for its rich fields and pastures (;;;;; ). See the head 'Mountains of Palestine,' in the article Palestine.

The Nuttall Encyclopedia [14]

A fertile region in Palestine of the maritime plain between Carmel and Philistia.