From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Smith's Bible Dictionary [1]

Ra'moth-gil'ead. (Heights Of Gilead). One of the great fastnesses on the east of Jordan, and the key to an important district.  1 Kings 4:13. It was the city of refuge, for the tribe of Gad,  Deuteronomy 4:43;  Joshua 20:8;  Joshua 21:38, and the residence of one of Solomon's commissariat officers.  1 Kings 4:13. During the invasion related in  1 Kings 15:20, or some subsequent incursion, this important place had seized by Ben-hadad I, king of Syria.

The incidents of Ahab's expedition are well known. See Ahab . Later, it was taken by Israel, and held, in spite of all the efforts of Hazael, who was now on the throne of Damascus, to regain it.  2 Kings 9:14. Henceforward, Ramoth-gilead disappears from our view. Eusebius and Jerome specify the position of Ramoth as 15 miles from Philadelphia (Amman ). It may correspond to the site bearing the name of Jel'Ad , exactly identical with the ancient Hebrew Gilead, which is four or five miles north of Es-Salt , 25 miles east of the Jordan and 13 miles south of the brook Jabbok.

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary [2]

As its name indicates, Ramoth-gilead was in the territory of Gilead, east of the Jordan River. It was in the region of the ill-defined border between the tribes of East Manasseh and Gad, and was one of the three cities of refuge in Israel’s trans-Jordan territory ( Joshua 20:8-9). (For maps and other details see City Of Refuge; Gilead )

Ramoth-gilead’s chief importance was as a defence outpost on the nation’s eastern frontier. Many battles were fought there, and the town often fell to invading armies ( 1 Kings 22:1-40;  2 Kings 8:28-29;  2 Kings 9:1-16). It was among the first places to fall when Assyria conquered Israel and carried the people into captivity ( 2 Kings 15:29).

Easton's Bible Dictionary [3]

 Deuteronomy 4:43 Joshua 20:8 21:38 1 Kings 22:1-36 2 Kings 8:28

It has with probability been identified with Reimun, on the northern slope of the Jabbok, about 5 miles west of Jerash or Gerasa, one of the cities of Decapolis. Others identify it with Gerosh, about 25 miles north-east of es-Salt, with which also many have identified it. (See Ramath-Mizpeh

Holman Bible Dictionary [4]

 Deuteronomy 4:43 Joshua 20:8 Joshua 21:38 1 Kings 4:13 1 Kings 22:3 1 Kings 22:29-40 2 Kings 9:14 2 Kings 8:28 2 Kings 9:1-6

Mike Mitchell

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [5]

rā´moth - gil´ḗ - ad ( רמת גּלעד , rāmōth gil‛ādh  ; Codex Vaticanus Ῥεμμὰθ Γαλαάδ , Rhemmáth Galaád  ; Codex Alexandrinus Ῥαμμώθ , Rhammṓth , and other forms): A great and strong city East of the Jordan in the territory of Gad, which played an important part in the wars of Israel. It is first mentioned in connection with the appointment of the Cities of Refuge (  Deuteronomy 4:43;  Joshua 20:8 ). It was assigned to the Merarite Levites ( Joshua 21:38;  1 Chronicles 6:80 ). In these four passages it is called "Ramoth in Gilead" (בּגּלעד רמת , rāmōth ba - gil‛ādh ). This form is given wrongly by the King James Version in  1 Kings 22:3 . In all other places the form "Ramoth-gilead" is used.

1. History:

Here Ben-geber was placed in charge of one of Solomon's administrative districts ( 1 Kings 4:13 ), which included Havvoth-jair and "the region of Argob, which is in Bashan." The city was taken from Omri by the Syrians under Ben-hadad I ( Ant. , VIII, xv, 3 ff), and even after the defeat of Ben-hadad at Aphek they remained masters of this fortress. In order to recover it for Israel Ahab invited Jehoshaphat of Judah to accompany him in a campaign. Despite the discouragement of Micalab, the royal pair set out on the disastrous enterprise. In their attack on the city Ahab fought in disguise, but was mortally wounded by an arrow from a bow drawn "at a venture" (1 Ki 22:1-40; 2 Ch 18). The attempt was renewed by Ahab's son Joram; but his father's ill fortune followed him, and, heavily wounded, he retired for healing to Jezreel ( 2 Kings 8:28 ff;   2 Chronicles 22:5 f). During the king's absence from the camp at Ramoth-gilead Jehu was there anointed king of Israel by Elisha (  2 Kings 9:1 ff;   2 Chronicles 22:7 ). He proved a swift instrument of vengeance against the doomed house of Ahab. According to Josephus ( Ant. , IX, vi, 1) the city was taken before Joram's departure. This is confirmed by  2 Kings 9:14 ff. The place is not mentioned again, unless, indeed, it be identical with "Mizpeh" in 1 Macc 5:35.

2. Identification:

It is just possible that Ramoth-gilead corresponds to Mizpah , (1), and to Ramath-Mizpeh . The spot where Laban and Jacob parted is called both Galeed and Mizpah. Ramath may become Ramoth, as we see in the case of Ramah of the South.

Merrill identifies the city with Jerash , the splendid ruins of which lie in Wâdy ed - Deir , North of the Jabbok. He quotes the Bab Talmud ( Maḳḳōth 9b) as placing the Cities of Refuge in pairs, so that those on the East of the Jordan are opposite those on the West Shechem, being the middle one of the three West of the Jordan, should have Ramorb-gilead nearly opposite to it on the East, and this would place its site at Gerasa, the modern Jerash ( Hastings Dictionary of the Bible , under the word). But the words of the Talmud must not be interpreted too strictly. It seems very probable that Golan lay far South of a line drawn due East from Ḳedes (Kedesh-naphtali). No remains have been discovered at Jerash older than Greek- Roman times, although the presence of a fine perennial spring makes occupation in antiquity probable. The place could be approached by chariots along Wâdy ‛Ajlūn , and the country adjoining was not unsuitable for chariot evolutions.

Conder and others have suggested Reimūn , an ancient site to the West of Jerash . The absence of any source of good water-supply is practically fatal to this identification. Buhl ( Geographic des Alten Palestina , 261 ff) favors el - Jil‛ād , a ruined site on a hill South of the Jabbok; see Gilead , (1). Eusebius and Jerome ( Onomasticon , under the word) contradict each other, the former placing Ramoth-gilead 15 miles West, and the latter 15 miles East of Philadelphia. It is clear, however, that this is a mere slip on Jerome's part, as both say it is near the Jabbok. Many have identified it with es - Salṭ , which is indeed 15 miles West of ‛Ammān (Philadelphia), but it   Isaiah 10 miles South of the Jabbok, and so can hardly be described as near that river. It is also no place for chariot warfare. The case against identification with Ramoth-gilead is conclusively stated by G.A. Cooke in Driver's Deuteronomy, xx.

In suggesting these sites sufficient attention has not been given to what is said in  1 Kings 4 . The authority of the king's officer in Ramoth-gilead extended over the land of Argob in Bashan, as well as over the towns of Jair in Gilead. A situation therefore to the North of Mahanaim must be sought. Guthe would find it at er - Remtheh , on the pilgrim road, about 10 miles South of Mezērı̄b (compare Smith, Historical Geography of the Holy Land, 586 ff). Cheyne's suggestion of Ṣalkhad , away on the crest of the mountain of Bashan , is out of the question. Caleb Hauser ( Palestine Exploration Fund Statement , 1906,304 f) argues in favor of Beit Rās , over 11 miles Southeast of Gadara, a position commanding all Northern Gilead and as favorably situated as Jerash for chariot warfare and communication with the West of Jordan. "Here we have the heights of Northern Gilead. Ramoth, Capitolias, and Beit Ras are in their respective languages idiomatic equivalents. It is improbable that a large city like Capitolins should have superseded anything but a very important city of earlier times." We must be content to leave the question open meantime.

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [6]

Bibliography Information McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Ramoth-Gilead'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/tce/r/ramoth-gilead.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.