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Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [1]

A wide variety has been found to exist in the literary allusions of the four Gospels. The same freedom pervades the rest of the NT. Characteristic differences are, no doubt, to be met with in different groups of apostolic writings; but the field of quotation, direct and indirect, extends throughout from exact reproduction of the original texts to the merest suggestion or reminiscence, often hardly to be traced. The present article seeks to cover the more obvious reminiscences, as well as explicit citations, in the NT books under review.

1. Acts of the Apostles.-The direct quotations in Acts are confined to speeches of the apostles and the story of the Ethiopian eunuch ( Acts 8:26 ff.). They are invariably drawn from the LXX_, even when that Version departs considerably from the Hebrew (as in  Acts 7:42 f.,  Acts 15:16 f.), and normally introduced by formulae like ‘It is written (in the book of Psalms),’ ‘This is that which hath been spoken by the prophets,’ ‘For David saith concerning him,’ etc. A number of the citations are exact, viz.  Acts 2:25-28 =  Psalms 16:8-11, omitting the last clause (identity being secured by reading ἡ καρδία μου with àAD, etc.);  Acts 2:34 f. =  Psalms 110:1; Ps 4:25f. =  Psalms 2:1 f.;  Acts 8:32 f. =  Isaiah 53:7 f. (with addition of αὐτόν, as in àA, etc.);  Acts 23:5 =  Exodus 22:28 (in Lucian’s recension);  Acts 28:26 f. =  Isaiah 6:9 f. (apart from a slight difference in the opening formula). Under the same category is virtually to be placed the long citation from  Joel 2:28-32 woven into Peter’s speech at Pentecost ( Acts 2:17-21), the only changes from the LXX_ (àA) being a substitution of the eschatological phrase ἐν ταῖς ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις (from  Isaiah 2:2,  Micah 4:1) for the simple μετὰ ταῦτα of the original, the insertion of the solemn formula of Divine utterance λέγει ὁ θεός, and the transposition of the clauses relating to the young men and the old. In close dependence on the historical narratives from Genesis to Kings stands Stephen’s long survey of the Divine leading and mission of Israel ( Acts 7:1 ff.), many of the verses being abbreviated, but sufficiently exact, citations of biblical texts (cf. esp. vv.  Acts 7:3;  Acts 7:6 f.,  Acts 7:26-28;  Acts 7:30-34;  Acts 7:40 with  Genesis 12:1;  Genesis 15:13 f.,  Exodus 2:13 f.,  Exodus 3:2 ff.,  Exodus 32:1). More deliberate alterations are evident in  Exodus 1:20, where the general denunciation of wicked men in  Psalms 69:25 (amplified by a further reference to  Psalms 109:8) is directly pointed against Judas;  Acts 2:30, an indirect citation of Ps 132:11; 3:22f. (abbreviated in  Acts 7:37), a conflate of  Deuteronomy 18:15-19 and  Leviticus 23:29; Lv 3:25, a free blending of the promises addressed to the fathers in  Genesis 12:3;  Genesis 18:18, etc.;  Genesis 4:11, a loose citation of the verses ( Psalms 118:22 f.) which are fully reproduced and applied to Christ in  Matthew 21:42 and parallel texts;  Acts 7:42 f., where the famous words of  Amos 5:25-27 are quoted with considerable changes, the most remarkable being the substitution of ‘Babylon’ for ‘Damascus’ (due either to accident, or, more probably, to a desire to bring the prophecy into line with later events);  Acts 7:49 f., where the prophet’s great contrast between the heavens of the Most High God and even the noblest temple built by man ( Isaiah 66:1 f.) is reproduced with considerable freedom;  Isaiah 13:22, a noteworthy conflate of  Psalms 89:20; Psalms 89 : 2 Samuel 23:1 (or  Psalms 72:20),  1 Samuel 13:14, and  Isaiah 44:28; other verses from St. Paul’s speech at Antioch, esp.  Acts 13:33-35;  Acts 13:41;  Acts 13:47, which are abbreviated citations of  Psalms 2:7,  Isaiah 55:3,  Psalms 16:10,  Habakkuk 1:5, and  Isaiah 49:6 respectively;  Acts 15:16 f., a free rendering of  Amos 9:11, introduced by a phrase from  Jeremiah 12:15;  Jeremiah 26:17 f., an application to St. Paul himself of the prophetic passage  Isaiah 42:7-16.

In addition to direct citations, however, there are many reminiscences of Scriptural phraseology scattered through Acts. The following may be presented as most suggestive of the original texts:  Acts 2:24 (cf.  Psalms 18:4 f.,  Psalms 116:3,  Job 39:2 f.);  Acts 2:39 (cf.  Isaiah 57:19,  Joel 2:32, etc.);  Acts 2:40 (cf.  Deuteronomy 32:5);  Acts 4:24,  Acts 14:15,  Acts 17:24 (cf.  Genesis 1:1,  Exodus 20:11, etc.);  Acts 4:34 (cf.  Deuteronomy 15:4);  Acts 5:4 (cf.  Joshua 24:27, etc.);  Acts 8:2 (cf.  Genesis 50:10);  Acts 8:21 (cf.  Deuteronomy 12:12,  Psalms 78:37);  Acts 10:36 (cf.  Psalms 107:20,  Isaiah 52:7, etc.);  Acts 17:27 (cf.  Isaiah 55:6, etc.);  Acts 17:29 (cf.  Isaiah 40:18 f.,  Isaiah 46:5);  Acts 17:31 (cf.  Psalms 9:8, etc.).

Outside of the OT, no texts are ever cited as Scripture. Other sources are, however, clearly before the mind of the writer. Thus  Acts 7:21 suggests Wis 11:14; 18:5; 17:29, Wis 13:10; and 17:30,  Wisdom of Solomon 11:23;  Wisdom of Solomon 12:2. The phraseology of  Acts 3:14 (cf.  Acts 7:52,  Acts 22:14)  Acts 4:12,  Acts 10:4,  Acts 17:31 recalls Enoch, xxxviii. 2, xlviii. 7, xcix. 3, and xli. 9 respectively. In St. Stephen’s speech ( Acts 7:36;  Acts 7:38 f.) R. H. Charles finds distinct evidence of dependence on the Assumption of Moses (iii. 11-13). There is here also ( Acts 7:16) betrayed an acquaintance with extra-canonical Jewish tradition regarding the burial of Joseph’s brethren, as it was afterwards committed to writing in the Book of Jubilees (xlvi. 9 f.). Finally, St. Paul’s great speech at Athens brings classical poetry into the service of Christ. The final clause of  Acts 17:28, Τοῦ γὰρ καὶ γένος ἐσμέν (‘for we are also his offspring’) has long been recognized as an exact quotation from Aratus’ Phaenomena, line 5 (cf. the similar phrase, ἐκ σοῦ γὰρ γένος ἐσμέν, from Cleanthes’ Hymn to Jove, line 4). But Rendel Harris has recently traced the immediately preceding words (‘for in him we live and move and have our being’) to the Minos of the Cretan pcet, Epimenides, from which also  Titus 1:12 is drawn, the text being restored as follows:

τύμβον ἐτεκτῄναντο σέθεν, κύδιστε, μέγιστε,

Κρῆτες ἀεὶ ψεῦσται, κακὰ θηρία, γαστέρες ἀργαί.

Ἀλλὰ σύ γʼ οὐ θνήσκεις, ἕστηκας γὰρ ζοὸς αἰεί,

ἐν γὰρ σοὶ ζῶμεν καὶ κινύμεθʼ ἠδὲ καὶ ἐσμέν

(cf. Exp_, 8th ser., iv. [1912] 348 ff.).

2. The Pauline Epistles.-These are peculiarly rich in allusions. Every important doctrinal argument is buttressed by an appeal to Scripture; and even moral counsels are, as a rule, referred to some basal principle of the OT. The Apostle’s ordinary language is likewise steeped in OT phraseology. Here too the LXX_ is the great storehouse of literary reference. ‘More than half of the direct quotations of the OT in the Epistles of St. Paul are taken from the LXX_ without material change’ (H. B. Swete, Introduction to the OT in Greek, Cambridge, 1900, p. 400). In the remaining cases he allows himself considerable freedom, sometimes quoting from memory, or otherwise altering the text for the purpose immediately in view, though occasionally there is evidence of direct translation from the Hebrew.

(a) The Epistle to the Romans is a veritable mine of quotations. Exact reproductions of the LXX_ are found as follows:  Romans 3:4 b =  Psalms 51:4 b;  Psalms 4:3 (cf.  Psalms 4:5 ff.) =  Genesis 15:6;  Genesis 4:7 f. =  Psalms 32:1 f.; psa 4:17 (πατέρα πολλῶν ἐθνῶν τέθεικά σε) is excerpted from  Genesis 17:5;  Genesis 4:18 (οὕτως ἔσται τὸ σπέρμα σου) from  Genesis 15:5;  Genesis 7:7 (οὐκ ἐπιθυμήσεις) from the Decalogue ( Exodus 20:17);  Romans 8:36 =  Psalms 44:22;  Psalms 9:7 (ἐν Ἰσαὰκ κληθήσεταί σοι σπέρμα) comes from  Genesis 21:12;  Genesis 9:12 (ὁ μείζων δουλεύσει τῷ ἐλάσσονι) from  Genesis 25:23;  Genesis 9:15 =  Exodus 33:19;  Exodus 9:29 =  Isaiah 1:9;  Isaiah 10:13 = Jl 2:32; 10:16 =  Isaiah 53:1 a;  Isaiah 10:18 = Ps 19:4; 12:20 =  Proverbs 25:21 f. (omitting the last words);  Romans 13:9 (ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν) comes from  Leviticus 19:18;  Leviticus 15:3 = Ps 69:9; 15:9 = Ps 18:49; 15:10 (εὐφράνθητε, ἔθνη, μετὰ τοῦ λαοῦ αὐτοῦ) from  Deuteronomy 32:43;  Deuteronomy 15:11 (acc. to certain MSS_) =  Psalms 117:1. The quotation from  Habakkuk 2:4 introduced in  Romans 1:17 is identical with the LXX_ save for the omission of μού (ct._ Heb. áÌÆàÁîé֣ðÈúåÉ, ‘through his faith’);  Romans 2:6 likewise differs from  Proverbs 24:12 only in the pronouns. The long citation,  Romans 3:10-18, opens with a phrase from  Ecclesiastes 7:20; the rest is almost an exact reproduction of the LXX_ text of  Psalms 14:1-3, though this is really a conflate of various OT passages ( Psalms 5:9;  Psalms 140:3;  Psalms 10:7,  Isaiah 59:7 f., and  Psalms 36:1) interwoven with the original.  Romans 3:20 is clearly introduced as a quotation (from  Psalms 143:2), but differs considerably from both the Hebrew and the LXX_;  Romans 9:9 is a free, abbreviated reference to  Genesis 18:10;  Genesis 18:14;  Genesis 9:13 a citation from  Malachi 1:2 f., with a trifling transposition of the opening words.  Romans 9:17 (from  Exodus 9:16) shows a distinct approach to the original Hebrew. On the other hand,  Romans 9:25 f.,  Romans 9:27 f.,  Romans 9:32 f. are free reproductions of the thought of  Hosea 1:10;  Hosea 2:23,  Isaiah 10:22 f.,  Isaiah 28:16 (blended with  Romans 8:14) respectively, in the last instance so free as to yield a sense quite contrary to the original. The final clause of  Romans 9:33 is repeated in  Romans 10:11 with the addition of πᾶς; while  Romans 10:5 is a direct application of  Leviticus 18:5 to ‘the righteousness that is of the law.’ The long passage on the nearness and saving power of the Word of God ( Romans 10:6-9) is another free compound of  Deuteronomy 9:4;  Deuteronomy 30:11-14, etc.  Romans 10:15 (from  Isaiah 52:7) gives further evidence of direct use of the Hebrew;  Romans 10:19 differs from the LXX_ text of  Deuteronomy 32:21 only in the substitution of the personal pronoun ‘you’ for ‘them,’ and  Romans 10:20 f. from  Isaiah 65:1 f. in a slight transposition of words.  Romans 11:3 f. (from  1 Kings 19:10 ff.), has been altered and transposed under Hebrew influence.  Romans 11:8 is a free blend of ideas from  Isaiah 29:10,  Deuteronomy 29:4, etc. (with traces of Hebrew influence);  Romans 11:26 f. is also a complex from  Isaiah 59:20 f. (in the main) and  Psalms 14:7,  Isaiah 27:9, etc.  Romans 11:9 f., again, is a close, though abbreviated, citation of  Psalms 69:22 f., and  Romans 11:34 f. is but slightly altered from  Isaiah 40:13 f. (in the fuller reading of àA, etc.).  Romans 12:19 (from  Deuteronomy 32:35) shows the same approach to the original Hebrew as the Targum of Onkelos.  Romans 14:11 is a somewhat free rendering of  Isaiah 45:23, with introductory phrase from  Isaiah 49:18, or a similar context;  Romans 15:12 is an abbreviated reference to  Isaiah 11:10 (cf.  Isaiah 42:4); and  Romans 15:21 is the exact equivalent of  Isaiah 52:15, except for the transposition of ὄψονται.

(b) A number of these citations are repeated in other Epistles of St. Paul. Thus the fundamental assertion of justification by faith ( Romans 1:17 =  Habakkuk 2:4) reappears in  Galatians 3:11, and the texts  Romans 3:20 (from  Psalms 143:2) in  Galatians 2:16;  Romans 4:3 (= Genesis 15:6) in  Galatians 3:6;  Romans 10:5 (from  Leviticus 18:5) in  Galatians 3:12;  Romans 13:9 b (from  Leviticus 19:18) in  Galatians 5:14; and  Romans 11:34 (from  Isaiah 40:13) in  1 Corinthians 2:16 (a different close being here adopted).

Fresh quotations from the OT are found as follows:  Galatians 4:27 = Isa 54:1; 4:30 =  Genesis 21:10 (with the significant change of τῆς ἐλευθέρας instead of Ἰσαάκ);  Galatians 3:8, a blend of the promises in  Genesis 12:3;  Genesis 18:18, etc.;  Galatians 3:10, from  Deuteronomy 27:26, with phrase in woven from  Deuteronomy 9:11;  Deuteronomy 3:13, an abbreviated, and slightly altered, citation from  Deuteronomy 21:23;  Deuteronomy 3:16, a direct application to Christ of the promise to Abraham and his ‘seed’ ( Genesis 12:7;  Genesis 13:15;  Genesis 17:8, etc.).

The closing phrase of  1 Corinthians 6:16 comes directly from  Genesis 2:24 (the whole verse being reproduced in  Ephesians 5:31);  1 Corinthians 9:9 (in reading of àAD, etc.) =  Deuteronomy 25:4 (repeated in  1 Timothy 5:18 with transposition of words);  1 Corinthians 10:7 =  Exodus 32:6;  Exodus 10:26, a phrase from Ps 24:1; 15:32 =  Isaiah 22:13;  Isaiah 1:19 f. comes from  Isaiah 29:14 with alteration of verb;  1 Corinthians 1:31 (repeated in  2 Corinthians 10:17) is a free reproduction of  Jeremiah 9:23;  Jeremiah 2:9 a very free rendering, perhaps through independent Jewish channels (cf. below), of the ideas in  Isaiah 64:4, with suggestions from  Isaiah 65:16 or  Jeremiah 3:16;  Jeremiah 3:19 is from  Job 5:13, under direct influence of the Hebrew;  1 Corinthians 3:20, from  Psalms 94:11, with ‘of the wise’ substituted for ‘of men’ (to make the application more apt);  1 Corinthians 10:20 (δαιμονίοις καὶ οὐ θεῷ θύουσιν) from  Deuteronomy 32:17, with a change in the order of words;  1 Corinthians 14:21, a very free citation, supported by λέγει Κύριος, of  Isaiah 28:11 f.;  1 Corinthians 14:34,  1 Corinthians 15:3-4;  1 Corinthians 15:15;  1 Corinthians 15:45;  1 Corinthians 15:47, free allusions to  Genesis 3:18,  Isaiah 53:12,  Hosea 6:2, and  Genesis 2:7, all adduced as ‘written’ or Scriptural authorities;  1 Corinthians 15:27 (cf.  Ephesians 1:22,  Philippians 3:21), from  Psalms 8:6 with direct reference to the Hebrew;  1 Corinthians 15:54 f., a free conflate of  Isaiah 25:8 and  Hosea 13:14.

 2 Corinthians 4:13 (ἐπίστευσα διὸ ἐλάλησα) exactly =  Psalms 116:10;  Psalms 6:2 =  Isaiah 49:8;  Isaiah 9:9 =  Psalms 112:9;  Psalms 13:1 (cf.  1 Timothy 5:19) =  Deuteronomy 19:15 (Luc.);  2 Corinthians 4:6, a free blend of  Genesis 1:2 f.,  Isaiah 9:1 f., etc.;  2 Corinthians 6:18, a loose conflate of  Ezekiel 37:27 and  Leviticus 26:11 f.;  2 Corinthians 6:17, abbreviated from  Isaiah 52:11 and  Ezekiel 20:34;  2 Corinthians 6:18, a compound of  Jeremiah 31:9,  Isaiah 43:6; Isaiah 43 : 2 Samuel 7:8, etc.;  2 Corinthians 8:15, from  Exodus 16:18, with direct approach to the Hebrew;  2 Corinthians 9:7, a free reproduction of  Proverbs 22:9 (cf.  Exodus 25:2).

 Ephesians 4:8 is from  Psalms 68:18, with the ἔλαβες boldly altered to ἔδωκεν, to make it more applicable to the Giver of good;  Ephesians 4:25, from  Zechariah 8:16 with the àÆú more accurately rendered by μετὰ τοῦ;  Ephesians 4:26, an excerpt from Ps 4:4; 5:14, a very free reproduction of  Isaiah 60:1;  Isaiah 60:19 f. (cf. below);  Ephesians 5:16, from  Proverbs 23:31 (with οἴνῳ for ἐν οἴνοις);  Ephesians 6:2 f., from the Decalogue ( Exodus 20:12), the motive being somewhat altered, and a new clause added to emphasize the element of ‘promise.’

 Philippians 1:19 is a literal extract from  Job 13:16; and the two ‘seals’ of  2 Timothy 2:19 are free citations of  Numbers 16:5 and  Isaiah 26:13 respectively. Direct quotations from the OT are not found in Colossians , 1 and 2 Thessalonians, Titus, or Philemon.

Among the more striking reminiscences may be noted  Romans 1:23 (cf.  Deuteronomy 4:15-18,  Psalms 106:20);  Romans 2:5 (cf.  Psalms 110:5,  Zephaniah 1:18);  Romans 3:4 a (cf.  Psalms 116:11);  Romans 3:29 f. (cf.  Malachi 2:10);  Romans 4:11 (cf.  Genesis 17:11);  Romans 4:13;  Romans 4:16 (cf.  Genesis 12:7;  Genesis 13:15, etc.);  Romans 4:19 (cf.  Genesis 17:17, etc.);  Romans 4:25,  Romans 5:19;  Romans 5:21 (cf.  Isaiah 53:12);  Romans 5:5 (cf.  Psalms 22:4 f.,  Psalms 25:20);  Romans 7:8;  Romans 7:11 (cf.  Genesis 2:16 f.,  Romans 3:1 ff.);  Romans 8:27 (cf. Heb. text of  Psalms 7:9);  Romans 8:33 f. (cf.  Isaiah 50:3 f.);  Romans 9:20 f. (cf.  Isaiah 29:16;  Isaiah 45:9);  Romans 11:1 f. (cf.  Psalms 94:14);  Romans 11:16 ff. (cf.  Jeremiah 11:16);  Romans 11:25,  Romans 12:16 (cf.  Isaiah 5:21,  Proverbs 3:7);  Romans 12:14 (cf.  Psalms 109:28);  Romans 12:17 (cf.  Proverbs 3:4).

 1 Corinthians 1:2 (cf.  Joel 2:32);  1 Corinthians 1:20 (cf.  Isaiah 19:11 f.,  Isaiah 33:18);  1 Corinthians 3:11 (cf.  Isaiah 28:16);  1 Corinthians 5:7 (cf.  Exodus 12:15);  1 Corinthians 6:2 (cf.  Daniel 7:18 ff.);  1 Corinthians 6:17 (cf.  2 Kings 18:6);  1 Corinthians 8:6 (cf.  Deuteronomy 4:35;  Deuteronomy 4:39,  Malachi 2:10, etc.);  1 Corinthians 9:7 (cf.  Deuteronomy 20:6,  Proverbs 27:18, etc.);  1 Corinthians 9:13 (cf.  Deuteronomy 18:1 ff.,  Numbers 18:8 ff.);  1 Corinthians 10:1 ff., from  Exodus 13:2 ff. (combined with tradition);  1 Corinthians 10:22 (cf.  Deuteronomy 32:21);  1 Corinthians 11:7 (cf.  Genesis 1:26 f.);  1 Corinthians 14:25 (cf.  Isaiah 45:14,  Zechariah 8:23;  1 Corinthians 15:31 (cf.  Psalms 44:22).

 2 Corinthians 3:3;  2 Corinthians 3:7 (cf.  Exodus 31:18,  Jeremiah 31:33,  Ezekiel 11:19, etc.);  2 Corinthians 3:7 ff. (cf.  Exodus 34:29 ff.);  2 Corinthians 4:11 (cf.  Psalms 44:22);  2 Corinthians 5:10 (cf.  Ecclesiastes 12:14);  2 Corinthians 5:17 (cf.  Isaiah 43:18 f.);  2 Corinthians 6:9 (cf.  Psalms 118:17 f.);  2 Corinthians 6:11 (cf.  Psalms 119:32);  2 Corinthians 7:6 (cf.  Isaiah 49:13);  2 Corinthians 8:21 (cf.  Proverbs 3:4);  2 Corinthians 9:10 (cf.  Isaiah 55:10,  Hosea 10:12);  2 Corinthians 11:3 (cf.  Genesis 3:4).

 Galatians 1:4 (cf.  Isaiah 53:12);  Galatians 1:15 f. (cf.  Jeremiah 1:5);  Galatians 3:17 (cf.  Exodus 12:40 f.);  Galatians 3:20 (cf.  Malachi 2:10);  Galatians 6:16 (cf.  Psalms 125:5, etc.).

 Ephesians 1:20 (cf.  Psalms 110:1);  Ephesians 1:22 (cf.  Psalms 8:6);  Ephesians 2:13 ff. (cf.  Isaiah 57:19);  Ephesians 2:19 (cf.  Leviticus 25:23);  Ephesians 2:20 (cf.  Isaiah 28:16);  Ephesians 4:6 (cf.  Deuteronomy 6:4);  Ephesians 4:9 f. (cf.  Deuteronomy 30:12 ff.);  Ephesians 5:2 (cf.  Genesis 8:21,  Exodus 29:18, etc.);  Ephesians 5:22 ff. (cf.  Genesis 3:16);  Ephesians 6:14 (cf.  Isaiah 11:5;  Isaiah 59:17, etc.);  Ephesians 6:15 (cf.  Isaiah 52:7);  Ephesians 6:17 (cf.  Isaiah 49:2;  Isaiah 51:16;  Isaiah 59:17).

 Philippians 2:10 f. (cf.  Isaiah 45:23);  Philippians 2:15 (cf.  Deuteronomy 32:5);  Philippians 2:16 (cf.  Isaiah 49:4;  Isaiah 65:23);  Philippians 3:3 (cf.  Jeremiah 9:23 f.);  Philippians 3:21 (cf.  Psalms 8:6);  Philippians 4:3 (cf.  Psalms 69:28, etc.).

 Colossians 2:3 (cf.  Isaiah 45:3);  Colossians 2:22 (cf.  Isaiah 29:13);  Colossians 3:1 (cf.  Psalms 110:1);  Colossians 3:10 (cf.  Genesis 1:27);  Colossians 3:18 (cf.  Genesis 3:16).

 1 Thessalonians 2:4 (cf.  Jeremiah 11:20);  1 Thessalonians 2:16 (cf.  Genesis 15:18,  Deuteronomy 8:20);  1 Thessalonians 4:8 (cf.  Ezekiel 11:19;  Ezekiel 36:26 f.,  Psalms 51:11);  1 Thessalonians 5:8 (cf.  Isaiah 59:17);  1 Thessalonians 5:22 ( Job 1:1;  Job 1:8).

 2 Thessalonians 1:8 (cf.  Exodus 3:2,  Isaiah 66:15);  2 Thessalonians 1:9 f. (cf.  Isaiah 2:10 ff.,  Psalms 89:8);  2 Thessalonians 1:12 (cf.  Isaiah 24:15;  Isaiah 49:3;  Isaiah 66:5);  2 Thessalonians 2:4 (cf.  Daniel 11:36, etc.);  2 Thessalonians 2:8 (cf.  Isaiah 11:4);  2 Thessalonians 2:13 (cf.  Deuteronomy 33:12).

 1 Timothy 1:17 (cf.  Deuteronomy 4:35, etc.);  1 Timothy 2:6 (cf.  Isaiah 53:4 ff.);  1 Timothy 2:11 f. (cf.  Genesis 3:16);  1 Timothy 2:14 (cf.  Genesis 3:6 ff.);  1 Timothy 6:1 (cf.  Isaiah 52:5);  1 Timothy 6:15 (cf.  Deuteronomy 10:17,  Psalms 136:3,  Daniel 2:47, etc.).

 2 Timothy 4:14 (cf.  Psalms 28:4;  Psalms 62:12);  2 Timothy 4:17 (cf.  Daniel 6:20).

 Titus 2:5 (cf.  Genesis 3:16);  Titus 2:14 (cf.  Exodus 19:5,  Isaiah 53:4 ff.,  Ezekiel 37:23, etc.).

The Pauline Epistles also show the influence of apocryphal books. A clear instance is found in  Romans 12:15, compared with  Sirach 7:34 (μὴ ὑστέρει ἀπὸ κλαιόντων, καὶ μετὰ πενθούντων πένθησον); cf., further,  Romans 2:11 ( Sirach 32:15 f.)  Romans 16:27 ( Sirach 1:8),  1 Corinthians 6:12 ( Sirach 37:28),  1 Corinthians 6:13 ( Sirach 36:23)  1 Corinthians 7:13; 1Co_7:36 ( Sirach 42:9 f.),  Colossians 2:3 ( Sirach 1:25),  1 Thessalonians 4:6 ( Sirach 5:3). Between Romans and the Wisdom of Solomon there are several close parallels betraying St. Paul’s intimate acquaintance with the latter; cf., especially,  Romans 1:18 ff. ( Wisdom of Solomon 13:1 ff;  Wisdom of Solomon 14:8 f.),  Romans 8:18 ( Wisdom of Solomon 3:4 ff.),  Romans 9:19 f. ( Wisdom of Solomon 12:12),  Romans 9:21 ( Wisdom of Solomon 15:7),  Romans 9:31 ( Wisdom of Solomon 2:11),  Romans 11:32 ( Wisdom of Solomon 11:23),  Romans 13:10 ( Wisdom of Solomon 6:18). Of the other Epistles, cf.  1 Corinthians 11:7 ( Wisdom of Solomon 2:23)  1 Corinthians 15:45;  1 Corinthians 15:47 ( Wisdom of Solomon 15:11),  2 Corinthians 5:1 ff. ( Wisdom of Solomon 9:15),  Ephesians 1:16,  Colossians 1:12 ( Wisdom of Solomon 5:5),  Ephesians 2:12 ( Wisdom of Solomon 3:18),  Ephesians 6:11 ff. ( Wisdom of Solomon 5:17 ff.),  1 Thessalonians 1:10 ( Wisdom of Solomon 16:8). To a common use of Wisdom are no doubt to be traced the frequent resemblances between the Epistles and Philo. A considerable list of parallels with the Book of Enoch has been drawn up by Charles, the most obvious being  Romans 8:38,  Ephesians 1:21,  Colossians 1:16 (En. lxi. 10),  Romans 9:5,  2 Corinthians 11:31 (En. lxxvii. 1),  Philippians 2:10 (En. xlviii. 5),  Colossians 2:3 (En. xlvi. 3),  2 Thessalonians 1:7 (En. lxi. 10),  1 Timothy 1:15 (En. xciv. 1). The very free citation,  1 Corinthians 2:9, is referred by Origen and other Church Fathers to the Apocalypse of Elijah, and is actually found in the Latin version (ii. 34); this may well have been the direct source, its ultimate dependence on the OT explaining the formula κάθως γέγραπται (cf. 1 Clem. xxxiv. 8, where the text recurs in almost the same form, though

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [2]

Quotations (IN NT) . The NT writings contain quotations from four sources: (1) the OT; (2) non-canonical Jewish writings; (3) non-Jewish sources; (4) letters to which the author of a letter is replying, or other private sources. It is significant of the relation of the NT writings to the OT Scriptures and of the attitude of the NT writers to these Scriptures, that the quotations of the first class far outnumber all those of the other three classes. Swete counts 160 passages directly quoted from the OT by writers of the NT, including those which are cited with an introductory formula, and those which, by their length or accuracy of quotation, are clearly shown to be intended as quotations. Westcott and Hort reckon the total number of NT quotations from the OT at 1279, including both passages formerly cited and those in which an influence of the OT upon the NT passage is otherwise shown. Even this list is perhaps not absolutely complete. Thus, while WH [Note: H Westcott and Hort’s text.] enumerate 61 passages from Is 1 39, H. Osgood, in his essay Quotations from the OT in the NT , finds exactly twice as many 122. Against this large number of quotations from the OT there can be cited at the utmost only some 24 quotations by NT writers from non-canonical Jewish sources (see Ryle, art. ‘Apocrypha’ in Smith’s DB [Note: Dictionary of the Bible.] 2; Zahn, Com. on   Galatians 3:10  ;   Galatians 5:3  ;  Galatians 6:15  ; Woods, art. ‘Quotations’ in Hastings’ DB [Note: Dictionary of the Bible.] ). Of quotations from non-Jewish sources the following are the only probable instances:   Titus 1:12 ,   Acts 17:28 , 1Co 12:12-27;   1 Corinthians 15:33 . To this short list it should be added that Luke’s preface (  Luke 1:1-4 ) is perhaps constructed on classical models (cf. Farrar, Life and Work of Paul , Excursus 3; Zahn, Eînl . 2 i. p. 51). Of quotations from private sources there are several unquestionable examples in the Pauline letters;   1 Corinthians 7:1; 1Co 8:1;   1 Corinthians 11:2;   1 Corinthians 11:17 f.,   1 Corinthians 12:1 ,   Philippians 1:3;   Philippians 2:25 f.,   Philippians 4:14-18; cf. also   Philippians 1:5-7 .

Of the numerous quotations from the OT by far the largest number are derived directly from the LXX [Note: Septuagint.] , even the freedom of quotation, which the NT writers in common with others of their time permitted themselves, in no way obscuring their direct dependence upon the Greek version. Among the NT books the Epistle to the Hebrews shows the strongest and most constant influence of the LXX. [Note: Septuagint.] According to Westcott ( Com . p. 479), 15 quotations agree with the LXX [Note: Septuagint.] and Hebrew, 8 with the LXX [Note: Septuagint.] where it differs from the Hebrew, 3 differ from LXX [Note: Septuagint.] and Hebrew, 3 are free renderings. Westcott adds that ‘the writer regarded the Greek version as authoritative, and … nowhere shows any immediate knowledge of the Hebrew text.’

The Gospel of Matthew, on the other hand, exhibits the largest influence of the Hebrew. In the quotations from the OT which are common to the Synoptic Gospels (occurring chiefly in the sayings of Jesus) the LXX [Note: Septuagint.] clearly exerts the dominant influence. But in those passages which are peculiar to this Gospel being Introduced by the writer by way of comment on events though the writer is not unacquainted with or uninfluenced by the LXX [Note: Septuagint.] , the Hebrew is the dominant influence;  Matthew 1:23;   Matthew 2:15;   Matthew 2:18;   Matthew 2:23;   Matthew 4:15 f.,   Matthew 8:17;   Matthew 12:18 ff.,   Matthew 13:35;   Matthew 21:5;   Matthew 27:9 f.; cf. also   Matthew 2:6 . This difference in the two groups of quotations tends to show that while the common source of the Synoptic Gospels was, in the form in which it was used by the Evangelists, in Greek, and shaped under Hellenistic influence, the author of the First Gospel was a Christian Jew who still read his Bible in Hebrew, or drew his series of prophetic comment-quotations from a special source compiled by a Jew of this kind. The quotations in the Gospel of John and the Epistles of Paul, while derived mainly from the LXX [Note: Septuagint.] , show also an acquaintance of their authors with the original Hebrew. (On the singular fact that the NT quotations from the LXX [Note: Septuagint.] show a special similarity to the type of LXX [Note: Septuagint.] text found in Cod. A, cf. Staerh, Ztschr. f. wiss. Theol . Nos. XXXV, XXXVI, XXXVIII, XL; and Swete, Introd. to OT in Greek , p. 395.)

As regards the nature and extent of the Influence exerted by the OT in passages which may be called quotations in the broad sense indicated above, there are several distinguishable classes, though it is sometimes difficult to draw the line sharply. We may recognize: (1) Argumentative quotations . The OT passage is quoted, with recognition of its source, and with intention to employ the fact or teaching or prophecy for an argumentative purpose. Passages so quoted may be: ( a ) historical statements which are supposed to contain in themselves an enunciation of a principle or precept, or to involve a prediction, or to tend to prove a general rule of some kind; cf.   Mark 2:25 f.,   Matthew 2:18 ,   John 19:24 ,   Matthew 15:7-9 ,   Hebrews 7:1-10; ( b ) predictions; cf. e.g.   Acts 2:17 ff.; ( c ) imperative precepts, quoted to enforce a teaching;   Mark 12:29 ff.,   1 Corinthians 9:9; or ( d ) affirmations interpreted as involving a general principle of Divine action or a general characteristic of human nature;   Mark 12:26 ,   Matthew 9:13 ,   Luke 4:11 ,   Acts 7:48 f.,   Romans 3:4;   Romans 3:10-18 , Jam 1:10 f.,   1 Peter 1:24 f., (2) Quotations made the basis of comment . In this case the language of the OT is not cited as supporting the statement of the speaker or writer, but is itself made the basis of exposition or comment, sometimes with disapproval of its teaching or of the teaching commonly based on It;   Matthew 5:21;   Matthew 5:27;   Matthew 5:31 , etc.,   Romans 4:9 f.,   Acts 8:32 , (3) Quotations of comparison or of transferred application . The OT language is employed, with recognition of it as coming from the OT and with the intention of connecting the OT event or teaching with the NT matter, but for purposes of comparison rather than argument. The language itself may refer directly and solely to the OT event, being introduced for the sake of comparing with this event some NT fact (simile); or the OT language may be applied directly to a NT fact, yet so as to imply comparison or likeness of the two events (metaphor);   Matthew 12:40-41 ,   Luke 11:29 f.,   Acts 28:26 f.,   Matthew 21:42 f.,   1 Corinthians 10:7 f., Closely allied to these, yet perhaps properly belonging to the class of argumentative quotations, are cases of quotation accompanied by allegorical interpretation; cf. e.g.   Galatians 4:21-31 . (4) Literary influence . In the cases which fall under this head the language is employed because of its familiarity, and applicability to the matter in band, but without intention of affirming any other connexion than this between the OT thought and the NT fact or teaching. The writer may be conscious of this influence of the OT language or not, and the interpreter often cannot determine with certainty which is the case;   Matthew 5:5;   Matthew 10:35 ,   Galatians 6:16 ,   Ephesians 1:20 ,   Revelation 5:1;   Revelation 7:1;   Revelation 9:14;   Revelation 14:8;   Revelation 21:11 .

As concerns the method of interpretation and the attitude towards the OT thus disclosed, there is a wide difference among the speakers and writers of the NT. It is an indirect but valuable testimony to the historical accuracy of the Synoptic Gospels that they almost uniformly ascribe to Jesus a method of interpretation quite different from that which they themselves employ. Jesus quotes the OT almost exclusively for its moral and religious teaching, rather than for any predicative element in it, and interprets alike with insight and with sobriety the passages which He quotes. The author of the First Gospel, on the other hand, quotes the OT mainly for specific predictions which he conceives it to contain, and controls his interpretation of the passages quoted rather by the proposition which he wishes to sustain, than by the actual sense of the original. The one quotation which is common to the first three Gospels, and not included in the teaching of Jesus, has the same general character ( Mark 1:3 and parallels). In general it may be said of the other NT writers that they stand in this respect between Jesus and Matthew, less uniformly sober and discerning in their interpretation of the OT than Jesus, yet in many instances approaching much nearer to His method than Matthew commonly does. The Apocalypse, while constantly showing the literary influence of the OT, contains no explicit or argumentative quotation from it.

Ernest D. Burton.

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary [3]

New Testament writers frequently quote the Old Testament, and in doing so show their acceptance of the Old Testament as God’s authoritative Word (see Inspiration ). But in some cases the New Testament quotations differ from the Old Testament originals. In others the meanings given to the quotations in the New Testament differ from those of the Old Testament originals.

Different wording in Old and New Testaments

Since the Old Testament was written in Hebrew and the New Testament in Greek, any quotation of the Old Testament in the New requires translation. This naturally brings a change in wording. Sometimes the New Testament writers made their own translations. Usually, however, they used the existing translation of the Old Testament known as the Septuagint (abbreviated LXX), which Jewish scholars had made in the third and second centuries of the era before Christ (see Septuagint ).

Just as a preacher today may use an alternative translation to give the desired emphasis, so did the New Testament writers. They used the translation that suited their purposes (cf.  Isaiah 28:16 with  Romans 10:11).

In many cases, again like preachers today, the New Testament writers made their quotations from memory. As a result their quotations do not follow the Old Testament originals word for word. They were concerned with the meaning rather than the wording of the passages they quoted (cf.  Romans 11:8 with  Deuteronomy 29:4;  Isaiah 29:10). In other cases, however, they were concerned with the wording rather than the meaning. They may even have based a teaching on the meaning of a particular word (cf.  Galatians 3:16 with  Genesis 12:7).

Writers and preachers, ancient and modern, often quote passages from well known writings merely to give liveliness or colour to their writings. The New Testament writers at times did likewise. They were so familiar with the Old Testament that they quoted its words naturally. They may not have intended any connection between the Old and New Testament contexts (cf.  2 Corinthians 6:16-17 with  Exodus 29:45;  Isaiah 52:11;  2 Samuel 7:14).

The nature of fulfilment

Certain passages of the Old Testament are quoted repeatedly in the New Testament. This suggests that there was in New Testament times a collection, either oral or written, of selected Old Testament passages in common use among the churches. For example,  Psalms 118:22-23,  Isaiah 8:14 and  Isaiah 28:16 are used in such passages as  Matthew 21:42,  Acts 4:10-12,  1 Peter 2:1-10,  Romans 9:33 and  Romans 10:11. Similarly  Zechariah 12:10-14 is found in  Matthew 24:30,  John 19:37 and  Revelation 1:7. Psalms 69 is quoted in  Matthew 27:34,  John 2:17,  John 15:25,  Acts 1:20,  Romans 11:9-10 and  Romans 15:3.

These selections of Scripture are all used in relation to Jesus Christ, for the New Testament writers understood them as having their fulfilment in him. The primary meaning of that fulfilment was not just that Old Testament predictions had now come true, but that the Old Testament work had now been completed. The Old Testament was written not merely to predict New Testament events, but to record what God was doing in working out his purposes. The New Testament writers saw that in Christ God had brought that work to completion, to fulfilment, to finality.

God was the controller of history. His repetitive activity in judgment and salvation, bondage and deliverance, reached its climax in one great act of judgment and salvation at Golgotha. There God gave absolute deliverance to those who were in hopeless bondage. He completed the pattern that he had been working out for all people through the history of Israel. In Christ he brought his plans to fulfilment ( Exodus 6:6-8;  Isaiah 11:15-16;  Hosea 2:14-15;  1 Corinthians 5:7;  1 Corinthians 10:1-13;  Revelation 5:9;  Revelation 15:3).

Israel’s Old Testament history was the record of the ongoing revelation of God. It was not just a record of events, but a record of what God was doing. What the Old Testament writers saw, though having meaning in its own day, developed greater significance through the New Testament events. Christians now saw Jesus as the goal towards which all God’s Old Testament activity had been moving. They saw Jesus as the centre of all history. The old era prepared the way for him; the new results from him.

Jesus and the Old Testament

Now that God’s purposes had been fulfilled in Jesus Christ, the New Testament writers discovered in the Old Testament writings greater truths than the original writers were aware of ( 1 Peter 1:10-12). While accepting the original meaning of the writings, the New Testament writers expanded that meaning because of the fuller revelation that had come through Jesus Christ.

Promises may have already been fulfilled in the Old Testament, but now they had a greater fulfilment in the New ( Deuteronomy 12:9;  Deuteronomy 25:19;  Joshua 21:45;  Hebrews 4:1-10). Psalms, prophecies and songs may have been written at first concerning some Old Testament person or event, but now they had new meaning because people saw them as foreshadowings of Christ (cf. quotations from Psalms 2 in  Acts 4:25-26;  Acts 13:33; cf. quotations from Psalms 45 in  Hebrews 1:8-9; cf. quotations from Psalms 69 in  John 2:17;  John 15:25;  John 19:28-30;  Acts 1:20; cf. quotation of  Isaiah 7:14 in  Matthew 1:23).

The New Testament writers saw Jesus the Messiah as the fulfilment of all God’s purposes for Israel. He was the great descendant of Abraham through whom Israel received its supreme glory and through whom people of all nations are blessed ( Genesis 12:1-3;  Galatians 3:16).

Since Jesus was the one to whom the entire Old Testament pointed, he fulfilled the Old Testament ( Matthew 4:14-16;  Matthew 8:17;  Matthew 12:17-21). The New Testament writers were so convinced of this that they spoke of a ‘fulfilment’ even when they saw only a striking similarity between Old and New Testament events. For example, as Israel came out of Egypt, so did Jesus ( Hosea 11:1;  Matthew 2:15). As there was loud weeping when the Babylonians took the Israelites captive, so was there when Herod slaughtered the Jewish babies ( Jeremiah 31:15;  Matthew 2:17-18).

Although Israel repeatedly failed and suffered God’s punishment, the people still hoped for a glorious future. Jesus Christ, the true fulfilment of Israel, not only suffered for his people’s sins, but he completed perfectly what Israel had failed to do (cf.  Isaiah 53:4 with  Matthew 8:17; cf.  Isaiah 42:1-4 with  Matthew 12:18-21). The New Testament fulfils the Old in that Jesus Christ became all that Israel should have been but never was (cf.  Isaiah 53:5-6 with  1 Peter 2:24-25; cf.  Zechariah 9:9-11 with  Matthew 21:5;  Matthew 26:28-29; see Servant Of The Lord ).

Like Israel in general, David’s kingdom in particular failed to fulfil God’s purposes. David’s psalms reflect both his sorrow over Israel’s failures and his expectation of better things to come. He looked for the day when God’s people would enjoy his blessings in a kingdom of righteousness. The ideals that David longed for found their fulfilment in David’s great descendant, Jesus the Messiah (cf.  Psalms 40:6-8 with  Hebrews 10:5-9; cf.  Psalms 110:1 with  Matthew 22:44). (For discussion on the use of David’s psalms in the New Testament see PSALMS, BOOK OF, sub-heading ‘Interpreting the Psalms’.)

Morrish Bible Dictionary [4]

The quotations from the Old Testament in the New are important as proving incontestably that God is the author of the whole. It is not simply that Moses or David said this or that — though the quotations prove that Moses was the writer of the Pentateuch — but they are introduced by such words as "God commanded,"  Matthew 15:4; "The Holy Ghost saith,"  Hebrews 3:7; "David himself said by the Holy Ghost,"  Mark 12:36; "Spake the Holy Ghost by Esaias the prophet,"  Acts 28:25 . Then the whole is spoken of as 'the scriptures,' which are all inspired by God. Whatever therefore is inscribed with 'It is written' has theauthority of God Himself.

The quotations from the prophets are introduced in various ways.

1. "In order (ἵνα) that it might be fulfilled."   Matthew 1:22 , etc. The event happens that that prophecy should be fulfilled.

2. "So that (ὅπως)it might be fulfilled."  Matthew 2:23 , etc. Such events fall within the scope of the prophecy, and may also apply at other times.

3. "Then (τότε) was fulfilled."   Matthew 2:17 , etc. The prophecy applied to that event, without its being the purpose of the prophecy.

4. "Was fulfilled."  Mark 15:28 . "This day is fulfilled."  Luke 4:21 . The prophecy was then and there fulfilled.

The citations also illustrate how the scriptures, both the Old and the New Testaments, may be applied, as when the Lord quoted from Deuteronomy in repelling the temptations of Satan. See also the different applications of  Habakkuk 2:4 . — In  Romans 1:17 , it is a question of righteousness: "the just shall live by faith." In   Galatians 3:11 , it is in contrast to the law: "the just shall live by faith. " And in  Hebrews 10:38 , it is in contrast to drawing back: "the just shall live by faith."

The quotations are from Moses, the Psalms, and the Prophets. In those days the books were not divided into chapters and verses as now, which accounts for various expressions. As in  Mark 2:26 , a quotation is from '[the section] of Abiathar the high priest.'  1 Samuel 21:1-6 . In  Luke 20:37 , 'Moses showed in [the section on] the bush.'  Exodus 3 . In  Romans 11:2 , 'the scripture says in [the history of] Elias.'  1 Kings 17 -   1 Kings 19 . This may also account for  Matthew 27:9,10 , where the quotation is said to be from Jeremiah — that prophet being anciently the first in the Book of the Prophets, his name may have been used as a sort of heading.

Most of the quotations are from the Septuagint (LXX), doubtless because it was then better known than the Hebrew, in the same way that the A.V. is now constantly quoted, even where it is not an exact translation. Some quotations are not literally from the Hebrew or the LXX, the Holy Spirit in alluding to them gives them a fulness and power beyond the revelation of the Old Testament.*

* In "The New Testament Handbook" the quotations as they stand in the Hebrew (shown by the A.V.) and in the LXX (by an English translation) are given in full. (G. Morrish, Paternoster Square.) In Horne's "Introduction" the Hebrew and Greek text are also given.

Easton's Bible Dictionary [5]

 Luke 20:37 Exodus 3:6 Mark 2:26 1 Samuel 21:1-6 Romans 11:2

In general, the New Testament writers quote from the Septuagint (q.v.) version of the Old Testament, as it was then in common use among the Jews. But it is noticeable that these quotations are not made in any uniform manner. Sometimes, e.g., the quotation does not agree literally either with the LXX. or the Hebrew text. This occurs in about one hundred instances. Sometimes the LXX. is literally quoted (in about ninety instances), and sometimes it is corrected or altered in the quotations (in over eighty instances).

Quotations are sometimes made also directly from the Hebrew text ( Matthew 4:15,16;  John 19:37;  1 Corinthians 15:54 ). Besides the quotations made directly, there are found numberless allusions, more or less distinct, showing that the minds of the New Testament writers were filled with the expressions and ideas as well as historical facts recorded in the Old.

There are in all two hundred and eighty-three direct quotations from the Old Testament in the New, but not one clear and certain case of quotation from the Apocrypha (q.v.).

Besides quotations in the New from the Old Testament, there are in Paul's writings three quotations from certain Greek poets,  Acts 17:28;  1 Corinthians 15:33;  Titus 1:12 . These quotations are memorials of his early classical education.