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Octavian [1]

Antipope, was born at Rome about 1095. He was a descendant of the Frascati family, and was made cardinal by Innocent II in 1138. Pope Eugenius III appointed him his legate to Germany, and gave him a mission to the Diet at Ratisbon, which he was prevented from fulfilling by the death of the emperor Conrad III in 1152. Under the pontificate of Adrian IV, Octavian began to show his ambitious views, seeking to create troubles in the Church; and it is said he had great influence in fostering the dispute concerning investitures between Frederick I and the pope. Being sent to that prince to induce him to desist from his attacks against the see of Rome, he betrayed his trust, and sided with the emperor. After the death of Adrian IV, Octavian, who aspired to the papacy, contested the election of cardinal Ronald Rainucci, who had taken the title of Alexander III. Octavian caused himself to be elected by two other opposing cardinals, John of Mercone, archdeacon of Tyre, and Gui of Creme, Sept. 5, 1159, and took the name of Victor IV. Alexander had already assumed the scarlet cope of the office when Octavian tore it from him; a senator who was present seized it, but Octavian, aided by his chaplain, secured it, and in his haste put it on wrong side out. At the same time an armed mob broke into the church to support Octavian. A few days afterwards cardinal Raymond and Simon Borelli, abbot of Subiaco, went over to his side, and he succeeded in inducing Imar, a French cardinal, bishop of Frascati, to consecrate him, Oct. 1 1159. On the 28th of the same month Octavian wrote to. the emperor Frederick and to members of the nobility, asking them to support his election. Frederick, who knew he could rely on him, answered favorably, and assembled a council at Pavia, Feb. 5, 1160, which acknowledged Octavian as pope. His death, which occurred at Lucca, April 22, 1164, did not end the schism, and Frederick appointed as his successor Gui of Creme, who took the name of Pascal III (q; v.). See Otho de Frisingen, De rebus Friderici; Baronius, Annales, vol. 12; Fleury, Hist. Eccles. 1. 70, ch. 37 sq.; Auberv Hist. des Cardinaux, vol. i; Milman, Hist. Lat. Christ. 4:289, 296; Cartwright, Papal Conclaves, p. 15.