From BiblePortal Wikipedia

King James Dictionary [1]

ON, pre. L. in Gr. Hence they denote nearness, closeness or contiguity, and from meeting the Latin in and the English un have their power of negation or opposing.

1. Being in contact with the surface or upper part of a thing and supported by it placed or lying in contact with the surface as, my book is on the table the table stands on the floor the house rests on its foundation we lie on a bed, or stand on the earth. 2. Coming or falling to the surface of any thing as, rain falls on the earth.

Whosoever shall fall on this stone, shall be broken.

 Matthew 21 .

3. Performing or acting by contact with the surface, upper part or outside of anything as, to play on a harp, a violin, or a drum. 4. Noting addition as heaps on heaps mischief on mischief loss on loss. 5. At or near. When we say, a vessel is on shore, we mean that she is aground but when we say, a fleet on a ship is on the American coast, or an isle is situated on the coast of England, we mean only that it is near the coast. So we say, on each side stands an armed man, that is, at or near each side.

So we say, Philadelphia is situated on the Delaware Middlebury is on the Otter Creek Guilford stands on the Sound that is, near the river or Sound, instead of on the bank, side or shore.

6. It denotes resting for support as, to depend on, to rely on hence, the ground of any thing as, he will covenant on certain considerations or conditions the considerations being the support of the covenant. 7. At or in the time of as, on the sabbath we abstain from labor. We usually say, at the hour, on or in the day, in or on the week, month or year. 8. At the time of, with some reference to cause or motive. On public occasions, the officers appear in full dress or uniform. 9. It is put before the object of some passion, with the sense of towards or for. Have pity or compassion on him. 10. At the peril of, or for the safety of. Hence, on thy life. 11. Denoting a pledge or engagement, or put before the thing pledged. He affirmed or promised on his word, or on his honor. 12. Noting imprecation or invocation, or coming to, falling or resting on. On us be all the blame.

His blood be on us, and on our children.  Matthew 27 .

13. In consequence of, or immediately after. On the ratification of the treaty, the armies were disbanded. 14. Noting part, distinction or opposition as on one side and on the other. On our part, expect punctuality.

On the way, on the road, denote proceeding, traveling, journeying, or making progress.

On the alert, in a state of vigilance or activity.

On high, in an elevated place sublimely.

On fire, in a state of burning or inflammation, and metaphorically, in a rage or passion.

On a sudden, suddenly.

On the wing, in flight flying metaphorically, departing.

On it, on't, is used for of it. I heard nothing on't. the gamester has a poor trade on't. This use is now vulgar.

Upon is used in the same sense with on, often with elegance, and frequently without necessity or advantage.

ON, adv.

1. Forward, in progression as, move on go on. 2. Forward, in succession. From father to son, from the son to the grandson, and so on. 3. In continuance without interruption or ceasing as, sleep on, take your ease say on sing on write on. 4. Adhering not off as in the phrase, "he is neither on nor off," that is, he is not steady he is irresolute. 5. Attached to the body as, his clothes are not on.

To put on, to attach to the body, as clothes or arms.

On, when it expresses contact with the surface of a thing, is opposed to under, off, or within, and when it expresses contact with the side of a thing, is opposed to off.

On is sometimes used as an exclamation, or rather as a command to move or proceed, some verb being understood as, cheerily on, courageous friends that is, go on, move on.

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [2]

or AVEN, a city of Egypt, situated in the land of Goshen, on the east of the Nile, and about five miles from the modern Cairo. It was called Heliopolis by the Greeks, and Bethshemeth by the Hebrews,  Jeremiah 43:13; both of which names, as well as its Egyptian one of On, imply the city or house of the sun. The inhabitants of this city are represented by Herodotus as the wisest of the Egyptians; and here Moses resided, and received that education which made him "learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians." But notwithstanding its being the seat of the sciences, such were its egregious idolatries, that it was nicknamed Aven, or Beth-Aven, "the house of vanity," or idolatry, by the Jews. A village standing on part of its site, at the present day, is called Matarea; while the spring of excellent water, or fountain of the sun, which is supposed to have given rise to the city, is still called Ain Shems, or fountain of the sun, by the Arabs. This is one of the most ancient cities of the world of which any distinct vestige can now be traced. It was visited eighteen hundred and fifty years ago by Strabo, whose description proves it to have been nearly as desolate then as now. Most of the ruins of this once famous city, described by that geographer, are buried in the accumulation of the soil: but that which marks its site, and is, perhaps, the most ancient work at this time existing in the world, in a perfect state, is a column of red granite, seventy feet high, and covered with hieroglyphics. Dr. E. D. Clarke has given a very good representation of this column; to whom, also, the curious reader is referred for a learned dissertation on the characters engraved upon it.

The city On, according to Josephus, was given to the Israelites to dwell in, when they first went into Egypt; and it was a daughter of a priest of the temple of the sun at this place, who was given in marriage to Joseph by Pharaoh. Here, also, in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, leave was obtained of that king by Onias, high priest of the Jews, to build a temple, when dispossessed of his office by Antiochus; which was long used by the Hellenist Jews. It was predicted by  Jeremiah 43:13 , and by  Ezekiel 30:17 , that this place, with its temples and inhabitants, should be destroyed; which was probably fulfilled by Nebuchadnezzar. See Noph .

Smith's Bible Dictionary [3]

On. 1. the son of Peleth, and one of the chiefs, of the tribe of Reuben, who took part with Korah, Dathan and Abiram in their revolt against Moses.  Numbers 16:1. (B.C. 1491). His name does not again appear in the narrative of the conspiracy, nor is he alluded to when reference is made to the final catastrophe.

(Abode or City Of The Sun).

2. A town of lower Egypt, called Beth-Shemesh in  Jeremiah 43:13. On is better known, under its Greek name, Heliopolis . It was situated on the east side of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, just below the point of the Delta, and about twenty miles northeast of Memphis. The chief object of worship at Heliopolis was the sun, whose temple, described by Strabo, is now only represented by the single beautiful obelisk, of red granite, 80 feet 2 inches high, above the pedestal which has stood for more than 4000 years, having been erected by Usirtesen, the second king of the twelfth dynasty.

Heliopolis was anciently famous for its learning, and Eudoxus and Plato studied under its priests. The first mention of this place in the Bible, is in the history of Joseph, to whom we read, Pharaoh gave "to wife, Asenath, the daughter of Potipherah, priest of On."  Genesis 41:45. Compare  Genesis 41:60 and  Genesis 46:20.

(On is to be remembered, not only as the home of Joseph, but as the traditional place to which, his far-off namesake took Mary and the babe Jesus in the flight to Egypt.

The two famous obelisks, long called "Cleopatra's Needles," one of which now stands in London, and the other in Central Park in New York city, once stood before this city, and were seen by the children of Israel, before the Exodus, having been quarried at Syene on the Nile, erected at On, (Heliopolis), by Thothmes Iii, BC 1500, and inscriptions added by Rameses II, (Sesostris), two hundred years later. They were taken to Alexandria, by Augustus Caesar A.D. 23, from which they were removed, to their present places. - Editor).

People's Dictionary of the Bible [4]

On ( Ŏn ), Sun, Light. A noted city of Lower Egypt,  Genesis 41:45;  Genesis 41:50; called Beth-shemesh, or "house of the sun,"  Jeremiah 43:13, and known to the Greeks as Heliopolis, or "city of the sun."  Ezekiel 30:17, A. V., margin. Some suppose it to be referred to as the "city of destruction" in  Isaiah 19:18-19. On was situated upon the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, about 20 miles northeast of ancient Memphis, and 6 miles north from Cairo. The origin and founder of On are unknown, but it has an obelisk which has been standing about 4000 years. It has been considered the Rome and the Athens of ancient Egypt, the centre of its religion and learning. In it stood the great temple of Ra, with one exception the most famous ancient shrine in Egypt, its companies of priests and attendants are reputed to have numbered over 12,000. The legend of the wonder-bird Phoenix, early used to illustrate the doctrine of the resurrection, arose here; to this city Joseph, delivered from prison, came with royal honors to marry the daughter of Potipherah, "dedicated to Ra." Josephus reports that On was the home of Jacob on his arrival in Egypt. In its grandeur it was the resort of men of learning from all countries. In its schools and universities Moses, according to Manetho, was instructed in all the learning of the Egyptians, and hither came Plato, Eudoxus, and Herodotus. The site of this once famous city is now marked with a few ruins of massive walls, fragments of sphinxes, a noted obelisk of red granite of Syene (one of the two which stood before the temple of the Sun), An Obelisk from On is now in Rome, another on the Thames in London, one in Constantinople, and one in Central Park, N. Y. The obelisk, bearing the name of Usurtesen I., and rising amid the desolation at On, is 66 feet high. 2. Name of a person.  Numbers 16:1.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [5]

ON . A Reubenite associated with Dathan and Abiram (  Numbers 16:1 ) [text doubtful].

ON . The city of Heliopolis , On also in Egyptian,   Genesis 41:45;   Genesis 41:50;   Genesis 46:20 . The same name in   Ezekiel 30:17 has been intentionally misvocalized as Aven , i.e . ‘idolatry’; in   Jeremiah 43:13 it is called Beth-shemesh , meaning ‘House of the Sun,’ like its Egyp. sacred name P-Rç, and the Gr. Heliopolis . The city lay on the east border of the Delta, a little below the fork of the river. As the centre of sun-worship in Egypt, its temple was of the highest importance: it was favoured by the kings and served by the most learned priesthood in the land. Tradition makes Plato and other Greek philosophers study in Heliopolis; later, the foundation of the Alexandrian library, on the one hand, deprived Heliopolis of the glory of learning, and, on the other, the old traditions of royal descent from the Sun-god had little weight with the Ptolemys. Early in the Roman period Heliopolis is described by Strabo as almost deserted. Besides enclosure walls of crude brick and mounds of rubbish, the site of the temple is now marked by one conspicuous monument, an obelisk set up by Senwosri i. about b.c. 2000.

F. Ll. Griffith.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [6]

1. The 'city of the Sun,' in Egypt. Poti-pherah, the father of Asenath, Joseph's wife, was priest of the city.   Genesis 41:45,50;  Genesis 46:20 . It is regarded as the same as BETH-SHEMESH in  Jeremiah 43:13 , and as AVEN in  Ezekiel 30:17; and is supposed to be alluded to in  Isaiah 19:18; see margin . Identified with the ruins of Heliopolis, 30 8' N, 31 23' E : about ten miles N.E. of Cairo. On has been found in the inscriptions as AN and AN-T.

2. Son of Peleth, a Reubenite: he joined with Korah in murmuring against Moses and Aaron.   Numbers 16:1 . He is not mentioned after verse 1. The Jews say he separated from the guilty company and was saved.

Easton's Bible Dictionary [7]

 Genesis 41:45,50 Jeremiah 43:13 Ezekiel 30:17

In ancient times this city was full of obelisks dedicated to the sun. Of these only one now remains standing. "Cleopatra's Needle" was one of those which stood in this city in front of the Temple of Tum, i.e., "the sun." It is now erected on the Thames Embankment, London.

"It was at On that Joseph wooed and won the dark-skinned Asenath, the daughter of the high priest of its great temple." This was a noted university town, and here Moses gained his acquaintance with "all the wisdom of the Egyptians."

Holman Bible Dictionary [8]

 Jeremiah 43:13 Genesis 41:45 Jeremiah 43:13 Ezekiel 30:17 2 Numbers 16:1

Webster's Dictionary [9]

(1): of Gin

(2): imp. & p. p. of Go.

Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [10]

Son of Peleth, ( Numbers 16:1) The word means pain.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [11]

See Heliopolis .

Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [12]

On, 1

On (strength), a chief of the tribe of Reuben, who was one of the accomplices of Korah in the revolt against the authority of Moses and Aaron. He is mentioned among the leaders of this conspiracy in the first instance , but does not appear in any of the subsequent transactions, and is not by name included in the final punishment. The Rabbinical tradition is, that the wife of On persuaded her husband to abandon the enterprise.

On, 2

On, one of the oldest cities in the world, situated in Lower Egypt, about two hours N.N.E. from Cairo. The Septuagint translates the name On by Heliopolis, which signifies 'city of the sun;' and in , it bears a name, Beth-shemesh, of equivalent import. On is a Coptic and ancient Egyptian word, signifying light and the sun. The site is now marked by low mounds, enclosing a space about three-quarters of a mile in length by half a mile in breadth, which was once occupied by houses and by the celebrated Temple of the Sun. This area is at present a plowed field, a garden of herbs; and the solitary obelisk which still rises in the midst of it is the sole remnant of the former splendors of the place. In the days of Edrisi and Abdallatif the place bore the name of Ain Shems; and in the neighboring village, Matariyeh, is still shown an ancient well bearing the same name. Nearby it is a very old sycamore, its trunk straggling and gnarled, under which legendary tradition relates that the holy family once rested. Heliopolis was the capital of a district or nomos bearing the same name.

The place is mentioned in , where it is said that Pharaoh gave to Joseph a wife, Asenath, the daughter of Potipherah, priest of On . From the passage in Jeremiah it may be inferred that it was distinguished for idolatrous worship. The names, 'City of the Sun,' 'Temples of the Sun,' connected with the place, taken in conjunction with the passage just alluded to, seem to refer the mind to the purer form of worship which prevailed at a very early period in Egypt, namely, the worship of the heavenly bodies, and thence to carry the thoughts to the deteriorations which it afterwards underwent in sinking to the adoration of images and animals.

The traces of this city which are found in classic authors correspond with the little of it that we know from the brief intimations of Holy Writ. According to Herodotus, Heliopolis was one of the four great cities that were rendered famous in Egypt by being the centers of solemn religious festivals, which were attended by splendid processions and homage to the gods. In Heliopolis the observance was held in honor of the sun. It had its priesthood, a numerous and learned body, celebrated before other Egyptians for their historical and antiquarian lore; it long continued the university of the Egyptians, the chief seat of their science; the priests dwelt as a holy community in a spacious structure appropriated to their use. The city suffered heavily by the Persian invasion. At an early period remains of its famous temple were found. An obelisk which the Emperor Augustus caused to be carried to Rome, and placed in the Campus Martius, is held by Zoega to have been brought from Heliopolis, and to have owed its origin to Sesostris. This city furnished works of art to Augustus for adorning Rome, and to Constantine for adorning Constantinople. Ritter says that the sole remaining obelisk is from 60 to 70 feet high, of a block of red granite, bearing hieroglyphics which remind the beholder of what Strabo terms the Etruscan style. 'The figure of the cross which it bears has attracted the special notice of Christian antiquaries.'

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [13]

Bibliography Information McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'On'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/tce/o/on.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.