From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [1]

1. The term.-One result of the authoritative place held by the Law among the Jews was that figures of speech borrowed from the sphere of judicial procedure came to play an important part in religious life. This cycle of figurative speech included the term ‘paraclete.’ In Greek usage a paraclete was one who accompanied an accused person to the judge’s tribunal, and supported him by testifying and interceding on his behalf. The frequent use of the term ‘paraclete’ in the religious phraseology of the Jews is confirmed by the fact that when the term, as a Greek loanword, at length found a place in the Hebrew writings of the Synagogue, it was employed not in a literal but in a figurative sense, as, e.g., for the sacrifice by which the Divine forgiveness was secured for Israel.

2. Jesus Himself as the Paraclete (of Christians who fall into sin).-The idea that man requires a paraclete was associated first of all with the thought of the Divine decree by which the status and destiny of human beings are fixed, and it is in this reference that St. John, in his First Epistle ( 1 John 2:1), applies the term to Jesus Christ. As the vocation to a divine life puts an end to walking in darkness, believers separate themselves from sin by sincere and penitent confession. Still, this does not do away with the possibility of their choosing falsely and again doing evil; hence there arises the need of a fresh judicial act on God’s part to decide what portion such a sinner retains in Him. Even when the Christian sins, however, Christ maintains fellowship with him, and brings him within the scope of the Divine grape. In that passage, accordingly, Christ is called a Paraclete because He obtains Divine pardon for those who have trespassed. His ability to shield the sinning one is based upon the fact of His own righteousness, for only the righteous, whose mind is at one with the will of God, can ask God to forgive others. This power, moreover, rests also upon the fact that Jesus has by His Cross purchased the world’s forgiveness from God.

3. The Holy Spirit as the Paraclete (of the apostles in their work).-In the last discourse of Jesus, as found in the Fourth Gospel, the name ‘Paraclete’ is given to the power that secures for the disciples the presence of the Holy Spirit ( John 14:16;  John 14:26;  John 15:26;  John 16:7). Abstractly, it is not impossible that the Spirit Himself is here called the Paraclete because He too keeps the disciples within the Divine grape through which they are forgiven; here, in point of fact, the term applies to Jesus no less than to the Spirit, for the latter is called ‘another Paraclete’; and thus the intercessory function of the Spirit on behalf of the disciples is conjoined with that exercised by Jesus until His departure. The leading thought underlying the passages in question, however, is in conflict with this interpretation, as Jesus is there speaking of how His disciples shall be enabled to complete their task and, as His messengers, to gather His community together. His words serve here to define the authority of the apostolic office, and therefore also of the Church. The relation of the disciples to God is regulated and assured by their union with Jesus, and no account is taken of the possibility that they may rupture that relation by fresh transgression. The parting utterances of Jesus speak of His fellowship with His disciples as indestructible; as perfected, not impeded by His death. He remains in them, and they remain in Him, and they are thus encompassed by the Divine love. This relationship, however, lays upon them their special task-that of living and witnessing for Him, of pleading His claims, and of calling upon men to have faith in Him. As branches in the true Vine they have now the power, as they have also the duty, of bringing forth fruit. This brings them, however, to take part in a dire struggle, and the last discourse of Jesus affirms in words of deep impressiveness that He has made every provision for their warfare with the world and their victory over it. Even now, indeed, their standing is being contested-not, certainly, their standing before God, sinners though they are, for that matter is settled by their fellowship with Jesus, but the sanction of that profession of faith in Him by virtue of which they glorify Him as the Christ.

Now the question whether, and how, the apostles are able to fulfill their mission, and how they may convince the world that their message is true, is solved for them by the fact that the Spirit is with them. The Spirit is their Paraclete because He is the evidence of their standing, the efficacy of their words, the source of their authority, and the guarantee of their success. The reason why they now require another Advocate-a new Paraclete, distinct from Jesus Himself-is that while hitherto Jesus, by His word and His works, vindicated the rights of their faith, and by His presence protected them against all assailants, He can no longer, now that He has passed into the unseen, be their Advocate in His own Person. They require an evidential force which will still be recognizable, a power that will constantly be with them, and become manifest to all to whom they proclaim the word. The historical ground of their authority-the fact, namely, that they had companied with Jesus-is not thereby invalidated ( John 15:27), but it is not in itself sufficient. Their utterances regarding Jesus are free from every limitation. Thus they describe Him as the Eternal Son, through whom the whole work of God is effected; as the ever-present One, who is in perfect unity with His people; as the One who now worketh, bestowing light and life upon the world. To the historical foundation of the apostolate and the Church, therefore, there must necessarily be added the pneumatic foundation; and the deep significance that attaches to the term ‘Paraclete’ lies in the distinct expression which it gives to the fact that the historical sanction of the apostles and the community finds its requisite supplement and confirmation in their inward experience and the spiritual possessions they now enjoy.

4. The Deity of the Spirit.-One result of this process of thought was the fresh emphasis laid upon the idea that the Spirit shares fully in the nature of God. It is true that even in the earliest stages of Christianity, as elsewhere, the Spirit was spoken of as possessing the quality of Deity; in knowledge, in will, in work, He has part in the creative glory of the Divine power. But the fact that the Spirit now came to be conceived as the Paraclete of the disciples provided a peculiarly cogent reason why He should be thought of, not as a mere property of man’s inner life, or as a force that enters into man, but as fully possessed of the Divine power which, coming from above, encompasses man, and so animates all things from within. For the prerogative of Jesus and His disciples was made manifest only when it was proved to be Divine. The disciples cannot demonstrate the Divine status of Jesus by appealing to what they are in themselves. Such demonstration could be given only if it were made manifest that the cause of Jesus was the cause of God. The Spirit is the Advocate of Christians simply because in His work it becomes clear to all that He comes from above and is no merely human possession. Nevertheless He could not be the Advocate of the disciples unless His presence and action were unmistakably related to Jesus; and this relation is made manifest by the fact that the Spirit is possessed by the disciples only, and not by the world ( John 14:17,  John 16:7), and that He speaks as the witness of Jesus, and creates faith in His mission ( John 15:26,  John 16:14). He causes the word of Jesus to become effective in the disciples, so that it becomes the basis of the teaching which reveals to them the will of God in their present situation ( John 14:26). Hence the granting of the Spirit causes no separation between the disciples and Jesus, nor does it cut the Church apart from its historical roots; on the contrary, that which had been perfectly wrought by Jesus is brought to its full realization by being renewed in the inner life of the disciples, in their knowledge and in their work. In this connection, too, we note the emergence of Trinitarian formulae, as, e.g., ‘the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name’ ( John 14:26). Since Christ and the Spirit both carry out the one purpose of God, and combine their operations in a perfect unity, the work accomplished by Jesus remains permanently effective, and is in reality completed, not superseded, by the work of His disciples.

5. The truth as the medium of the Spirit’s manifestation.-A thesis that at this point acquired immense importance was that which defines the conditions and phenomena in which the Spirit manifests Himself, and the means by which His self-revelation is secured. The thesis is simply that He becomes manifest by the truth-by the truth alone, though with triumphant power. It is the truth alone which can demonstrate the Divine right of Jesus, of His disciples, and of His Church. Special operations of the Spirit are in themselves insufficient to supply this confirmation, although reference is made likewise to the Spirit as the source of prophecy ( John 16:13). The latter statement involves the endowing of the apostles with the teaching office, so that in the amplitude of their knowledge and the clearness of their intuition they find the weapons with which they overcome the world; for in the Johannine writings the truth is set in opposition to both falsehood and error, and with constant thanksgiving John declares that Jesus has redeemed His disciples from lies and made them truthful, and that He has freed them from the dominion of error and brought them to the certainty that comprehends God. Similarly, they have received moral succour, for in John falsehood and hatred, darkness and sin, are closely allied, and the one dies away with the other. That nevertheless John speaks of the truth alone as the distinguishing feature of Jesus and His disciples is intimately connected with the fact that the Evangelist’s whole characterization of Jesus is directed to the one end of establishing faith. Only in the truth can a genuine faith have its birth.

6. The source of this thesis.-In view of the momentous results that flowed from the doctrine of the Paraclete-a doctrine that supplied the norms and motives of the whole subsequent development of the Church-the question regarding the origin of this thesis becomes peculiarly important.

(a) Its connection with Jesus.-The powerful links which connect the statements regarding the Spirit with Jesus Himself are clearly recognizable. Jesus had earnestly considered the gravity of the struggle in which the disciples would have to engage after His death ( Matthew 10:16-23), and had given them the assurance that in that struggle the Spirit would guide them. In  Matthew 10:20, etc., the peculiar situation arising out of persecution unto death is met by a reference, not indeed to the name, but doubtless to the thought, of the Paraclete. Similarly, that confidence in the truth which makes absolute devotion to it the distinctive characteristic of the Christian community has its source in Jesus; it is an outcome of the warfare which Jesus waged against all untruthfulness; and the like holds good also of that purely religious conception of the apostolic vocation which proscribes all self-interested ends and lays upon the apostles the obligation of making the power of God manifest to the world.

(b) Its relation to the Johannine theology.-At the same time the statements regarding the Paraclete are connected at all points with the peculiar content of the Johannine theology: with its absolute rejection of the world, as being the realm of darkness, its bringing the gospel under the single aim of evoking faith in Jesus, its subordination of all external results to the spiritual process of generating the knowledge of God, its synthesis of historical recollection with the mystic vision that looks within and there becomes assured of communion with God. What had come down from Jesus Himself, and what had emerged in the historical development in which the writer had shared, are inextricably combined in these statements; nor is it possible for us to dissociate them any more than John himself would do.

Literature.-Besides the Commentaries (esp. Meyer on  John 14:16 and Düsterdieck on  1 John 2:1), J. Buxtorf, Lex. Chald. Talmud. et Rabbin., ed. B. Fischer, Leipzig, 1866-74, s.v.; Grimm-Thayer_, Gr.-Eng. Lexicon of the NT2, Edinburgh, 1890, s.v.; H. Cremer, Bibl.-Theol. Lexicon of NT Greek3, do., 1880, s.v.; G. C. Knapp, Scripta Varii Argumenti, 2 vols., Halle, 1805; J. Pearson, An Exposition of the Creed, new ed., London, 1872, p. 499 ff.; J. C. Hare, The Mission of the Comforter3, do., 1876; R. C. Trench, On the Authorized Version of the NT2, do., 1859; J. B. Lightfoot, On a Fresh Revision of the English NT, do., 1891, p. 55 ff.; E. Hatch, Essays in Biblical Greek, Oxford, 1889, p. 82; J. Robson, The Holy Spirit the Paraclete, Edinburgh and London, 1894, p. 3 ff., ExpT_ v. [1893-94] 320 ff.; G. G Findlay, ExpT_ xii. [1900-01] 445; M. Jastrow, Dictionary of the Targumim, etc., 2 vols., London and New York, 1903, s.v. ôøiéè; J. Worthington-Atkin, The Paraklete, London, 1906; T. D. Bernard, The Central Teaching of Jesus Christ, do., 1892, p. 157 ff.; H. B. Swete, The Holy Spirit in the New Testament, London, 1909, The Holy Spirit in the Ancient Church, do., 1912.

A. Schlatter.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [2]

This is a Greek word, though sometimes used by English writers. It is translated 'Comforter,' referring to the Holy Spirit, in  John 14:16,26;  John 15:26;  John 16:7; and 'Advocate,' referring to the Lord Jesus, in  1 John 2:1 . See ADVOCATE.

Holman Bible Dictionary [3]

 1 John 2:1 John 14:16AdvocateComforterCounselor

Charles Buck Theological Dictionary [4]

An advocate or comforter; generally applied to the third person in the Trinity,  John 15:26 .

Webster's Dictionary [5]

(n.) An advocate; one called to aid or support; hence, the Consoler, Comforter, or Intercessor; - a term applied to the Holy Spirit.

Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology [6]

See Holy Spirit

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [7]

PARACLETE. See Advocate, Paul, p. 693a.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [8]

par´a - klēt  :

1. Where Used:

This word occurs 5 times in the New Testament, all in the writings of John. Four instances are in the Gospel and one in the First Epistle. In the Gospel the in the Epistle,  1 John 2:1 . "Paraclete" is simply the Greek word transferred into English. The translation of the word in English Versions of the Bible is "Comforter" in the Gospel, and "Advocate" in the Epistle. The Greek word is παράκλητος , paráklētos , froth the verb παρακαλέω , parakaléō . The word for "Paraclete" is passive in form, and etymologically signifies "called to one's side." The active form of the word is παρακλήτωρ , paraklḗtōr , not found in the New Testament but found in Septuagint in  Job 16:2 in the plural, and means "comforters," in the saying of Job regarding the "miserable comforters" who came to him in his distress.

2. General Meaning:

In general the word signifies: (1) a legal advocate, or counsel for defense, (2) an intercessor, (3) a helper, generally. The first, or technical, judicial meaning is that which predominates in classical usage, corresponding to our word "advocate," "counsel," or "attorney." The corresponding Latin word is advocatus , "advocate," the word applied to Christ in English Versions of the Bible in the translation of the Greek word paraklētos , in   1 John 2:1 . There is some question whether the translation "Comforter" in the passages of John's Gospel in the King James Version and the Revised Version (British and American) is warranted by the meaning of the word. It is certain that the meaning "comforter" is not the primary signification, as we have seen. It is very probably, however, a secondary meaning of the word, and some of its cognates clearly convey the idea of comfort in certain connections, both in Septuagint and in the New Testament ( Genesis 37:35;  Zechariah 1:13;  Matthew 5:4;  2 Corinthians 1:3 ,  2 Corinthians 1:4 ). In the passage in 2 Corinthians the word in one form or another is used 5 times and in each means "comfort." In none of these instances, however, do we find the noun "Paraclete," which we are now considering.

3. In the Talmud and Targums:

Among Jewish writers the word "Paraclete" came to have a number of meanings. A good deed was called a paraclete or advocate, and a transgression was an accuser. Repentance and good works were called paracletes: "The works of benevolence and mercy done by the people of Israel in this world become agents of peace and intercessors ( paracletes ) between them and their Father in heaven." The sin offering is a paraclete; the paraclete created by each good deed is called an angel ( Jewish Encyclopedia , IX, 514-15, article "Paraclete").

4. As Employed by Philo:

Philo employs the word in several instances. Usually he does not use it in the legal, technical sense. Joseph is represented as bestowing forgiveness on his brethren who had wronged him and declaring that they needed "no one else as paraclete," or intercessor ( De Joseph c. 40). In his Life of Moses , iii. 14, is a remarkable passage which indicates Philo's spiritualizing methods of interpreting Scripture as well as reflects his philosophic tendency. At the close of a somewhat elaborate account of the emblematic significance of the vestments of the high priest and their jeweled decorations, his words are: "The twelve stones arranged on the breast in four rows of three stones each, namely, the logeum, being also an emblem of that reason which holds together and regulates the universe. For it was indispensable ( ἀναγκαῖον , anagkaı́on ) that the man who was consecrated to the Father of the world should have, as a paraclete, his son, the being most perfect in all virtue, to procure the forgiveness of sins, and a supply of unlimited blessings." This is rather a striking verbal or formal parallel to the statement in   1 John 2:1 where Christ is our Advocate with the Father, although of course Philo's conceptions of the Divine "reason" and "son" are by no means the Christian conceptions.

5. The Best Translation:

If now we raise the question what is the best translation of the term "Paraclete" in the New Testament, we have a choice of several words. Let us glance at them in order. The translation "Comforter" contains an element of the meaning of the word as employed in the Gospels, and harmonizes with the usage in connection with its cognates, but it is too narrow in meaning to be an adequate translation. Dr. J. Hastings in an otherwise excellent article on the Paraclete in Hdb says the Paraclete was not sent to comfort the disciples, since prior to His actual coming and after Christ's promise the disciples' sorrow was turned into joy. Dr. Hastings thinks the Paraclete was sent to cure the unbelief or half-belief of the disciples. But this conceives the idea of comfort in too limited a way. No doubt in the mind of Jesus the comforting aspect, of the Spirit's work applied to all their future sorrows and trials, and not merely to comfort for their personal loss in the going of Christ to the Father. Nevertheless there was more in the work of the Paraclete than comfort in sorrow. "Intercessor" comes nearer the root idea of the term and contains an essential part of the meaning. "Advocate" is a closely related word, and is also suggestive of the work of the Spirit. Perhaps there is no English word broad enough to cover all the significance of the word "Paraclete" except the word "Helper." The Spirit helps the disciples in all the above-indicated ways. Of course the objection to this translation is that it is too indefinite. The specific Christian conception is lost in the comprehensiveness of the term. Our conclusion, therefore, is that the term "Paraclete" itself would perhaps be the best designation of the Spirit in the passage in John's Gospel. It would thus become a proper name for the Spirit and the various elements of meaning would come to be associated with the words which are found in the context of the Gospel.

Christianity introduced many new ideas into the world for which current terms were inadequate media of expression. In some cases it is best to adopt the Christian term itself, in our translations, and let the word slowly acquire its own proper significance in our thought and life. If, however, instead of translating we simply transfer the word "Paraclete" as a designation of the Holy Spirit in the Gospel passages, we would need then to translate it in the passage in the Epistle where it refers to Christ. But this would offer no serious difficulty. For fortunately in the Epistle the word may very clearly be translated "Advocate" or "Intercessor."

6. Christ's Use of the Word:

We look next at the contents of the word as employed by Jesus in reference to the Holy Spirit. In  John 14:16 the Paraclete is promised as one who is to take the place of Jesus. It is declared elsewhere by Jesus that it is expedient that He go away, for unless He go away the Paraclete will not come (  John 16:7 ). Is the Paraclete, then, the successor or the substitute for Christ as He is sometimes called? The answer is that He is both and neither. He is the successor of Christ historically, but not in the sense that Christ ceases to act in the church. He is the substitute for Christ's physical presence, but only in order that He may make vital and actual Christ's spiritual presence. As we have seen, the Paraclete moves only in the range of truths conveyed in and through Christ as the historical manifestation of God. A "Kingdom of the Spirit," therefore, is impossible in the Christian sense, save as the historical Jesus is made the basis of the Spirit's action in history. The promise of Jesus in  John 14:18 , "I come unto," is parallel and equivalent in meaning with the preceding promise of the Paraclete. The following are given as the specific forms of activity of the Holy Spirit: (1) to show them the things of Christ, (2) to teach them things to come, (3) to teach them all things, (4) to quicken their memories for past teaching, (5) to bear witness to Christ, (6) to dwell in believers, (7) other things shown in the context such as "greater works" than those of Christ (see  John 14:16 ,  John 14:17 ), (8) to convict of sin, of righteousness and judgment. It is possible to range the shades of meaning outlined above under these various forms of the Spirit's activity. As Comforter His work would come under (1), (2), (3) and (6); as Advocate and Intercessor under (6), (7), (8); as Helper and Teacher under (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8).

The manner of the sending of the Paraclete is of interest. In  John 14:16 the Paraclete comes in answer to Christ's prayer. The Father will give the Spirit whom the world cannot receive. In   John 14:26 the Father will send the Spirit in Christ's name. Yet in   John 15:26 Christ says, "I will send (him) unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth," and in   John 16:7 , "If I go, I will send him unto you." See Holy Spirit .

7. As Applied to Christ:

It remains to notice the passage in  1 John 2:1 where the term "Paraclete" is applied to Christ: "If any man sin, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous";   1 John 2:2 reads: "and he is the propitiation for our sins; and not for ours only, but also for the whole world." Here the meaning is quite clear and specific. Jesus Christ the righteous is represented as our Advocate or Intercessor with the Father. His righteousness is set over against our sin. Here the Paraclete, Christ, is He who, on the basis of His propitiatory offering for the sins of men, intercedes for them with God and thus averts from them the penal consequences of their transgressions. The sense in which Paraclete is here applied to Christ is found nowhere in the passages we have cited from the Gospel. The Holy Spirit as Paraclete is Intercessor or Advocate, but not in the sense here indicated. The Spirit as Paraclete convicts the world of sin, of righteousness and judgment. Jesus Christ as Paraclete vindicates believers before God.


Grimm-Thayer, Gr-Eng. Lexicon of the New Testament  ; Cremer, Biblico-Theol. Lexicon  ; Hdb , article "Paraclete"; Dcg , article "Paraclete"; Eb , article "Paraclete"; Jew Encyclopedia , article "Paraclete"; Hare, Mission of the Comforter  ; Pearson, On the Creed  ; Taylor, Sayings of the Jewish Fathers  ; various comms., Westcott, Godet and others. See list of books appended to article on Holy Spirit .

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [9]

( Παράκλητος , lit. One Called Near For Aid ; A.V. "Comforter"). This word is applied in the original to Christ in  1 John 2:1, where it is translated "advocate" (q.v.). Indeed, in that famous passage in which Christ promises the Holy Spirit as a paraclete ("comforter") to his sorrowing disciples, he takes the title to himself: "I will send you Another paraclete" ( John 14:16). The question then is, In what sense does Christ denominate himself and the Spirit sent from him and the Father, Παράκλητος , Paraclete ? The answer to this is not to be found without some difficulty. and it becomes the more difficult from the fact that in genuine Greek the verb Παρακαλεῖν has a variety of significations: (1) To call to a place, to call to aid; (2) to admonish, to persuade, to incite; (3) to entreat, to pray. To these may be added the Hellenistic signification, "to console;" "to soothe;" "to encourage." Finally. the rabbins also in their language use the word פְּרִקַלַיט ( Peraklit ) for the Angel of Intercession (Job 43:23), a fact which must be taken into consideration. In the explanation of the word the leading circumstance to guide us must be to take that signification which is applicable to the different passages in which it occurs. For we may distinguish three interpretations:

(1.) Origen explains it where it is applied to the Holy Spirit by "Consolator" ( Παραμυθητής ), while in  1 John 2:1 he adopts the signification of "Deprecator." This is the course taken by most of the Greek commentators: (Suicer, Thesaur . s.v.), and which has been followed by Erasmus, Luther, and others. But to this Tholuck and others object that, not to insist that the signification cannot be grammatically established (for no admissible instance can be adduced where the passive Παράκλητος is used in an active sense for Παρακλήτωρ ), it is suitable to a very few passages only, while to others it is either too circumscribed or altogether inappropriate.

(2.) Aware of this, others, after the example of Theodore of Mopsuestia, sanctioned by Mede, Ernesti, and others, would translate it Teacher . But neither does this sense seem adapted to all the passages. It would also be difficult to deduce it from the usages of the language; for not to mention that in this case also the active signification would be assumed for the passive form we are pressed with the question whether the verb Παρακαλεῖν can anywhere in the New Testament be found in the sense of "to teach," as this hypothesis assumes. It is at least very certain that this sense never was transferred to the rabbinical פְּרִקַלַיטָא , the Peraklita , advocate or interpreter. (Buxtorf, Lex. Talmudicum , col. 1843).

(3.) The considerations which tell against these views incline the balance in favor of a third sense, which is that of assistant, "helper," coadjutor; hence "advocate" (intercessor). Demosthenes uses it with this force in a judicial sense (see Index , ed. Reiske); and it occurs in the same sense in Philo (see Loesner, Observatt .), and in the rabbinlical dialect. It is supported by  Romans 8:26, and, which is still more to the purpose, is appropriate to all the passages in the New Testament where the word occurs. After the example of the early Latin fathers, Calvin, Beza, Lampe, Bengel, Knapp, Kuinil, Tittmann, and many others, have adopted this sense. Tertullian and Augustine have Advocate . The A.V. renders the word by "advocate" in  1 John 2:1, but in other places ( John 14:16;  John 14:26;  John 15:26;  John 16:7) by "comforter." How much better, however, the more extensive term "helper" (including teacher, monitor, advocate) agrees with these passages than the narrow term "comforter" may be shown by a single instance. Jesus says to his disciples, "I will send you Another paraclete" ( John 14:16), implying that he himself had been such to them. But he had not been in any distinguishing sense a "comforter" or "consoler," because, having him present with them, they had not mourned ( Matthew 9:15). But he had been eminently a helper, in the extensive sense which has been indicated; and such as he had been to them to teach, to guide, and to uphold the Holy Spirit would become to them after his removal (see the commentators above named, particularly Tholuck and Tittmann on  John 14:16; also Knapp, De Sp. S. et Christi Paracletis, Halle, 1790; Hare, Mission of the Comforter). See the treatises De Paracleto, by Scherff (Lips. 1714), Knapp (Halle, 1790), Volborth (Gotting. 1786), Hugenholz (Leyden, 1834). (See Holy Spirit).